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Babeș-Bolyai University

Coordinates: 46°46′04″N 23°35′29″E / 46.76767°N 23.59137°E / 46.76767; 23.59137
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Babeș-Bolyai University
Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai (in Romanian)
Babeș-Bolyai Tudományegyetem (in Hungarian)
Values: Traditio et Excellentia
Latin: Universitas Claudiopolitana
Values: Traditio et Excellentia
MottoTraditio Nostra Unacum Europae Virtutibus Splendet (Latin)
Established1959 – Babeș-Bolyai University
1945 – Bolyai University
1919 – King Ferdinand I University (Victor Babeș University)
AffiliationGuild of European Research-Intensive Universities, Eutopia,[1] European University Association, International Association of Universities, Agence universitaire de la Francophonie, Association of Carpathian Region Universities, Santander Network, Balkan Universities Network
RectorDaniel David
President of the SenateFlorin Streteanu[3]
Academic staff
1,554 (2021–2022)
Administrative staff
1,596 (2021–2022)
Students48,620 (2021–2022)
Other students
1 Mihail Kogălniceanu Street, Cluj-Napoca
46°46′04″N 23°35′29″E / 46.76767°N 23.59137°E / 46.76767; 23.59137
LanguageRomanian, Hungarian, German, English, French
ColorsBlack and White   
WebsiteOfficial website

The Babeș-Bolyai University (Romanian: Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai [ˈbabeʃ ˈbojɒ.i], Hungarian: Babeș-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, commonly known as UBB) is a public research university located in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It was created from a 1959 merger of Bolyai University (founded in 1945) and Victor Babeș University (founded in 1919), whose histories can be traced to the Jesuit Academy of Kolozsvár founded in 1581.[4] It occupies the first position in the University Metaranking, initiated by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research in 2016[5][6]

Babeș-Bolyai University is the largest Romanian university with about 50,000 students.[7] It offers study programmes in Romanian, Hungarian, German, English, and French (as well as a smaller number of programmes at the Master's level taught in Spanish, Italian, and Japanese). The university was named, following the fusion in 1959 of the Romanian and Hungarian-language universities in Cluj, after two prominent scientists from Transylvania, the Romanian bacteriologist Victor Babeș and the Hungarian mathematician János Bolyai. It is one of the five members of the Universitaria Consortium (the group of elite Romanian universities, including UAIC, UB, ASE and UVT).[8][9]

UBB is affiliated to the International Association of Universities, Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities, Eutopia,[1] the Santander Group, the Agence universitaire de la Francophonie and the European University Association.[10] Likewise, UBB signed the Magna Charta Universitatum and concluded partnerships with 210 universities in 50 countries, and it is widely considered one of the most prestigious in Eastern Europe.[11] The Babeș-Bolyai University is classified as an advanced research and education university by the Ministry of Education.[12]


Victor Babeș (above) and János Bolyai (below), whose names the university bears.

The history of education in Cluj-Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Principality of Transylvania) begins in 1581, with the establishment of the Jesuit college by Stephen Báthory, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and Prince of Transylvania.[13] The college received buildings and land within the medieval city walls, specifically on Platea Luporum (the present Mihail Kogălniceanu Street). The first rector of the Collegium Academicum Claudiopolitanum was the Polish Jesuit priest Jakub Wujek.[14] The institution had the rights to confer the university/academic titles of baccalaureus, magister, and doctor. In 1585, there were 230 students studying, divided into six classes. The language of instruction and learning was Latin. After 1698, the institution was named Universitas Claudiopolitana, with use of Latin and subsequently German as languages of instruction. In 1753, Empress Maria Theresa granted imperial status to the university, and in 1773, after the dissolution of the Jesuit Order, went under the administration of the Piarist order. In 1786, Universitas Claudiopolitana became the Royal Academic Lyceum (Lyceum Regium Academicum – semiuniversity statute), which was later followed by two institutions with a semiuniversity statute (e.g., offering training at of baccalaureus/magister level, but not at doctor level): (a) the Surgical-Medical Institute and (b) the Academy of Law. These institutions were later incorporated in the Franz Joseph University.[15][16]

Franz Joseph University around 1900. Caption from the 23rd volume of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in Words and Pictures

With the affirmation of the Romanian nation in the context of the European revolutions of 1848, the issue of education in Romanian was raised. At the request of the Romanians in 1870, József Eötvös (then Minister of Education) proposed the creation in Kolozsvár of a university teaching in Hungarian, Romanian and German, idea also welcomed by the Romanian elite. This hadn't come to fruition, as Eötvös died in 1871, and in 1872, Franz Joseph I legislated the establishment of the Hungarian Royal University of Kolozsvár in Hungarian only, which caused dissatisfaction among Romanians.[17] After the oath, on 20 December 1872, 258 students started their courses. There were created four distinct faculties: the Faculty of Law and State Sciences, the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Philosophy, Letters and History, and the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Each possessed equal status and enjoyed internal autonomy. The first rector was Prof. Áron Berde from the Faculty of Law, specialist in economics and finance. Besides the four faculties, a Pedagogical Institute was formed for training secondary school teachers. In 1895 women were given rights to attend lectures at the university.[18]

After the First World War, and in the context of the Great Union of 1918, the university was taken over by the Romanian authorities and became an institution of the Kingdom of Romania. On 12 September 1919, the decree signed by King Ferdinand I stipulated "the transformation of the Royal Hungarian Franz Joseph University into a Romanian university beginning on the 1st of October 1919".[17] The Hungarian staff who had not sworn allegiance to the Romanian state moved to Szeged where they contributed to the formation of the University of Szeged (1921).

The new Romanian university, initially named Dacia Superior University (in reference to the Roman province by the same name), later King Ferdinand I University, was composed of four faculties: Law, Medicine, Sciences, Letters and Philosophy [sic]. The inaugural lecture, "The Duty of Our Life", was delivered by Vasile Pârvan on 3 November 1919. The official inauguration took place between 31 January and 2 February 1920, in the presence of King Ferdinand I of Romania. The first elected rector was Sextil Pușcariu.[16][17]

In 1940, after the territorial revision imposed by the Second Vienna Award, Hungary obtained the territory of Northern Transylvania, and the Romanian university was moved to Timișoara and Sibiu.[18] The former Hungarian university reformed in the city, out of the University of Szeged. After the end of the Second World War and the annulling of Hungary's territorial gains, on 1 June 1945, Romanian authorities returned to Cluj the King Ferdinand I University (later renamed Victor Babeș University), and established the Bolyai University, a state institution teaching in Hungarian, with four faculties (Letters [Philology] and Philosophy, Law and Political Economy, Sciences, and Human Medicine which, in 1948, was separated and moved to Târgu Mureș to form the University of Medicine and Pharmacy).[17]

In the spring of 1959, the two educational institutions were united as the Babeș-Bolyai University,[17] after two renowned scholars of Transylvania: Romanian physician and bacteriologist Victor Babeș (co-founder of modern microbiology) and Hungarian mathematician János Bolyai (known for developing absolute geometry). In 1995, the Babeș-Bolyai University reorganized its structure, introducing a multicultural based education.[17]

UBB is today a complex university, having programs ranging from art/humanities, social sciences, as well as life and natural sciences, to mathematics/computer sciences alongside engineering and technology.[19]

Different buildings that hosted the university in Cluj-Napoca from 1581 to modern times
The Academic tradition of Babeș-Bolyai University
Digital scan of the Diploma signed by Stephan Bathory, dating 1581, establishing the Claudiopolitan Academy Societatis Jesu in Cluj
The Diploma issued by Stephan Bathory in 1581 establishing the Claudiopolitan Academy Societatis Jesu in Cluj, having the rights to confer the university/academic titles of baccalaureus, magister, and doctor.


Central University Library seen from Clinicilor Street
The central building of the university
Tholdalagy-Korda Palace is the headquarters of technical administration of the Babeș-Bolyai University.

The main campus is located in the city of Cluj-Napoca, with university buildings spread across the city. The university has 17 student housing areas,[20] totaling 5,280 residential quarters (4,964 for students, 100 for athletes and 216 for PhD);[21] most notable are Hașdeu and Economica. All dormitories are renovated, thermally insulated, have double-glazed windows, laminate flooring and chipboard or wood furniture. The Lucian Blaga University Library is located in the city centre. The university also has several colleges located in other cities spread across the Transylvania and Maramureș historical regions.

Within the university's cultural possessions are several museums, such as the University Museum (established in April 2001, with a collection of more than 750 original and facsimile pieces),[22] the Mineralogical Museum, the Botanical Museum, the Paleontology-Stratigraphy Museum, the Vivarium and the Zoological Museum.


Babeș-Bolyai University has almost 50.000 students in 2021. Between 1993 and 2021, the number of students has quadrupled, from 12,247 in 1993 to 48,620 in 2021.[7][23] The structure of the student body is composed out of 2,239 PhD students, 9,543 master's degree students, and 33,139 undergraduates. The university has 22 faculties and an academic community of over 55.000 members.[7] It offers bachelor's, master's, and PhD degrees, along with advanced postgraduate studies. UBB is the only university in Europe that has four faculties of theology (Orthodox, Reformed, Roman Catholic, and Greek Catholic).[24]

The university is a multicultural institution which is very well illustrated by its structure: there are 291 study programmes in Romanian (148 bachelor's studies and 143 master's studies); 110 study programmes in Hungarian (70 bachelor's studies and 40 master's studies); and 15 study programmes in German (10 bachelor's studies and 5 master's studies).[25] The Hungarian and German minorities are proportionately represented in the Professors' Council and the University Senate.

41.5% of foreign students come from Moldova and Ukraine, 27.4% from EU and EEA, and 31.1% from non-EU and non-EEA states.[26]

Evolution of number of students over time[27][7]
Year Number of students


Faculty Address Specializations[19]
Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics 1 Mihail Kogălniceanu Street
  • Mathematics (ro, hu)
  • Mathematical informatics (ro, hu, en)
  • Informatics (ro, hu, de, en)
Faculty of Physics 1 Mihail Kogălniceanu Street
  • Physics (ro, hu)
  • Medical physics (ro)
  • Physical informatics (ro, hu)
  • Technological physics (ro, hu)
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering 11 Arany János Street
  • Food chemistry and biochemical technologies (ro)
  • Biochemical engineering (ro)
  • Engineering and informatics of chemical and biochemical processes (ro)
  • Science and engineering of oxide materials and nanomaterials (ro)
  • Engineering of inorganic substances and environmental protection (ro)
  • Chemistry and engineering of organic substances, petrochemistry and carbochemistry (ro, hu)
  • Chemistry (ro, hu, de)
Faculty of Geography 44 Republicii Street
  • Geography (ro, hu, de)
  • Tourism geography (ro, hu)
  • Territorial planning (ro, hu)
  • Cartography (ro)
  • Hydrology and meteorology (ro)
Faculty of Biology and Geology 5–7 Clinicilor Street
  • Biology (ro, hu)
  • Biochemistry (ro)
  • Ecology and environmental protection (ro, hu, de)
  • Industrial biotechnologies (ro)
  • Geology (ro, hu)
  • Geological engineering (ro)
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering 30 Fântânele Street
  • Environmental science (ro, hu)
  • Environmental geography (ro)
  • Environmental engineering (ro)
  • Biotechnical and ecological systems engineering (ro)
Faculty of Law 11 Avram Iancu Street
  • Law (ro)
Faculty of Literature 31 Horea Street
  • Romanian language and literature (ro)
  • Romanian language and literature (ro as non-mother tongue)
  • World and comparative literature (ro)
  • Hungarian language and literature (hu)
  • Hungarian language and literature (hu as non-mother tongue)
  • English language and literature (ro)
  • French language and literature (ro)
  • German language and literature (de)
  • Russian language and literature (ro)
  • Ukrainian language and literature (ro)
  • Italian language and literature (ro)
  • Spanish language and literature (ro)
  • Norwegian language and literature (ro)
  • Japanese language and literature (ro)
  • Chinese language and literature (ro)
  • Korean language and literature (ro)
  • Finnish language and literature (ro)
  • Classical philology (ro)
  • Ethnology (hu)
  • Cultural studies (hu)
  • Applied modern languages (ro)
Faculty of History and Philosophy 1 Mihail Kogălniceanu Street
  • History (ro, hu)
  • Art history (ro, hu)
  • Archeology (ro, hu)
  • Archivistics (ro, hu)
  • Science of information and documentation (ro, hu)
  • Ethnology (ro)
  • Cultural tourism (ro, hu)
  • International relations and European studies (ro, hu, fr)
  • Philosophy (ro, hu)
  • Security studies (ro, en)
Faculty of Sociology and Social Assistance 128–130 21 Decembrie 1989 Boulevard
  • Sociology (ro, hu)
  • Human resources (ro, hu)
  • Anthropology (ro, hu)
  • Social assistance (ro, hu)
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences 7 Sindicatelor Street
  • Psychology (ro, hu)
  • Special psychopedagogy (ro, hu)
  • Pedagogy (ro)
  • Pedagogy of primary and pre-school education (ro, hu)
Faculty of Economics and Business Administration 58–60 Teodor Mihali Street
  • Management (ro, hu, en)
  • Marketing (ro, hu)
  • Economics of commerce, tourism and services (ro)
  • Company economy (de)
  • Finance and banking (ro, hu, en)
  • Accounting and management information systems (ro, fr, en)
  • Economic informatics (ro, hu)
  • Statistics and economic forecasting (ro)
  • Economics and international business (ro)
  • General economics (ro)
  • Agricultural and environmental economics (ro)
Faculty of European Studies 1 Emmanuel de Martonne Street
  • International relations and European studies (ro, de, en)
  • Management (ro)
  • European administration (ro)
  • American studies (en)
Faculty of Business 7 Horea Street
  • Business administration (ro, en)
  • Business administration in hospitality services (ro, en)
Faculty of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences 71 General Traian Moșoiu Street
  • Political sciences (ro, hu, en)
  • Communication and public relations (ro, hu, de)
  • Journalism (ro, hu, de, en)
  • Digital media (ro)
  • Advertising (ro)
  • Public administration (ro)
  • Services and policies of public health (en)
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport 7 Pandurilor Street
  • Physical and sports education (ro, hu)
  • Sport and motric performance (ro, hu)
  • Kinetotherapy and special motricity (ro, hu)
Faculty of Orthodox Theology Episcop Nicolae Ivan, F. N. Street
  • Pastoral Orthodox theology (ro)
  • Didactic Orthodox theology (ro)
  • Orthodox theology-social assistance (ro)
  • Sacred art (ro)
Faculty of Greek Catholic Theology 26 Moților Street
  • Greek Catholic theology-social assistance (ro)
  • Didactic Greek Catholic theology (ro)
  • Pastoral Greek Catholic theology (ro)
Faculty of Reformed Theology 7 Horea Street
  • Didactic Reformed theology (hu)
  • Reformed theology-social assistance (hu)
  • Musical pedagogy (hu)
Faculty of Roman Catholic Theology 2 Iuliu Maniu Street
  • Didactic Roman Catholic theology (hu)
  • Roman Catholic theology-social assistance (hu)
  • Pastoral Roman Catholic theology (hu)
  • Religious studies (hu)
Faculty of Theatre and Television 1 Mihail Kogălniceanu Street
  • Acting (ro, hu)
  • Directing (ro)
  • Theatrology (ro, hu)
  • Cinematography, photography and media (ro, hu)
  • Filmology (ro)


University rankings
Global – Overall
QS World[28]801–850 (2024)
THE World[29]1001–1200 (2024)
USNWR Global[30]=717 (2023)

UBB typically occupies the first position among the Romanian universities in the major international ranking of universities.[31][32] In 2016, the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research commissioned the University Metaranking, combining the major international rankings of universities, as recognized by IREG). Since 2016, UBB occupies the first position among Romanian universities in the same Metaranking, although the classication process is now undertaken by the independent organization.[5][6][33][34] In February 2022, the Ministry of Education issued a new methodology and metaranking, where UBB also occupied the first place.[35] In 2019, based on British QS STAR academic audit,[36] UBB was evaluated as an international university with excellence in teaching and research. In 2021, another QS audit granted the university a five-star rating, which is indicative of a world-class university, with an internationally recognized reputation across multiple academic fields.[37]

Hungarian section[edit]

In 1995, the Babeș-Bolyai University introduced an educational system backed by the High Commissioner on National Minorities[38] and based on multiculturalism and multilingualism, with three lines of study (Romanian, Hungarian and German) at all levels of academic degrees.[39]

The Hungarian section enrolls 4,874 students in 115 study programmes (75 bachelor's level and 40 master's level); the university is thus the principal institution that educates members of the Hungarian minority in Transylvania.[39]

Hungarian-Romanian dispute[edit]

The Hungarian section of the university has a partial autonomy,[40] gradually increasing in the recent years.[41] However, in the opinion of the Council of the Hungarian section, those members appointed by the Hungarian-speaking teaching staff desire a more institutionalized form of autonomy. Since university decision-making is based on majority vote of the entire faculty, the Hungarian representatives in minority can always be silenced by this procedure.

In November 2006, Hantz Péter and Kovács Lehel, lecturers at the Babeș-Bolyai University, were discharged by the university after a series of actions started in October 2005 taken for language equality. They were campaigning for the re-organization of the Bolyai University by splitting it in two independent institutions.[42] On 22 November 2006, the university organized an exhibition in the European Parliament, where they tried to give the impression that there are multilingual signs at the university. That day, Hantz added signs like "Information" and "No smoking" in Hungarian alongside those ones in Romanian.[43] The two acted upon a decree permitting the use of multilingual signs, which had been decreed by the university but never put in practice, and official claims that the university is a multicultural institution with three working languages (Romanian, German and Hungarian).[44] On 27 November 2006, the Senate voted for exclusion of the two lecturers, with 72 for and 9 against (from 2 Romanian and 7 Hungarian members) votes. The Hungarian academic community is convinced that the exclusion was not a disciplinary action, but the vote was not ethnic based.[43] In spite of protests, the resignation out of solidarity by several Hungarian-speaking university staff, and a call by 24 Hungarian MEPs for the reinstatement of the lecturers, they remained unemployed.[43] The parties in the Hungarian Parliament asked the university to reinstate the two professors and respect the rights of the Hungarian minority. The presidents of the five parties represented in the Hungarian Parliament signed a statement of protest. Istvan Hiller, the Education Minister of Hungary, wrote to his Romanian counterpart Mihail Hărdău, asking for his help on the issue.[44] The case has also been put forward in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Göran Lindblad, from the Swedish European People's Party, along with 24 signatories from 19 European countries, presented a motion for a resolution on the alleged breaching of the 1994 Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by the Romanian Government.[45]

The two lecturers sued Romania at the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg. Hantz and Kovacs turned to former Hungarian Justice Minister Albert Takács to represent them at the ECHR, eventually accepting the proposal.[46] In 2008, the European Court of Human Rights established that the decision of UBB Senate to exclude Hantz Péter and Kovács Lehel from the teaching staff of the educational institution was legal.[47]

In 2010, the education law has sparked numerous controversies by promoting ethnic segregation in higher education, according to teachers representatives.[48] Anton Hadăr, president of Alma Mater Federation of Trade Unions in University Education considers that the separation of UBB on ethnic criteria would be not only risky but also unproductive. Among main disadvantages would be the increasingly serious gaps of ethnic Hungarians regarding the knowledge of Romanian language. Romanian MEP Corina Crețu warned that adopting the education law, with the claims of UDMR, would have harmful effects especially in Cluj. "Applying the law could lead to breaking UBB", stated Crețu.[48]

Notable people[edit]

Faculty and alumni[edit]

Honorary degree[edit]

Doctor Honoris Causa, Professor Honoris Causa include a long list of public personalities, such as:[49]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Eutopia". eutopia-university.eu. Archived from the original on Dec 10, 2022.
  2. ^ "Raportul Rectorului privind starea Universității Babeș-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca în anul 2015" (PDF). UBB (in Romanian). February 2016.
  3. ^ "Conducerea Senatului". Senatul Universității Babeș-Bolyai (in Romanian).
  4. ^ "Traditie si Excelenta-Scolile academice/de stiinta la Universitatea Babes-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca (1581-1872-1919-prezent)"(in Romanian)
  5. ^ a b "Raport asupra Exercițiului Național de Metaranking Universitar-2016"(in Romanian)
  6. ^ a b "Metarankingul Universitar-2019 Clasamentul Universităților din România"(in Romanian)
  7. ^ a b c d "Raportul rectorului privind starea Universității Babeș-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca (UBB) pe anul 2021"
  8. ^ Consorțiul Universitaria – viitorul învățământului superior românesc de calitate (in Romanian)
  9. ^ "Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai". ubbcluj.ro. Retrieved 2021-06-16.
  10. ^ "Affiliations". UBB. Archived from the original on 2017-11-11. Retrieved 2015-08-27.
  11. ^ "Partners". UBB. Archived from the original on 2015-09-15. Retrieved 2015-08-27.
  12. ^ "Lista Institutiile de invatamant superior acreditate, clasificate ca universitati de cercetare avansata si educatie (conform OM 5262/2011)" (PDF). Cnatdcu.ro. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
  13. ^ Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2012). "Începuturile: Colegiul iezuit din 1579–1581". Istoria Universităţii "Babeş-Bolyai" (in Romanian). pp. 12–29.
  14. ^ Stanciu, Elena (27 August 2014). "Un secol de învățământ superior românesc la Cluj". Agerpres (in Romanian).
  15. ^ Makk F., Marjanucz, L. (2011). A Szegedi Tudományegyetem és elődei története (1581–2011). University of Szeged. ISBN 9789633060940.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ a b "Babeș-Bolyai University - short history".
  17. ^ a b c d e f "Repere istorice ale universităţii clujene". Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2015-11-09. Retrieved 2015-08-27.
  18. ^ a b Ghiță, Ovidiu (2012). Istoria Universităţii Babeş-Bolyai (in Romanian). Mega. ISBN 978-606-543-222-2.
  19. ^ a b ""Admission at Babeș-Bolyai University". Archived from the original on 2020-05-08. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  20. ^ "Cazare în cămine". Consiliul Studenților din Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2015-09-27.
  21. ^ "Universităţile clujene oferă peste 12.000 de locuri în cămine pentru 72.000 de studenţi". CityNews.ro (in Romanian). 17 September 2012.
  22. ^ "Muzeul Universităţii". UBB (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2015-07-21.
  23. ^ Oros, Ioana (19 April 2013). "Analiza: 80.000 de studenti aduc la Cluj, anual, 400 de milioane de euro". Ziar de Cluj (in Romanian).
  24. ^ Ghidul studentului din Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai. p. 5. Archived from the original on 2016-04-26. Retrieved 2016-05-09. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  25. ^ "Raportul Rectorului privind starea Universitatii Babes-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca în anul 2019" (in Romanian)
  26. ^ "Date statistice". UBB (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2015-11-20.
  27. ^ "Raportul rectorului, Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai". Archived from the original on 2015-10-13. Retrieved 2015-08-27.
  28. ^ "QS World University Rankings: Romania". Top Universities. 29 June 2023. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  29. ^ "World University Rankings 2024: Romania". Times Higher Education (THE). 28 September 2023. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  30. ^ U.S. News. "Best Global Universities in Romania". Retrieved 27 February 2024.
  31. ^ "World University Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 2019-08-20. Retrieved 2021-07-01.
  32. ^ "World University Rankings 2020". Top Universities. Retrieved 2021-07-01.
  33. ^ "Metarankingul Universitar-2020"(in Romanian)
  34. ^ "Metarankingul Universitar-2021"(in Romanian)
  35. ^ "Raport anual privind Metarankingul Național aferent anului 2021"(in Romanian)
  36. ^ "QS Stars rating system"
  37. ^ "UBB is the first Romanian University Ranked World-Class 5 stars”(in English)
  38. ^ Morawa, Alexander H. E. (2005). Mechanisms for the implementation of minority rights. Council of Europe Publishing. ISBN 978-92-871-5499-6.
  39. ^ a b "The multicultural feature". UBB. Archived from the original on 2014-03-03.
  40. ^ "Carta Universității Babeș-Bolyai" (PDF). UBB (in Romanian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-08.
  41. ^ Padurean, Claudiu (10 March 2006). "UBB isi consolideaza pozitia in mediul academic romanesc". Romania Libera (in Romanian).
  42. ^ Padurean, Claudiu; Sarbu, Daniel (1 December 2006). "Scandalul placutelor de la UBB a provocat demisia a doi prorectori". HotNews.ro (in Romanian).
  43. ^ a b c Tharan-Trieb, Marianne (17 January 2007). "Sacked Hungarian lecturers fail to get re-instated" (PDF). Eurolang.
  44. ^ a b "Hungary asks Romania to reinstate 2 ethnic Hungarian professors expelled by university" (PDF). Associated Press.
  45. ^ McCall, Becky (23 February 2007). "Motion supports sacked lecturer" (PDF). The Times.
  46. ^ "Doi profesori universitari din Cluj dau în judecată statul român la Strasbourg". Ziua de Cluj (in Romanian). 30 April 2008.[permanent dead link]
  47. ^ "Justitia a stabilit: Inlaturarea lui Hantz Peter si Kovacs Lehel din cadrul UBB a fost legala". Ziare.com (in Romanian). 1 December 2008.
  48. ^ a b Leonte, Loredana (8 November 2010). ""Maghiarii forţează nota!" Integritatea UBB-ului, pusă în pericol de legea educaţiei!". Cotidianul Transilvan (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  49. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-15. Retrieved 2015-08-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]