Babil Governorate or Babylon Province (Arabic: بابل Bābil) is a governorate in central Iraq. It has an area of 5,603 square kilometres (2,163 sq mi), with an estimated population of 1,385,783 people in 2003. The provincial capital is the city of Hillah, which lies opposite the ancient city of Babylon (بابل), on the Euphrates river.
The city was occupied from the 3rd millennium BC but became important early in the 2nd millennium under the kings of the First Dynasty of Babylon. The sixth king of this dynasty was Hammurabi (1792–1750 BC) who made Babylon the capital of a vast empire and is best remembered for his code of laws.
Babylon province is located between 32° to 33.25° North latitude and 44° to 45° East longitude. The area is arid to semi-arid and its mean annual rainfall is highly varied ranging from 50 millimetres (2 in) or less to 200 millimetres (8 in). Temperatures in the summer can reach as high as 50°C, and winters are generally mild.