|Born||Li Yaotang / Li Feigan|
25 November 1904
Chengdu, Sichuan, Qing dynasty, China
|Died||17 October 2005 (aged 100)|
Shanghai, People's Republic of China
|Pen name||Ba Jin|
|Notable works||Turbulent Stream: The Family, Spring, and Autumn|
Love Trilogy: Fog, Rain, and Lightning
|Notable awards||1983: Legion of Honour|
1990: Fukuoka Prize (special prize)
(m. 1936; died 1972)
|Alternative Chinese name|
Ba Jin (Chinese: 巴金; pinyin: Bā Jīn; 1904–2005) was a Chinese writer. In addition to his impact on Chinese literature, he also wrote three original works in Esperanto, and as a political activist he wrote The Family.
He was born as Li Yaotang, with alternate name Li Feigan. He used the pen name Ba Jin, for which he is most known. The first character of his pen name may have been taken from Ba Enbo, a classmate of his who committed suicide in Paris, or from the first syllable of the surname of Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, and the last character of which is the Chinese equivalent of the last syllable of Russian anarchist Peter Kropotkin (克鲁泡特金, Ke-lu-pao-te-jin). He was also sometimes known as Li Pei Kan.
It was partly owing to boredom that Ba Jin began to write his first novel, Miewang 灭亡 (“Destruction”). In France, Ba Jin continued his anarchist activism, translating many anarchist works, including Kropotkin's Ethics, into Chinese, which was mailed back to Shanghai's anarchist magazines for publication.
During the Cultural Revolution, Ba Jin was heavily persecuted as a counter-revolutionary. His wife since 1944, Xiao Shan, died of cancer in 1972. He asked that a Cultural Revolution Museum be set up in 1981. The Shantou Cultural Revolution Museum referenced the influence of Ba Jin on its establishment through displaying a depiction of his at the entrance as well as a quote of his, "Every town in China should establish a museum about the Cultural Revolution."
- (1954) Living Amongst Heroes. Beijing: Foreign Language Press.
- (1958) The Family. (trans. Sidney Shapiro) Beijing: Foreign Language Press.
- (1959) A battle for life: a full record of how the life of steel worker, Chiu Tsai-kang, was saved in the Shanghai Kwangrze Hospital. Beijing: Foreign Language Press.
- (1978) Cold Nights (trans. Nathan K. Mao and Liu Ts'un-yan) Hong Kong: Chinese University press.
- (1984) Random Thoughts (trans. Germie Barm&ecute). Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Company. (Partial translation of Suizianglu)
- (1988) Selected works of Ba Jin (trans. Sidney Shapiro and Jock Hoe) Beijing: Foreign Language Press. (Includes The Family, Autumn in Spring, Garden of Repose, Bitter Cold Nights)
- (1999) Ward Four: A Novel of Wartime China (trans. Haili Kong and Howard Goldblatt). San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals, Inc.
- (2005) "How to Build a Society of Genuine Freedom and Equality"(1921), "Patriotism and the Road to Happiness for the Chinese"(1921) and "Anarchism and the Question of Practice"(1927) in Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Volume 1: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE-1939), ed. Robert Graham. Montreal: Black Rose Books.
- (2012) Ward Four: A Novel of Wartime China (trans. Howard Goldblatt). San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals, Inc. ISBN 9780835100007.
Ba Jin stories in collections
- Arzybasheff, M. (1927). "Morning Shadows?" in Tales of the Revolution. Tr. Percy Pinkerton. New York Huebsch.
- (1927). "Workingman Shevyrev." in Tales of the Revolution, tr. Percy Pinkerton. New York: Huebsch.
- Short story collections
- Vengeance 《复仇》, 1931
- Dog 《狗》, 1931
- Brightness 《光明》, 1932
- The Electric Chair 《电椅》, 1933
- Wiping Cloth 《抹布》, 1933
- The General 《将军》, 1934
- Gods, Ghosts and Men 《神·鬼·人》, 1935
- Sinking 《沉落》, 1936
- The Story of Hair 《发的故事》, 1936
- Thunder 《雷》, 1937
- Resurrection Grass 《还魂草》, 1942
- Little People, Little Events 《小人小事》, 1943
- Heroic Tales 《英雄的故事》, 1953
- Pigs and Chickens 《猪与鸡》, 1959
- Li Da-hai 《李大海》, 1961
- Stories Outside the City, 1992
- Children's literature
- The Immortality Pagoda 《长生塔》, 1937
- The Pearl and the Jade Concubine 《明珠和玉姬》, 1957
- Novels and novellas
- Destruction 《灭亡》, 1929
- The Dead Sun 《死去的太阳》, 1931
- The "Love" Trilogy 《爱情的三部曲》 (1931-5)
- Fog 《雾》, 1931
- Rain 《雨》, 1933
- Lightning 《电》, 1935
- New Life 《新生》, 1933
- Miners 《砂丁》, 1933
- Germination 《萌芽》, 1933
- A Dream of the Sea 《海的梦》, 1932
- Autumn in Spring 《春天里的秋天》, 1932
- The "Torrents" Trilogy 《激流三部曲》
- The Family 《家》, 1933
- Spring 《春》, 1938
- Autumn 《秋》, 1940
- Lina 《利娜》, 1940
- Fires 《火》(in three volumes), 1940–1945
- Stars 《星》(English-Chinese bilingual), 1941
- A Garden of Repose 《憩园》, novella, 1944
- Ward No 4 《第四病室》, 1946
- Cold Nights 《寒夜》, 1947
- Autobiography and memoirs
- Ba Jin: An Autobiography 《巴金自传》, 1934
- I Remember 《忆》, 1936
- Thinking Back on Childhood 《童年的回忆》, 1984
- (coauthor) Anarchism and its Practical Problems 《无政府主义与实际问题》, 1927
- From Capitalism to Anarchism 《从资本主义到安那其主义》, 1930
- A Walk by the Sea 《海行》, 1932
- Travel Notes 《旅途随笔》, 1934
- Droplets of Life 《点滴》, 1935
- Confessions of Living 《生之忏悔》, 1936
- Brief Notes 《短简》, 1937
- I Accuse 《控诉》, 1937
- Dreaming and Drunkenness 《梦与醉》, 1938
- Thoughts and Feelings 《感想》, 1939
- Black Earth 《黑土》, 1939
- Untitled 《无题》, 1941
- Dragons, Tigers and Dogs 《龙·虎·狗》, 1941
- Outside the Derelict Garden 《废园外》, 1942
- Travel Notes 《旅途杂记》, 1946
- Remembering 《怀念》, 1947
- Tragedy of a Still Night 《静夜的悲剧》, 1948
- The Nazi Massacre Factory: Auschwitz 《纳粹杀人工厂—奥斯威辛》, 1951
- Warsaw Festivals: Notes in Poland 《华沙城的节日—波兰杂记》, 1951
- The Consoling Letter and Others 《慰问信及其他》, 1951
- Living Amongst Heroes 《生活书局在英雄们中间》, 1953
- They Who Defend Peace 《保卫和平的人们》, 1954
- On Chekhov 《谈契河夫》, 1955
- Days of Great Joy 《大欢乐的日子》, 1957
- Strong Warriors 《坚强的战士》, 1957
- A Battle for Life 《—场挽救生命的战斗》, 1958
- New Voices: A Collection 《新声集》, 1959
- Friendship: A Collection 《友谊集》, 1959
- Eulogies: A Collection 《赞歌集》, 1960
- Feelings I Can't Express 《倾吐不尽的感情》, 1963
- Lovely by the Bridge 《贤良桥畔》, 1964
- Travels to Dazhai 《大寨行》, 1965
- Ba Jin: New Writings, 1978–1980
- Smorching Smoke 《烟火集》, 1979
- Random Thoughts 《随想录》, 1978–86
- Thinking Back on Writing 《创作回忆录》 1981
- Exploration and Memories 《探索与回忆》, 1982
- Afterwords: A Collection 《序跋集》, 1982
- Remembrance: A Collection 《忆念集》, 1982
- Ba Jin: On Writing 《巴金论创作》, 1983
- Literature: Recollections (with Lao She) 《文学回忆录》 1983
- To Earth to Dust 《愿化泥土》, 1984
- I Accuse: A Collection 《控诉集》, 1985
- In My Heart 《心里话》, 1986
- Ten Years, One Dream 《十年一梦》, 1986
- More Thoughts 《再思录》, 1995
- To Our Young Friends Looking for Aspirations 《寻找理想的少年朋友》, 1987
- The Collection of the Snow and Mud – All the Remaining Letters Written by Ba Jin to Yang Yi 《雪泥集》, 1987
- Collected Letters of Ba Jin 《巴金书信集》, 1991
- A Battle For Life
- Partial excerpt of English translation of Ba Jin's dedication to Emma Goldman
- How Are We To Establish A Truly Free And Egalitarian Society?, 1921
- Nationalism and the Road to Happiness for the Chinese, 1921
- Letter from Ba Jin to the CRIA (International Anarchist Liaison Commission, Paris), 18 March 1949
- A Museum of the "Cultural Revolution", 1986
- "Obituary: Ba Jin, Chinese novelist and anarchist". The New York Times. 17 October 2005. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
- Gittings, John (18 October 2005). "Ba Jin (Obituary)". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
- (en) Geoffrey Sutton, Concise Encyclopedia of the Original Literature of Esperanto Archived 2021-02-02 at the Wayback Machine, p. 180, Ed. Mondial, New York, ISBN 978-1-59569-090-6
- Most sources claims his name's first character is taken from Ba Enbo, he also admitted it. However, many reliable sources claim it comes from the Chinese transliteration of Mikhail Bakunin, he refused to admit because of communists' harsh condemnation of Bakunin, who was an open rival of Marx. See: Rapp, John A.; Youd, Daniel M. (2015-04-03). "Ba Jin as Anarchist Critic of Marxism: Guest Editors' Introduction". Contemporary Chinese Thought. 46 (2): 3–21. doi:10.1080/10971467.2015.1003017. S2CID 143212159. Archived from the original on 2021-06-24. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
- Gandini, Jean-Jacques (1995). "Ba Jin revisité [Destruction et A la mémoire de Ba Jin traduits et présentés par Angel Pino et Isabelle Rabut]". Perspectives Chinoises (in French). 31 (1): 69–71. Archived from the original on 25 June 2021. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
que Ba était un hommage à un camarade de classe, Ba Enbo, rencontré lors de son séjour en France en 1927 et dont il apprit......
- "Pa Kin, grande figure de la littérature chinoise du XXe siècle". Le Monde (in French). 2005-10-18. Archived from the original on 2021-06-24. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
le "Pa" n'a rien à voir avec Bakounine (prononcé en chinois Pa-ku-ning), mais s'inspire d'un certain Pa Enbo, un ami chinois de Château-Thierry qui s'était suicidé en se jetant dans une rivière.
- "Obituary: Ba Jin, Chinese novelist and anarchist". The New York Times. 2005-10-17. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-12-28.
- Rapp, John A.; Youd, Daniel M. (2015-04-03). "Ba Jin as Anarchist Critic of Marxism: Guest Editors' Introduction". Contemporary Chinese Thought. 46 (2): 3–21. doi:10.1080/10971467.2015.1003017. S2CID 143212159. Archived from the original on 2021-06-24. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
......from the name for Peter Kropotkin (Ke-lu-pao-te-jin).
- "Ba Jin". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
- "Obituary: Ba Jin". the Guardian. 2005-10-18. Archived from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
- Van der Walt, Lucien; Schmidt, Michael (2009). Black Flame: The Revolutionary Class Politics of Anarchism and Syndicalism. AK Press. p. 20. ISBN 9781904859161.
- Jaroslav Průšek and Zbigniew Słupski, eds., Dictionary of Oriental Literatures: East Asia (Charles Tuttle, 1978): 135-136.
- See Angel Pino, “Ba Jin as Translator,” tr. Ian MacCabe, in Peng Hsiao-yen & Isabelle Rabut (eds.), Modern China and the West: Translation and Cultural Mediation. Leiden-Boston: Brill, “East Asian Comparative Literature and Culture” (2), 2014, 28-105.
- Sippel, Nana (18 May 2017). ""Mystifizierung der Kulturrevolution" (Interview with Nora Sausmikat)" (in German). de:Gerda_Henkel_Stiftung. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
- Li, Jie (2020). Utopian Ruins: A Memorial Museum of the Mao Era. Duke University Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-147-801-018-0.
- Coonan, Clifford (27 June 2005). "Shining a light on Mao's dark era". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
- He described Goldman as his "spiritual mother", and dedicated The General to her. See Preface, The General, and Olga Lang, Pa Chin and His Writings: Chinese Youth Between the Wars (Harvard University Press, 1967).
- Ayers, W. (1950). "Shanghai Labor and the May Thirtieth Movement," Papers on China, 5:1-38. Harvard University, East Asian Research Center.
- Bao-Puo. (1925). "The Anarchist Movement in China: From a Letter of a Chinese Comrade." Tr. from the Russian, in Freedom. 39.423:4.
- (1953). "The Society for Literary Studies, 1921-1930." Papers on China. 7:34-79. Harvard University, East Asian Research Center.
- Chen Tan-chen. (1963). "Pa Chin the Novelist: An Interview." Chinese Literature. 6:84-92.
- Ch'en Chia-ai character. "Chung-kuo li-shih shang chih an-na-ch'i-chu -i che character (Anarchists in Chinese history); in K'o-lu-p'ao-t'e-chin hsueh-shuo kai-yao. pp. 379-410.
- Hsin ch'ing-nien (1908). "Chinese Anarchist in Tokyo," Freedom, 22.23:52.
- Lang, Olga. Pa Chin and His Writings: Chinese Youth Between Two Revolutions. Cambdridge, Mass. Harvard University Press, 1967.
- Mao, Nathan K. Pa Chin. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1978.
- Martin, H. and J. Kinkley, eds. (1992) Modern Chinese writers: self-portrayals. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
- Pino, Angel, “Ba Jin and the ‘Arshinov Platform’”. libcom.org
- Pino, Angel, “Ba Jin as Translator,” tr. Ian MacCabe, in Peng Hsiao-yen & Isabelle Rabut (eds.), Modern China and the West: Translation and Cultural Mediation. Leiden-Boston: Brill, “East Asian Comparative Literature and Culture” (2), 2014, 28-105.
- Pino, Angel; Jean Jacques Gandini (Introductionà; Paul Sharkey (Traduction) (10 March 2013). Ba Jin On Anarchism and Terrorism. ChristieBooks.
- Razak, Dzulkifli Abdul (Oct. 30, 2005). "Leaving behind their legacies". New Straits Times, p. F9.
- Renditions Autumn 1992. No. 38. "Special issue on Twentieth Century Memoirs. Reminiscences by well-known literary figures, including Zhu Ziqing, Ba Jin, Lao She and Wang Xiyan."
- Return from Silence: Five prominent and controversial Chinese writers speak on their roles in the modernization of China. (1 hour video cassette available) — The life and work of five esteemed Chinese writers whose modern classics shaped China's past: Ba Jin, Mao Dun, Ding Ling, Cao Yu, and Ai Qing. Produced by Chung-wen Shih, George Washington University, 1982.
- "Literary witness to century of turmoil" China Daily (2003-11-24)
- "Chinese literary icon Ba Jin dies" (BBC)
- A giant of Chinese literature "A giant of Chinese literature" ~ The Sydney Morning Herald' (21 October 2005)]
- Ba Jin at Anarchist Archives
- "When the Snow Melted" Translated by Tang Sheng at Words Without Borders
- Pa Chin: A Literary and Revolutionary Chinese Anarchist ~ YemenTimes Newspaper
- Ba Jin: Life and Works
- Ba Jin. A Portrait by Kong Kai Ming at Hong Kong Baptist University Library