|• Mayor||Frans de Bont (Forum+)|
|• Governing party/ies||N-VA, Forum+|
|• Total||7.41 km2 (2.86 sq mi)|
|• Density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl (Dutch pronunciation: [ˌbaːrlə ˈɦɛrtɔx]; French: Baerle-Duc, pronounced [baʁl(ə)dyk]) is a Flemish municipality of Belgium, much of which consists of a number of small Belgian enclaves fully surrounded by the Netherlands.
Parts of Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl are surrounded by the Dutch province of North Brabant, but it is part of the Belgian province of Antwerp. As of 2021[update], it has a population of 2,935. The total area is 7.48 square kilometres (2.89 square miles).
Border with Baarle-Nassaucode: nld promoted to code: nl 
The border's complexity results from a number of medieval treaties, agreements, land-swaps and sales between the Lords of Bredacode: nld promoted to code: nl and the Dukes of Brabant. Generally speaking, predominantly agricultural or built environments became constituents of Brabant and other parts devolved to Bredacode: nld promoted to code: nl . These distributions were ratified and clarified as a part of the border settlements agreed under the Treaty of Maastricht in 1843. The tight integration of the European Union and in particular the Schengen Agreement have made many of the practicalities of the situation substantially simpler since the 1990s.
In total, it consists of 24 separate parcels of land. The largest single section of the municipality of Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl , namely Zondereigen (named after its main hamlet) is located within mainland Belgium right on the contiguous border (north of the town of Merksplascode: nld promoted to code: nl ). In addition to this, there are twenty Belgian exclaves fully within the Netherlands and three other sections straddling the contiguous Dutch-Belgian border. There are also seven Dutch enclaves within the Belgian exclaves (i.e., counter-exclaves) that are part of the territory of the Netherlands. Six of these Dutch enclaves are located within the largest Belgian exclave, and a seventh in the second-largest Belgian exclave. An eighth Dutch exclave is located near Ginhoven.
During the First World War, this situation meant that the Imperial German Army could not occupy these parts of Belgium without crossing the Netherlands, which the Dutch government did not allow. Thus, these pieces of Belgium became a place where refugees could safely stay. A clandestine radio transmitter was smuggled in and from there worked with the Belgian resistance. The Dutch government fenced off these areas and controlled access in or out of them, building a church and school for the Belgian people who were effectively stranded within the enclaves.[circular reference] This situation did not exist in the Second World War, as both countries were occupied by Nazi Germany.
Some houses in the town of Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl /Baarle-Nassaucode: nld promoted to code: nl are divided between the two countries. At one time, according to Dutch laws, restaurants had to close earlier. For some restaurants on the border, this simply meant that the customers had to move to a table on the Belgian side. In 2020, restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic differed between the two countries; for instance, preventing a Belgian citizen living metres away from an open Dutch bar from patronising it.
Many fireworks shops are found in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl , as Belgian laws controlling the sale of fireworks are more lenient than those of the Netherlands. Many Dutch tourists come to Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl to buy fireworks to celebrate the New Year.
Two villages in the municipality, Zondereigen and Ginhoven, are located in the main territory of Belgium.
Café in Baarle-Nassaucode: nld promoted to code: nl , showing border between Belgium and the Netherlands
Church of Saint Remigius
List of enclaves
These are all part of Baarle-Nassaucode: nld promoted to code: nl municipality.
|Serial no. and local name||Area (ha)||Notes|
|N1, De Loversche Akkers – De Tommelsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||5.3667||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; contains a mix of dwellings and farmland; boundary of N1 and H1 runs through one building.|
|N2, De Tommelsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||1.3751||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; contains 8 dwellings.|
|N3, De Tommelsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||0.2863||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; boundary of N3 and H1 bisects the loading dock of a liquor store.|
|N4, De Rethsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||1.2324||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; boundary of N4 and H1 runs through a warehouse, with vacant Dutch land to the rear of the warehouse.|
|N5, De Rethsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||1.9212||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; boundary of N5 and H1 runs through a furniture showroom, a shed and a barn.|
|N6, Gierle Straatcode: nld promoted to code: nl||1.4527||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; consists of farmland with two buildings.|
|N7, De Kasteleincode: nld promoted to code: nl||0.5812||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian Oordeel exclave H8, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; occupies part of a field.|
|N8, Vossenberg||2.8528||Farmland enclave situated within Zondereigen, Belgium, less than 50 meters south of the Dutch border.|
These are all part of Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl municipality, and are surrounded by Baarle-Nassaucode: nld promoted to code: nl municipality (Netherlands).
|Serial no. and local name||Area (ha)||Notes|
|H1, Aen het Klooster Straetje - Hoofdbraek - Loveren - De Boschcovensche Akkers - De Loversche Akkers - De Tommelsche Akkers - De Tommel - De Gierle Straat - De Reth - De Rethsche Akkers - Het Dorp - De Kapel Akkers - De Kastelein||153.6448||Forms a quadripoint with enclave H2; largest Belgian exclave; encompasses six Dutch enclaves; consists of dwellings for the most part, with outlying farmland and an industrial area; boundary runs through numerous buildings; contains a portion of the former Turnhout-Tilburg rail line, now a cycle path.|
|H2, De Rethsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||2.4116||Consists of farmland with a single point of connection (quadripoint) between enclaves H1 and H2 in the middle of a corn field.|
|H3, De Rethsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||0.3428||Occupies part of a field; boundary runs through a shed in one instance.|
|H4, De Rethsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||1.476||Consists of farmland; boundary runs through a house and three sheds.|
|H5, De Kapel Akkers||0.9245||Consists of farmland with a dwelling.|
|H6, Hoofdbraek||1.7461||Mixed land usage; boundary runs through a warehouse/factory.|
|H7, De Loversche Akkers||0.2469||Boundary runs through two dwellings, including the middle of one front door (giving it two house numbers: Loveren 2, Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl / Loveren 19, Baarle-Nassaucode: nld promoted to code: nl ).|
|H8, Boschcoven - De Kastelein - De Oordelsche Straat||41.8781||Second-largest Belgian exclave, contains a mix of dwellings and farmland; boundary runs through a barn, a dwelling and two businesses.|
|H9, De Kapel Akkers||0.4005||Boundary runs through a printing factory/warehouse in an industrial area.|
|H10, De Oordelsche Straat||0.65||Consists of farmland.|
|H11, De Oordelsche Straat||0.93||Consists of farmland.|
|H12, Boschcoven||0.2822||Consists of farmland.|
|H13, Boschcoven||1.5346||Boundary runs through about 20 dwellings.|
|H14, Boschcoven||0.7193||Boundary runs through about 13 dwellings.|
|H15, Boschcoven||1.7211||Boundary runs through about 16 dwellings.|
|H16, Keizershoek - Oordelsche Straat||4.4252||Boundary runs through a house and three sheds; inside one of the sheds, the linear boundary changes direction three times|
|H17, Moleriet Heide||14.9248||Rural area containing a portion of the former Turnhout-Tilburg rail line, now a cycle path.|
|H18, De Manke Gooren||2.9247||Consists of farmland.|
|H19, De Peruiters||0.6851||Consists of several ponds and a field.|
|H20, Wurstenbosch - Vossenberg||1.1681||Consists of farmland.|
|H21, Baelbrugsche Beemden||1.1845||Consists of farmland.|
|H22, De Wit Hagen||0.2632||South of the village of Ulicoten; occupies part of a field; nationality was contested from the 1830s until 1995 (remained unallocated to either country in boundary treaty of 26 April 1974)|
|Climate data for Baarle-Hertog (1991−2020 normals)|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.6
|Average low °C (°F)||0.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||75.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||12.9||12.0||10.8||8.9||9.9||10.3||11.3||11.0||10.4||11.2||13.2||14.7||136.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||63||81||136||190||217||215||220||205||162||117||69||53||1,726|
|Source: Royal Meteorological Institute|
Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl has two elementary schools: De Vlinder and De Horizon.
- Petrus Christus, 15th century painter
- Büsingen am Hochrhein, an exclave of Germany surrounded by Switzerland
- Campione d'Italia, an exclave of Italy surrounded by Switzerland
- Llívia, an exclave of Spain surrounded by France
- India–Bangladesh enclaves, 173 former enclaves (not including counter-enclaves)
- The City & The City, a novel about two fictional co-existing city states.
- "Bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2020". Statbel.
- "Bevolking per statistische sector - Sector 13002". Statistics Belgium. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
- González, Diego (January 17, 2010). "Una cervecería en dos países" [A bar in Two Countries]. Fronteras (in Spanish).
- Jacobs, Frank (14 November 2011). "An Apology of Enclaves". New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 March 2022.
- "Enclavegeschiedenis van Baarle", Wikipedia (in Dutch), 2022-11-15, retrieved 2022-11-26
- "The Curious Case of Baarle-Nassau and Baarle-Hertog". Amusingplanet.com. 2012-11-06. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
- "Coronavirus: Dining for some, whining for others in border town Baarle". The Times. 2020-06-05. Retrieved 2020-06-05.
- Whyte, Brendan (2004). "En Territoire Belge et à Quarante Centimètres de la Frontière" An historical and documentary study of the Belgian and Dutch enclaves of Baarle-Hertog and Baarle-Nassau. The University of Melbourne, School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies. ISBN 0-7340-3032-0.
- "Luchttemperatuur en neerslag Referentieperiode: 1991-2020" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Meteorological Institute. Retrieved July 7, 2022.
- "scholen." Baarle-Hertog. Retrieved on January 6, 2017.
- "bibliotheek." Baarle-Hertog. Retrieved on January 6, 2017.
- Official Web site Baarle-Hertog (in Dutch)
- Official Web site Baarle-Nassau (in Dutch)
- The Baarle Enclaves outlined with Maps
- Open Topo Arcgis map
- Barry Smith's Baarle Site (with maps)
- Photos from Baarle-Nassau/Hertog
- Jan S. Krogh's Geosite about the Baarles
- Photograph of H-22, the smallest enclave of B.-Hertog at 51°26'54"N 4°50'10"E
- New York Times, Frugal Traveler Blog, August 2008 (Matt Gross) – see video of Baarle-Hartog in middle of page
- 'En Territoire Belge et a quarante centimetres de la frontiere' - English-language PhD thesis on the historical geography of Baarle's enclaves, including photos and detailed maps