BR Standard Class 7

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British Railways Standard Class 7 Britannia Class
A Standard Class 7 at Carlisle Kingmoor in 1968
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
DesignerRobert Riddles
BuilderBR Crewe Works
Build dateJanuary 1951 – September 1954
Total produced55
 • Whyte4-6-2
 • UIC2′C1′h2
Gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Leading dia.3 ft 0 in (0.914 m)
Driver dia.6 ft 2 in (1.880 m)
Trailing dia.3 ft 3+12 in (1.003 m)
Length68 ft 9 in (20.96 m)
Width8 ft 8+34 in (2.66 m)
Height13 ft 0+12 in (3.98 m)7004
Axle load20.5 long tons (20.8 t; 23.0 short tons)
Adhesive weight61.5 long tons (62.5 t; 68.9 short tons)
Loco weight94 long tons (96 t; 105 short tons)
Tender weightBR1: 49.15 long tons (49.94 t; 55.05 short tons)
BR1A: 52.5 long tons (53.3 t; 58.8 short tons)
BR1D: 54.5 long tons (55.4 t; 61.0 short tons)
Tender typeBR1 (40), BR1A (5), or BR1D (10)
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacityBR1/BR1A: 7.0 long tons (7.1 t; 7.8 short tons)
BR1D: 9.0 long tons (9.1 t; 10.1 short tons)
Water cap.BR1 4,250 imp gal (19,300 L; 5,100 US gal)
BR1A: 5,000 imp gal (23,000 L; 6,000 US gal)
BR1D: 4,750 imp gal (21,600 L; 5,700 US gal)
 • Grate area42 sq ft (3.9 m2)
Boiler pressure250 psi (1.72 MPa)
Heating surface:
 • Firebox210 sq ft (20 m2)
 • Tubes and flues2,264 sq ft (210.3 m2)
 • Heating area718 sq ft (66.7 m2)
CylindersTwo, outside
Cylinder size20 in × 28 in (508 mm × 711 mm)
Performance figures
Tractive effort32,150 lbf (143.0 kN)
Factor of adh.4.23
OperatorsBritish Railways
Power class7MT
Axle load classRoute availability 8
BR (WR): Red
LocaleEastern Region, London Midland Region, Scottish Region, Southern Region, Western Region
WithdrawnJune 1965 – August 1968
DispositionTwo preserved, remainder scrapped

The BR Standard Class 7,[1] otherwise known as the Britannia Class, is a class of 4-6-2 Pacific steam locomotive designed under Robert Riddles for use by British Railways for mixed-traffic duties. 55 were constructed between 1951 and 1954. The design employed results from the 1948 locomotive exchanges undertaken in advance of further locomotive classes being constructed. Three batches were constructed at Crewe Works, before the publication of the 1955 Modernisation Plan.

The Britannia Class design was based on best practice from the pre-nationalisation railway companies in terms of operating efficiency and lower maintenance costs;[2] various weight-saving measures also increased the route availability of a Pacific-type locomotive on the British Railways network.[3] The Britannias received a positive reception from their crews, with those regularly operating the locomotives giving them favourable reports as regards performance.[4] However, operation in some areas of the British Railway network returned negative feedback, primarily due to indifferent operation of the locomotive, with its effects on adhering to timetables. They were capable of reaching speeds of up to 90 mph (145 km/h).[5]

The Britannias took their names from great Britons, former Star class locomotives, and Scottish firths.[4] The class remained in service until the last was withdrawn in 1968. Two survived into preservation, the first-of-class, number 70000 Britannia, and 70013 Oliver Cromwell. Number 70000 has hauled mainline excursions and 70013, after a period of display following limited steaming, returned to mainline steam in 2008 for the first time since leaving British Railways ownership. 70000 was returned to the main line in 2011.


Locomotive exchanges were commissioned by the fledgling British Railways (BR) during 1948, to compare pre-nationalisation locomotive design across the Big Four railway companies.[6] The research gained from operating the best designs of the GWR, LMS, LNER and Southern railways on different areas of the British Railways network paved the way for several new classes of standardised locomotives[6] intended to replace some of the ageing designs inherited.

The new classes were designed by E. S. Cox, under Robert Riddles who had previously designed the WD Austerity 2-8-0 and WD Austerity 2-10-0 locomotives for wartime use. The first design requested by the Railway Executive was for a new express passenger "Pacific" locomotive, designed specifically to reduce maintenance and using the latest available innovations in steam technology from home and abroad. Various labour-saving devices were utilised to produce a simple, standard and effective design, able to produce equivalent power to some of the "Pacifics" that were still available as legacies of the Big Four.[6]

Design features[edit]

The design of the "Britannias" was based on best practice from the pre-nationalisation railway companies.[2][1] For example, they utilised a variation of both boiler and trailing truck of the Merchant Navy class, while weight was kept within the margins laid down by the Light Pacifics, all of which were designed by Oliver Bulleid.[3] The firebox was also similar in having a rocking grate, which allowed the fire to be rebuilt without stopping the locomotive, removing both ash and clinker on the move;[7] but unlike the SR Pacifics, the inner firebox was constructed of copper instead of steel and lacked thermic syphons.[8][9]

The "Britannias" had 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m) driving wheels, a compromise for their mixed-traffic role[3] to allow sustained fast running with passenger trains, yet small enough to give sufficient tractive effort for freight haulage.[10]

The largest, only outside, cylinders capable of giving maximum tractive effort whilst staying within the British loading gauge[3] were used for ease of maintenance compared with "inside" cylinders located between the frames of a three- or four-cylindered locomotive.[3] Boiler 'plumbing' was also generally exposed to give ease of access. For ease of maintenance, outside Walschaerts valve gear was used.

A self-cleaning smokebox enabled ash to be ejected through the chimney, reducing the workload of the engine cleaner at the end of a working day.[3] The single chimney was unusual for a "Pacific" type of locomotive, but was chosen because the exhaust dimensions including the blastpipe were designed using work done at the Rugby test plant and by S.O. Ell at Swindon Works, who claimed that "better results could be obtained from a well-designed single chimney than some of the previous double chimney arrangements".[11]

The design also featured raised running plates above the wheels, which allowed easy access to the inside of the frames for purposes of lubrication.[12]

The "Britannias'" footplate was designed around the requirements of the operating crews, with a mock-up being constructed at Crewe to test ergonomics and usability.[13]

No exhaust steam injector was fitted, as this was frequently a troublesome item.[14] Unlike the smaller BR Standard locos the exhaust steam manifold within the smokebox saddle (along with the BR Standard Class 6 engines) was an intricate steel casting.[15]

Construction history[edit]

Designed at British Railways' Derby Works, the new class was constructed at British Railways' Crewe Works between 1951 and 1954.[16] The initial order was for 25 locomotives, but such was the demand for the Britannias on the Eastern Region that more were rushed through construction before the teething problems had been ironed out on the prototypes.[17] In total, 55 members of the class were constructed over three batches at Crewe Works, where each was given improvements to improve reliability and efficiency, and to overcome flaws with the original design.[18]

  • First batch: 70000–70024, constructed between January and October 1951
  • Second batch: 70025–70044, constructed between September 1952 and October 1953
  • Third batch: 70045–70054, constructed in 1954.[17]

Variations and modifications[edit]

Problems with the class were experienced immediately, with the first 25 locomotives being withdrawn in October 1951 after several complaints were received from crews regarding the driving wheels shifting on their axles.[19] They were subsequently modified, and released back into revenue-earning service. Initially the return cranks on the main driving wheels were of LNER block type, as seen on Arthur Peppercorn's A1s and A2s, but this was changed to the simpler LMS four-stud fitting.[18] This was the result of a problem of overheating bearings within the cranks, and difficulty in removing the LNER-type casings.[20] 70035–70039 were built with roller bearings on the leading and trailing coupled axles only and plain bearings on the remaining axles, whilst 70040–70049 were built with plain bearings throughout.[3] However throughout their service the roller bearings used in remaining cases showed no advantage in reliability or cost.

An unusual fault with the first engines of the class was fore-and-aft vibration, strong enough to prompt passengers to complain and to cause fire-irons stowed in a longitudinal compartment on top of the tender to work their way forward into the cab. The passengers' complaints were dealt with by reducing the tension in the drawbar spring.[21]

Locomotive tenders were also changed as new, improved designs became available. Some examples of the second batch (70025–70029) were equipped with the BR1A tender, which had a higher water capacity of 5,000 gallons. Members of the third batch (70045–70054) were equipped with another tender design, the BR1D, which had 9 tons of coal and 4,750 gallons of water, due to the fact that they were intended for use on longer runs in the north of the railway network. This tender design also featured a steam-powered coal pusher, which eliminated the need for crew members to mount the tender to pull forward coal when the locomotive was at a stop.

Nos.70043 and 70044 were delivered with Westinghouse airbrakes fitted alongside the smokebox and with no smoke deflectors. The two locomotives, which looked radically different from the rest of the class, were allocated to Manchester (Longsight) and ran a series of brake trials on the London Midland main line during the mid-1950s. Subsequently, both had the equipment removed and deflectors fitted.[22]

70045 Lord Rowallan with LMS-style buffers.

No. 70045 was fitted with LMS-style oval buffers in the course of repairs after collision damage.

On 21 January 1960, the Settle rail crash, which cost the lives of five passengers, was caused when the piston rod, cross-head and connecting rod of No. 70052 came loose and damaged the opposite line as a freight train was approaching. The locomotive of the freight train was derailed towards 70052's train and tore out the sides of three passenger coaches.[23] Part of the slide assembly was redesigned, and was fitted as the locomotives were routinely "shopped".

Western Region based examples had hand/foot holds cut into the smoke deflectors replacing the original handrails after a major derailment, to improve forward visibility. Some of these deflectors subsequently migrated to other members of the class.


From 1948 until the mid-1950s, the responsibility for recommending names for locomotives on British Railways rested with a Locomotive Naming Committee of three senior railway officers, E. S. Cox, George Dow with Derek Barrie as chairman.

The Committee set itself several rules and over the years developed many practices. The names had to be euphonious (they had to have a pleasant sound). Also, their meaning had to be readily apparent to anyone interested, whether railwayman or member of the public. There had to be good publicity value in the names as well as providing good morale for the staff, and the collection of names for a class had to provide some form of class identity. Another rule was not to use names of people who were still alive at the time, and some on the committee had a strong dislike of names or associations with the military (largely because they were fed-up with the recently ended war). There was a preference for names of heroes and other well-known people. However, slavishly following a single theme to an absurd extent was discouraged.[24]

The name that was to be bestowed on the first class member caused great debate on the committee and the wider executive of British Railways. However noted enthusiast Bishop Eric Treacy suggested the name "Britannia".[18] This set the general theme of the naming process, which featured great Britons, although several deviations from the theme were allowed.[3] These exceptions were allocated to those that operated on the Western Region, which were given names of former Star Class locomotives, and those of the Scottish Region, which were granted the names of the various Scottish firths.[4] The locomotive naming ceremonies were carried out at various railway stations around the British Railways network.[3] No. 70047 was never named.

Operational details[edit]

70040 (Clive of India) at Beccles, East Suffolk Line.

The class was well liked by crews in most regions of British Railways, with especially glowing reports from those operating them from Stratford depot on the Eastern Region, where its lower weight and high power transformed motive power over the restricted East Anglian lines.[25] However, negative feedback was received from various operating departments, most notably on the Western Region. The criticism was primarily out of partisan preference for GWR-designed locomotive stock among Western Region staff;[26][27] in particular, the class was 'left-hand drive' in contrast to 'right-hand drive' GWR locomotive and signalling practice, a factor in the Milton rail crash of 1955.[28]

For this reason, the Western Region locomotive depots at Old Oak Common TMD and Plymouth Laira declared that the class was surplus to requirements.[13][27] However Cardiff Canton depot displayed its liking for the class (despite being part of the former GWR empire) and managed to obtain good results on South Wales passenger traffic.[13]

The London Midland Region also had favourable reports, but a marked consistency in losing time on the longer runs between Holyhead and Euston was recorded, although all complaints were down to the individual techniques of the operating crews.[4] This was compounded by the irregular allocation of the class to depots all over the network, meaning that few crews ever had a great deal of experience in driving them.[29] The Southern Region also had an allocation of seven in May 1953, when all Merchant Navy Class locomotives were temporarily withdrawn for inspection after 35020 "Bibby Line" sheared a crank axle on the central driving wheel.[30]

Repairs to the class were undertaken at Crewe, Swindon and Doncaster Works until the financial constraints of the British Railways Modernisation Plan in terms of expenditure on steam began to preclude the regular overhaul of locomotives.[29] During the mid-1960s overhauls were carried out exclusively at Crewe Works. The first locomotive to be withdrawn from service was number 70007 "Coeur-de-Lion" in 1965, and the entire class was gradually transferred to Carlisle Kingmoor and Glasgow Polmadie depots as steam was displaced by the dieselisation of British Railways. Some members of this class were a common sight in the Cumbrian main line, pulling both passenger trains and parcel trains in Grange-over-Sands, Barrow-in-Furness, Preston, and other locations in the area.[31] A succession of bulk withdrawals began in 1967, and the last, of number 70013 "Oliver Cromwell", took place in 1968, at the very end of steam operation in Britain.[29] Subsequently, that locomotive was selected to represent the class in the National Collection.[32] Only 70000 "Britannia", which was privately preserved, saw main line service during the preservation era – until 2008, when 70013 "Oliver Cromwell"'s restoration was completed, and she worked part of the "15 Guinea Special" – a special train run to commemorate the final BR steam working in 1968. 70013 is now to be found operating main line railtours over the Network Rail system.

Table of withdrawals
Year Quantity in
service at
start of year
Locomotive numbers Notes
1965 55 2 70007/43
1966 53 12 70000–01/17–19/30/36–37/50/52–54 70000 preserved
1967 41 40 70002–06/08–12/14–16/20–29/31–35/38–42/44–49/51
1968 1 1 70013 Hauled the Fifteen Guinea Special, later preserved

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 20 November 1955, locomotive No. 70026 Polar Star was hauling an excursion train that was derailed at Milton, Oxfordshire due to excessive speed through a crossover. Eleven people were killed and 157 were injured.[33]
  • On 21 January 1960, locomotive No. 70052 Firth of Tay was hauling an express passenger train that was derailed at Settle, Yorkshire due to a defect on the locomotive. Five people were killed and nine were injured.[34][35]
  • On 5 June 1965, locomotive 70051 Firth of Forth was hauling a passenger train when a blowback of the fire occurred near Winsford. Driver Wally Oakes managed to safely bring the train to a stand, but both he and fireman Gwilym Roberts were severely injured. Oakes died a week later. He was awarded the George Cross and the Carnegie Hero Trust bronze medal for his actions. Class 86 locomotive 86 260 was later named Wallace Oakes G.C. in his honour.[36]
  • On 30 July 1966, locomotive No. 70017 Arrow was hauling a set of empty coaches from Carlisle Citadel when it was derailed at Carlisle St Nicholas after a rear-end collision with a goods train on the Carlisle Joint Goods Line. The locomotive would later be withdrawn from service owing to the damage received in the accident and derailment.[37]
  • On 27 May 2012, locomotive No. 70013 Oliver Cromwell was involved in a blowback incident at Wood Green tunnel near New Southgate station in North London on a Railway Touring Company railtour called 'The Peak Forester'. Two of the three crew on board the locomotive had to attend hospital as a result. A Rail Accident Investigation Branch investigation was conducted after the accident.[38]
  • On 22 August 2023, locomotive No. 70000 Britannia while hauling a Steam Dreams circular tour around the Surrey Hills suffered a catastrophic failure of its right side crosshead just after passing through Chilworth. Following an inspection by the engines support crew it was discovered that the crosshead had snapped in two and the piston had disconnected then damaged the front cylinder cover. Under cover of darkness with a blockade in place the right side connecting rod had to be removed and then 70000 was towed behind a diesel and its train back to London Victoria via Guildford.[39][40]

Livery and numbering[edit]

The first member of the class was given a livery of plain black without lining; this was changed to the new standard British Railways Dark Locomotive Green that was applied to express passenger locomotives after nationalisation, despite the locomotive being classed as mixed traffic. This was lined in orange and black, and the class was given the power classification 7MT.[41] The "Britannias" were numbered under the new British Railways standard numbering system in the 70xxx series.[42] The locomotives were numbered between 70000 and 70054, and featured brass nameplates with an initial black background, followed by red, located on the smoke deflectors.[43] Towards the end of steam plain green livery was substituted, with the touching-up of existing paintwork being preferred to full aesthetic overhaul.


Two Britannias have survived, the prototype engine number 70000 Britannia, and 70013 Oliver Cromwell. Both engines have also operated at certain points in preservation as well as both running on the mainline in preservation.

Number Name Built Withdrawn Base Owner Status Mainline Certified Livery Tender Photo Notes
70000 Britannia Jan 1951 May 1966 Crewe Diesel TMD Royal Scot Locomotive and General Trust Undergoing Repairs, Boiler ticket expires: 2032 Yes (2022 - ongoing) BR Green, Late Crest BR1A Recently returned to traffic from overhaul.

Presently undergoing repairs following failure of right side crosshead while working a railtour in August 2023.[44]

70013 Oliver Cromwell May 1951 Aug 1968 Great Central Railway National Railway Museum, cared for by 5305 Locomotive Association. Under Overhaul, Boiler ticket expired: 31/12/2018[45] No (to be certified) Overhaul anticipated for completion in 2024.[46]

Number 70000 was originally selected to represent the class in the embryonic form of the future National Railway Museum, but was ultimately rejected due to the locomotive's poor mechanical condition. As a result, 70013 was eventually selected to represent the class for the benefit of future generations. However, 70000 had been purchased privately from British Railways by the Britannia Locomotive Group, which ensured that the doyen of the class was to survive into the preservation era.[47][48] Subsequently, utilised on mainline railtours, the locomotive was out of use in the late 1990s, requiring work to bring it back to steam; it was eventually sold to Pete Waterman and stored at Crewe. After a spell in storage on the Bressingham Steam Museum in Diss, Norfolk, 70013 was moved to the Great Central Railway (preserved), following an ownership dispute between Bressingham and the National Railway Museum. The locomotive returned to steam in May 2008 on the Great Central Railway after the readers of Steam Railway magazine contributed towards its overhaul. In July 2008 it appeared in WCRC's Open Weekend at Steamtown, Carnforth. August saw the locomotive return to the main line. Its first turn was the 1T57 'Fifteen Guinea Special' re-run from Manchester to Carlisle, 40 years after it performed the same duty in 1968. As a result, both preserved members of the class have operated on the mainline in preservation.[citation needed]

After its sale to the Royal Scot Locomotive and General Trust, 70000 was overhauled at Crewe and returned to the main line in 2011 (its 60th anniversary), initially in unlined black without name plates as originally outshopped in 1951 (the plates were first fitted for the Festival of Britain later that year).[citation needed]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b Clarke 2006
  2. ^ a b Loco Profile 12, BR Britannias. Brian Haresnape. Profile Publications. 1971
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Herring (2000), pp. 176–177.
  4. ^ a b c d Langston 2006, p. 65
  5. ^ Train: The Definitive Visual History. DK. 2014. p. 211. ISBN 9781465495181. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Langston 2006, p. 60
  7. ^ Clarke 2006, pp. 12–13
  8. ^ Bradley (1976), p. 8.
  9. ^ Gilbert & Chancellor (1994), pp. 25–26, 47.
  10. ^ Clarke 2006, p. 11
  11. ^ Clarke 2006, p. 13
  12. ^ Clarke 2006, p. 12
  13. ^ a b c Nock 1984, p. 198
  14. ^ Tuplin (1971), p. 149.
  15. ^ Confirmed on original BR drawing SL/DE/19620 sourced from the NRM
  16. ^ Cox 1966, p. 61.
  17. ^ a b Clarke 2006, p. 22
  18. ^ a b c Poultney 1951, p. 653
  19. ^ "Standard locomotives temporarily withdrawn". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 97, no. 608. December 1951. p. 856.
  20. ^ Epton 2006, p. 41
  21. ^ Tuplin (1971), p. 151.
  22. ^ Weekes (1975), p. 38.
  23. ^ Rolt (1976), p. 269.
  24. ^ Itinerary dated 8 October 1993, Queen of Scots Train.
  25. ^ Stephenson 2007, pp. 10–11.
  26. ^ British Railways Illustrated magazine, Vol 5, IrwellPress. Published September 1996, page 612
  27. ^ a b Derry, Richard. The Book of The Britannia Pacifics, Irwell Press, published 2004 ISBN 1-903266-48-3
  28. ^ British Railway Disasters (1996), pp. 112–3, 114.
  29. ^ a b c Clarke 2006, p. 62
  30. ^ Stephenson 2007, p. 12.
  31. ^ Hewitt, Sam (28 August 2017). "CAMPING COACH HOLIDAY 1966". Heritage Railway. Mortons Media Group Ltd. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  32. ^ Hewitt, Sam (11 December 2017). "BRITANNIA PACIFIC FINALE". Heritage Railway. Mortons Media Group Ltd. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  33. ^ Report on the Derailment which occurred on 20 November 1955 at Milton (near Didcot) in the Western Region British Railways
  34. ^ "Locomotive failure near Winchfield 23 November 2013" (PDF). Rail Accident Investigation Branch. p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  35. ^ Gerard & Hamilton 1981, pp. 89–94.
  36. ^ Courtney, Geoff (30 June 2017). "Hero steam driver's George Cross may topple world railwayana record". Heritage Railway (230). Horncastle: Mortons Media Ltd: 9. ISSN 1466-3562.
  37. ^ "Accident at Carlisle Upperby, 30 July 1966 : 70017 Arrow | 060g01".
  38. ^ Rail Accident Investigation Board (September 2012). "Blowback of a locomotive fire at Wood Green tunnel, London, on 27 May 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  39. ^ "Britannia failed as crosshead shatters on Steam Dreams outing". Heritage Railway. No. 311. October 2023. p. 56.
  40. ^ "70000 undergoing repairs to motion". Steam Railway. No. 549. September 2023. p. 41.
  41. ^ Clarke 2006, pp. 46–48
  42. ^ Clarke 2006, p. 14
  43. ^ Clarke 2006, p. 52
  44. ^ "70000 undergoing repairs to motion". Steam Railway. No. 549. September 2023. p. 41.
  45. ^ White, Cameron (2 January 2019). "WATCH: steam locomotive 70013 Oliver Cromwell on her final day in service". Rail Advent. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  46. ^ "Oliver Cromwell to steam in 2024". Trackside. No. 28. November 2023. p. 20.
  47. ^ Devereux, Nigel (3 January 2019). "Tribute To The Steam Engines Bought From BR During The 60s". Heritage Railway. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  48. ^ Anon (2007). "How we saved Britannia". No. 275. The Railway Magazine. p. 22. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)


  • Bradley, D.L. (September 1976). Locomotives of the Southern Railway, part 2. London: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-31-2. OCLC 653065063.
  • Cox, E. S. (1966). British Railways Standard Locomotives. London: Ian Allan.
  • Clarke, David (2006). Riddles Class 6/7 Standard Pacifics (Locomotives in Detail volume 5). Hinckley: Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-3177-7.
  • Epton, R. (2006). "The power of the Riddles 'Britannia' 4-6-2s". No. 223. Steam World. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  • Gerard, Malcolm; Hamilton, J. A. B. (1981) [1967]. Trains to Nowhere. London: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-385084-7.
  • Gilbert, P.T.; Chancellor, P.J. (1994). Taylor, R.K. (ed.). A Detailed History of British Railways Standard Steam Locomotives - Volume One: Background to Standardisation and the Pacific Classes. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-81-9.
  • Langston, Keith (2006). Made in Crewe: 150 Years of Engineering Excellence. Horncastle: Mortons Media. ISBN 978-0-9552868-0-3.
  • Nock, O.S. (1984). British Locomotives of the 20th Century; Volume 2, 1930-1960. Cambridge: Patrick Stephens.
  • Poultney, E.G. (1951). Characteristics of the First Standard Locomotives for British Railways. Vol. 191. The Engineer.
  • Rolt, L.T.C. (1976). Red for Danger. Pan. ISBN 978-0-330-29189-7.
  • Stephenson, Brian (2007). BR Standard Steam Locomotives. Hinckley: Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-1245-5.
  • Tuplin, W.A. (1971). British Steam since 1900. Pan. ISBN 0-330-02721-2.
  • Weekes, G (1975). BR Standard Britannia Pacifics. D. Bradford Barton. ISBN 978-0-85153-195-3.
  • British Railway Disasters. Shepperton: Ian Allan. 1996. ISBN 0-7110-2470-7.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bradley, Rodger P. (1984). The Standard Steam Locomotives of British Railways. David & Charles. ISBN 0715383841.
  • Herring, Peter (2000). "BR 'Britannia' Class 7". Classic British Steam Locomotives. London: Abbeydale Press. ISBN 978-1-86147-057-7.