Babbitt (novel)

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Babbit cover (scan).jpg
First edition cover
AuthorSinclair Lewis
CountryUnited States
SubjectAmerican values
PublisherHarcourt, Brace & Co.
Publication date
Media typePrint (hardcover)
Pages432 (paperback)
Preceded byMain Street 
Followed byArrowsmith 
TextBabbitt at Wikisource

Babbitt (1922), by Sinclair Lewis, is a satirical novel about American culture and society that critiques the vacuity of middle class life and the social pressure toward conformity. The controversy provoked by Babbitt was influential in the decision to award the Nobel Prize in Literature to Lewis in 1930.[1]

The word Babbitt entered the English language as a "person and especially a business or professional man who conforms unthinkingly to prevailing middle-class standards".[2]


After the social instability and sharp economic depression that followed World War I, many Americans in the 1920s saw business and city growth as foundations for stability. The civic boosters and self-made men of the middle-class represented particularly American depictions of success, at a time when the promotion of the American identity was crucial in the face of rising fears of Communism.[3] At the same time, growing Midwestern cities, usually associated with mass production and the emergence of a consumer society, were also seen as emblems of American progress. George F. Babbitt, the novel's main character, was described by the 1930 Nobel Prize committee as "the ideal of an American popular hero of the middle-class. The relativity of business morals as well as private rules of conduct is for him an accepted article of faith, and without hesitation he considers it God's purpose that man should work, increase his income, and enjoy modern improvements."[4]

Although many other popular novelists writing at the time of Babbitt's publication depict the "Roaring Twenties" as an era of social change and disillusionment with material culture, modern scholars argue that Lewis was not himself a member of the "lost generation" of younger writers like Ernest Hemingway or F. Scott Fitzgerald. Instead, he was influenced by the Progressive Era; and changes in the American identity that accompanied the country's rapid urbanization, technological growth, industrialization, and the closing of the frontier.[5] Although the Progressive Era had built a protective barrier around the upstanding American businessman, one literary scholar wrote that "Lewis was fortunate enough to come on the scene just as the emperor's clothes were disappearing."[6] Lewis has been compared to many authors, writing before and after the publication of Babbitt, who made similar criticisms of the middle class. Although it was published in 1899, long before Babbitt, Thorstein Veblen's The Theory of the Leisure Class, which critiqued consumer culture and social competition at the turn of the 20th century, is an oft-cited point of comparison.[7] Written decades later, in 1950, David Riesman's The Lonely Crowd has also been compared to Lewis's writings.[8]


Zenith is a typical midsize Midwestern city. Lewis was very critical of the similarities among most American cities, especially when compared to the diverse—and in his view, culturally richer—cities of Europe. Frowning on the interchangeable qualities of American cities, he wrote: "it would not be possible to write a novel which would in every line be equally true to Munich and Florence."[9] This is not true of Zenith, Babbitt's literary home. Zenith is a fictitious city in the equally fictitious Midwestern state of "Winnemac", adjacent to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan. (Babbitt does not mention Winnemac by name, but Lewis's subsequent novel Arrowsmith elaborates on its location.) When Babbitt was published, newspapers in Cincinnati, Duluth, Kansas City, Milwaukee, and Minneapolis each claimed that their city was the model for Zenith.[10] Cincinnati had perhaps the strongest claim, as Lewis had lived there while researching the book.[11] Lewis's own correspondence suggests, however, that Zenith is meant to be any Midwestern city with a population between about 200,000 and 300,000.[12]

While conducting research for Babbitt, Lewis kept detailed journals, in which he drafted long biographies for each of his characters. For his title character this biography even included a detailed genealogy, as well as a list of Babbitt's college courses. Zenith's major names and families are documented in these journals, and many of them emerge again in Lewis's later writings.[13] Zenith's layout is also imagined in careful detail. Lewis drew a series of 18 maps of Zenith and outlying areas, including Babbitt's house, with all its furnishings.[13]

Zenith's chief virtue is conformity, and its religion is boosterism. Prominent boosters in Zenith include Vergil Gunch, the coal dealer; Sidney Finkelstein, the ladies' ready-to-wear buyer for Parcher & Stein's department store (and not the later, real-life writer Sidney Finkelstein); Professor Joseph K. Pumphrey, owner of the Riteway Business College and "instructor in Public Speaking, Business English, Scenario Writing, and Commercial Law"; and T. Cholmondeley "Chum" Frink, a famous poet of dubious talent. As a realtor, George Babbitt knows well the virtues of his home city. In a speech to the Zenith Real Estate Board, he states: "It may be true that New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia will continue to keep ahead of us in size. But aside from these three cities, which are notoriously so overgrown that no decent white man, nobody who loves his wife and kiddies and God's good out-o'-doors and likes to shake the hand of his neighbor in greeting would want to live in them—and let me tell you right here and now, I wouldn’t trade a high-class Zenith acreage development for the whole length and breadth of Broadway or State Street!—aside from these three, it’s evident to any one with a head for facts that Zenith is the finest example of American life and prosperity to be found anywhere."[14] Zenith is thus presented as more than simply prosperous; it is safe and wholesome.


The Smart Set's review of the novel stated, "There is no plot whatever... Babbitt simply grows two years older as the tale unfolds."[15]

The first seven chapters follow Babbitt's life over the course of a single day. Over breakfast, Babbitt dotes on his ten-year-old daughter Tinka, tries to dissuade his 22-year-old daughter Verona from her newfound socialist leanings, and encourages his 17-year-old son Ted to try harder in school. At the office he dictates letters and discusses real estate advertising with his employees. Gradually, Babbitt realizes his dissatisfaction with "The American Dream", and attempts to quell these feelings by going camping in Maine with his close friend and old college roommate Paul Riesling. Although the trip has its ups and downs, the two men consider it an overall success and leave feeling optimistic about the year ahead.

On the day Babbitt gets elected vice-president of the Booster's club, he finds out that Paul shot his wife Zilla. Babbitt immediately drives to the jail where Paul is being held, trying to think of ways to help Paul out. Shortly after Paul's arrest, Babbitt's wife and daughter go to visit relatives, leaving Babbitt more or less on his own. Babbitt begins to ask himself what it was he really wanted in life. In time, Babbitt begins to rebel against all of the standards he formerly held: he jumps into liberal politics with famous socialist/"single tax" litigator Seneca Doane, conducts an extramarital affair, goes on various vacations, and cavorts around Zenith with bohemians and flappers. He slowly becomes aware that his forays into nonconformity are not only futile but also destructive of the life and the friends he once loved.

When Babbitt's wife falls ill with acute appendicitis, Babbitt rushes home and relinquishes all rebellion. During her long recovery, they rekindle their intimacy and Babbitt reverts to dispassionate conformity. In the final scene, Babbitt discovers that his son Ted has secretly married Eunice, the daughter of his neighbor. He offers his approval of the marriage, stating that though he does not agree, he admires Ted for living his life on his own terms.

Babbitt and family[edit]

Babbitt is professionally successful as a realtor. Much of his energy in early chapters is spent on climbing the social ladder through booster functions, real estate sales, and making good with various dignitaries. According to Babbitt, any "decent" man in Zenith belonged to at least two or three "lodges" or booster clubs. They were good for potential business partnerships, getting time away from home and family life, and quite simply because "it was the thing to do."[16]

Although Lewis sought to portray the middle-aged American in Babbitt, he includes tidbits of his character's youthful dreams and ideals. Babbitt often reflects on his failed goal of becoming a lawyer. In college, he dreamed of defending the poor against the "Unjust Rich," and possibly even running for governor. He began practicing real estate in college to earn money for living expenses, but settled into real estate permanently shortly after marriage. Babbitt's best friend, Paul, is similarly haunted by unfulfilled dreams. A talented violinist, he had hoped when younger to study in Europe. When he and Babbitt leave for their trip to Maine, they stop off in New York, where Paul looks longingly at ocean liners set to cross the Atlantic. Paul still plays the violin on occasion; when he does "even Zilla was silent as the lonely man who lost his way ... spun out his dark soul in music."[17] Despite having abandoned his former goals and ideals, Babbitt still dreams of a "fairy child": an imaginary woman full of life and gaiety who sees him not as a stodgy old businessman but rather as a "gallant youth." He imagines various women as his fairy child, including his secretary, a manicurist, his son's girlfriend, and finally Tanis Judique.

Having failed in his aspirations to become a lawyer himself, Babbitt hopes his son, Ted, will go to law school. Ted, however, is hardly interested in finishing high school. Rather than focusing on college, Ted clips advertisements for correspondence courses and money-making schemes. In the novel's dramatic final scene Ted announces that he has eloped with his girlfriend, Eunice Littlefield, and intends to forgo college to become an engineer. Eunice is described as "movie crazy" and very modern in appearance, wearing her hair in a short bob and skirts that show off her knees.

Babbitt's hopes for his elder daughter, Verona, consist mostly of her making a good marriage. Babbitt is concerned about her socialist-leaning political views. The books she reads, including poetry by Vachel Lindsay and essays by H. L. Mencken, particularly disturb him as threatening to the virtues of solid citizenship. Babbitt's younger daughter, Tinka, only ten at the start of the book, is doted upon and admired.

Critical reception[edit]

In Babbitt (1922), Sinclair Lewis created a living and breathing man with recognizable hopes and dreams, not a caricature. To his publisher, Lewis wrote: “He is all of us Americans at 46, prosperous, but worried, wanting — passionately — to seize something more than motor cars and a house before it's too late.”[18] George F. Babbitt's mediocrity is central to his realism; Lewis believed that the fatal flaw of previous literary representations of the American businessman was in portraying him as “an exceptional man.”

About the novel, Lewis said: “This is the story of the ruler of America” wherein the “tired American Businessman” wielded socioeconomic power not through his exceptionality but rather through militant conformity. Lewis portrayed the American businessman as a man deeply dissatisfied with and privately aware of his shortcomings; he is “the most grievous victim of his own militant dullness” who secretly longed for freedom and romance.[19] Readers who praised the psychological realism of the portrait admitted to regularly encountering Babbitts in real life but also could relate to some of the character's anxieties about conformity and personal fulfillment. Published two years after Lewis's previous novel (Main Street, 1920), the story of George F. Babbitt was much anticipated because each novel presented a portrait of American society wherein “the principal character is brought into conflict with the accepted order of things, sufficiently to illustrate its ruthlessness.”[20]

The social critic and satirist H. L. Mencken, an ardent supporter of Sinclair Lewis, called himself “an old professor of Babbittry” and said that Babbitt was a stunning work of literary realism about American society.[15] To Mencken, George F. Babbitt was an archetype of the American city dwellers who touted the virtues of Republicanism, Presbyterianism, and absolute conformity because "it is not what he [Babbitt] feels and aspires that moves him primarily; it is what the folks about him will think of him. His politics is communal politics, mob politics, herd politics; his religion is a public rite wholly without subjective significance."[15] Mencken said that Babbitt was the literary embodiment of everything wrong with American society.[15] In the cultural climate of the early 20th century, like-minded critics and Mencken's followers were known as "Babbitt-baiters".[21]

Despite Mencken's praise of Babbitt as unflinching social satire, other critics found exaggeration in Lewis's depiction of the American businessman. In the book review “From Maupassant to Mencken” (1922), Edmund Wilson compared Lewis's style in Babbitt to the more “graceful” writing styles of satirists such as Charles Dickens and Mark Twain and said that, as a prose stylist, Lewis's literary “gift is almost entirely for making people nasty” and the characters unbelievable.[22] Concurring with Wilson that Lewis was no Twain, another critic dismissed Babbitt as “a monstrous, bawling, unconscionable satire” and said “Mr. Lewis is the most phenomenally skillful exaggerator in literature today.”[23] Nonetheless, in its first year of publication, 140,997 copies of the novel were sold in the U.S.[24] In the mid–1920s, Babbitt-baiting became an irritant to American businessmen, Rotarians, and the like, who began defending the Babbitts of the U.S. by way of radio and magazine journalism. They emphasized the virtues of community organizations and the positive contributions that industrial cities have made to American society.[25]


In American literature and popular culture, the character and behaviors of George F. Babbitt became established as negative archetypes of person and personality; a Babbitt is “a materialistic and complacent businessman conforming to the standards of his [social] set” and Babbittry is the “Philistine behaviour of a Babbitt”.[26]


Babbitt has been converted into films twice, a feat Turner Classic Movies describes as "impressive for a novel that barely has a plot."[27] The first adaptation was a silent film released in 1924 and starring Willard Louis as George F. Babbitt. According to Warner Bros. records it cost $123,000 and made $278,000 domestic and $28,000 foreign, being a total of $306,000.[28]

The second was a 1934 talkie starring Guy Kibbee. That version, while remaining somewhat true to Lewis's novel, takes liberties with the plot, exaggerating Babbitt's affair and a sour real estate deal.[27] Both films were Warner Bros. productions.[29][30]

In popular culture[edit]

  • 1922Vachel Lindsay wrote a poem titled "The Babbitt Jambouree".[24]
  • 1926 – Babbitt is mentioned briefly as a character in Lewis' novel Elmer Gantry, much of which is also set in Zenith. Babbitt also appears in the 1960 film adaptation.
  • 1927 – English author C. E. M. Joad published The Babbitt Warren, a scathing critique of American society.[31]
  • 1936 - Aldous Huxley published Eyeless in Gaza; character Mark Staithes likens his father to Babbitt
  • 1937 – English author J. R. R. Tolkien published The Hobbit; the title and the originally somewhat complacent and bourgeois character of Bilbo and hobbits in general were influenced by Babbitt.[32][33][34]
  • 1946 – The song "The Babbitt and the Bromide", by George and Ira Gershwin, featured in the film Ziegfeld Follies.
  • 1967 – Elizabeth Stevenson published a popular history of the 1920s titled Babbitts and Bohemians: From the Great War to the Great Depression.[35]
  • 1973 – In Philip Roth's The Great American Novel Gil Gamesh passes through Zenith when banished from the world of baseball (page 340). The novel places the city in Minnesota, however.
  • 1975 – In Saul Bellow's Humboldt's Gift, Charlie Citrine refers to the aspirational "Babbittry" of his childhood sweetheart's father.
  • 1987 – Joseph Campbell references Babbitt in his book and documentary The Power of Myth when discussing with Bill Moyers the concept of following one's bliss.
  • 2008 - In Stephen King's Duma Key, a character mistakenly says "Bobbittry" when they mean "Babbittry." This is followed by a comment that though art scholars may know the differences in art, they may still confuse John Wayne Bobbit for George Babbitt.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Phelps, William Lyon/ "Sinclair Lewis and the Nobel Prize", The Washington Post (December 7, 1930)
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster
  3. ^ Hunter, Gordon. introduction to Babbitt by Sinclair Lewis (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), ix–xi.
  4. ^ Karlfedt, Erik Axel. "Presentation Speech", accessed April 4, 2012,
  5. ^ Love (1993), p. 10
  6. ^ Love (1993), p. 42.
  7. ^ Ames, Russell. "Sinclair Lewis Again", College English 10, no. 2 (1948): 78.
  8. ^ Love (1993), p. 12
  9. ^ Lewis (2005), p.22
  10. ^ Schorer (1961), p. 344
  11. ^ Schorer (1961), 301.
  12. ^ Schorer (1961), 301–2.
  13. ^ a b Hutchisson (1992)
  14. ^ Lewis, Sinclair (1922). Babbitt. New York: Harcourt, Brace. p. 180.
  15. ^ a b c d Mencken, H. L., "Portrait of an American Citizen," The Smart Set 69 (October 1922) pp. 138–139
  16. ^ Babbitt, p.203
  17. ^ Babbitt, p. 204
  18. ^ Smith, Harrison (Ed.) Main Street to Stockholm: Letters of Sinclair Lewis, 1919–1930 (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1952), p. 59.
  19. ^ Lewis (2005), p. 15
  20. ^ Mollyneaux, Peter. "Babbitt," review of Babbitt, by Sinclair Lewis, Fort Worth Star Telegram (8 October 1922)
  21. ^ Hines (1967), p. 126
  22. ^ Wilson, Edmund. “From Maupassant to Mencken”, review of Babbitt, by Sinclair Lewis, Vanity Fair (December 1922): 25.
  23. ^ "Babbitt", review of Babbitt, by Sinclair Lewis, The North American Review 216 (1922): 716.
  24. ^ a b Hutchisson (1996), p. 89
  25. ^ Hines (1967), pp. 132–134.
  26. ^ The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1993) p. 162.
  27. ^ a b Sterrritt, David, "Babbitt" Turner Classic Movies, accessed April 10, 2012
  28. ^ Warner Bros financial information in The William Shaefer Ledger. See Appendix 1, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, (1995) 15:sup1, 1-31 p 3 DOI: 10.1080/01439689508604551
  29. ^ Babbitt at IMDb
  30. ^ Babbitt at IMDb
  31. ^ C. E. M. Joad, The Babbitt Warren (London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1926).
  32. ^ Jones, Leslie Ellen. J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biography. Greenwood, 2003, p. 83-84.
  33. ^ Shippey, Tom. The Road to Middle Earth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003, p. 67
  34. ^ Bramlett, Perry C. I am in Fact a Hobbit Macon: Mercer University Press, 2003, p. 32–33.
  35. ^ Stevenson, Elizabeth. Babbitts and Bohemians: From the Great War to the Great Depression (New York: Macmillan Company, 1967)


  • Hines, Thomas S. "Echoes from 'Zenith': Reactions of American Businessmen to Babbitt" Business History Review 41, no. 2 (1967)
  • Hutchisson, James M. "All of Us at 46: The Making of Sinclair Lewis' Babbitt," Journal of Modern Literature 18, no. 1 (1992): 98.
  • Hutchisson, James M. The Rise of Sinclair Lewis: 1920–1930 (State College, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996). ISBN 0271015039
  • Lewis, Sinclair. "Unpublished Introduction to Babbitt," in Go East, Young Man: Sinclair Lewis on Class in America, ed. Sally E. Parry (New York: Signet Classics, 2005)
  • Love, Glen A. Babbitt: An American Life (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1993)
  • Schorer, Mark. Sinclair Lewis: An American Life (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961)

External links[edit]