Babes in the Wood
Babes in the Wood is a traditional English children's tale, as well as a popular pantomime subject. It has also been the name of some other unrelated works. The expression has passed into common language, referring to inexperienced innocents entering unawares into any potentially dangerous or hostile situation. A number of child murder cases have been referred to in the media as the Babes in the Wood murders.
It was first published as an anonymous broadside ballad by Thomas Millington in Norwich in 1595 with the title "The Norfolk gent his will and Testament and howe he Commytted the keepinge of his Children to his own brother whoe delte most wickedly with them and howe God plagued him for it".
The tale has been reworked in many forms; it frequently appears attributed as a Mother Goose rhyme. Starting around 1840, The Babes in the Wood; or, the Norfolk Tragedy, was included in The Ingoldsby Legends, an exceptionally popular miscellany of folklore and poetry, reprinted throughout the nineteenth century. The tale's endnote alludes to "Bloomfield's [sic] History of Norfolk", but that work's Wayland section does not mention it. The anonymous ballad was also illustrated by Randolph Caldecott in a book published in London in 1879.
The story tells of two small children left in the care of an uncle and aunt after their parents' death. The uncle gives the children to ruffians to be killed, in order to acquire their inheritance, telling his wife they are being sent to London for their upbringing. The murderers fall out, and the milder of the two kills the other. He tells the children he will return with provisions, but they do not see him again. The children wander alone in the woods until they die; their bodies are covered with leaves by the birds. Like many morality tales, the story continues with a description of the retribution befalling the uncle. In sanitized versions, the children are bodily taken to Heaven. The story ends with a warning to those who have to take care of orphans and others' children not to inflict God's wrath upon themselves. The story is also used as a basis for pantomimes. However, for various reasons including both the brevity of the original and the target pantomime audience of young children, modern pantomimes by this name usually combine this story with parts of the modern Robin Hood story (employing the supporting characters from it, such as Maid Marian, rather than Robin himself) to lengthen it.
Fox Film produced a 36-minute short of the story, The Babes in the Woods, adapted by screenwriter Bernard McConville in 1917. Fox's treatment included a wicked witch and a house of candy, elements borrowed from the Hansel and Gretel folk story. This film provides a happy ending for the children, with Robin Hood and his company rescuing them in the end.
The Walt Disney Company re-worked this tale for their 1932 short animated film Babes in the Woods, incorporating some material from Hansel and Gretel by the Brothers Grimm, and adding a village of friendly elves (a feature not traditionally present in either tale) and a happy ending.
Other Cultural References
The 1915 Broadway musical Very Good Eddie featured a song entitled "Babes in the Wood" by composer Jerome Kern and lyricist Schuyler Greene. Main character Eddie Kettle comforts former love Elsie Darling in a duet in which each refers to the traditional tale.
Eddie: Then put on your little hood, And we'll both be, Oh, so good! Like the babes in the wood.
Elsie: When the babes were lost in the gloomy wood, It's no wonder they were so very good. Fourteen angels were watching them, So all the story books state, Sandman's coming now, it is getting late.
Folklore has it that the events told in Babes in the Wood originally happened in Wayland Wood in Norfolk, England. It is said that the uncle lived at the nearby Griston Hall. The ghosts of the murdered children are said to haunt Wayland Wood. The village signs at Griston and nearby Watton depict the story. In the folklore version, the uncle resents the task and pays two men to take the children into the woods and kill them. Finding themselves unable to go through with the act, the criminals abandon the children in the wood where, unable to fend for themselves, they eventually die.
Another version, from Lancashire, has it that the tale is based on real events of 1374, when "the villainous Robert de Holland" illegally seized the land of 13 year-old Roger de Langley and his young bride. The children flee to the nearby woods and are cared for by loyal retainers until they are rescued by their legal guardian John of Gaunt.
There is a song that seems to deal with the story that is also named "babes in the woods". It is a summary rather than a detailed telling.
- Opie, I and Opie, P.: The Oxford Book of Narrative Verse, Oxford University Press, 1983, page 387.
- "The Ingoldsby Legends - The Babes in the Wood; or, The Norfolk Tragedy". www.exclassics.com. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
- "Norfolk Folk Tales – Legends said to have originated in Norfolk". Visit Breckland. Breckland District Council. Archived from the original on 4 March 2007.
- Langley, Peter (July 2002). "Origin of the name Langley". Retrieved 3 May 2022.
- "Babes in the Wood". Norfolk Myths. Archived from the original on 4 February 2005. Retrieved 14 March 2005.
- "Babes in the Wood Lyrics". Mama Lisa's World Song Lyrics Around the World. Retrieved 14 March 2005.
- "The Babes in the Wood". The Phrase Finder. Archived from the original on 27 March 2005. Retrieved 14 March 2005. This includes the text of the Thomas Millington ballad.
- "Babes in the Wood". Nursery Rhymes. Archived from the original on 15 March 2005. Retrieved 14 March 2005. This is the Mother Goose rhyme.
- "Babes in the Wood". Tom Wilkins, The Encyclopaedia of Disney Animated Shorts. Archived from the original on 22 February 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2005.
- The Babes in the Wood PDF with Lesson Plans
- The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Babes in the Wood, with illustrations by R. Caldecott
- The Babes in the Wood The Babes in the Wood song lyrics with illustrations
- The history of English pantomime
- History of the story and its descendent versions
- The Abandoned Children of Wailing Wood Animated and narrated version of the legend
- Multiple fully online versions of Babes in the Wood from the University of Florida's Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature
- Alternative origin for the Babes in the Wood Legend Agecroft Hall, near Prestwich, England)
- babesinthewoods.skyrock.com (in French)