Baby Face Nelson
|Baby Face Nelson|
December 6, 1908|
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||November 27, 1934
Wilmette, Illinois, U.S.
|Occupation||Gangster, bank robber|
|Children||Ronald and Darlene|
Lester Joseph Gillis (December 6, 1908 – November 27, 1934), known under the pseudonym George Nelson, was an American bank robber in the 1930s. Gillis was better known as Baby Face Nelson, a name given to him due to his youthful appearance and small stature. Usually referred to by criminal associates as "Jimmy", Nelson entered into a partnership with John Dillinger, helping him escape from prison in the famed Crown Point, Indiana Jail escape, and was later labeled along with the remaining gang members as public enemy number one.
Nelson was responsible for the murder of several people, and killed more FBI agents in the line of duty than any other person — three. Nelson was shot by FBI agents and died after a shootout often termed The Battle of Barrington.
July 4, 1921, at the age of twelve, Nelson was arrested after accidentally shooting a playmate in the jaw with a pistol he had found. He served over a year in the state reformatory. Arrested again for theft and joyriding at age 13, he was sent to a penal school for an additional 18 months.
In 1928 Nelson met and married Helen Wawzynak. The couple had two children. By the time he met Helen, Nelson was working at a Standard Oil station in his neighborhood that was the headquarters of young tire thieves, known as "strippers". After falling in with them, Nelson became acquainted with many local criminals, including one who gave him a job driving bootleg alcohol throughout the Chicago suburbs. It was through this job that Nelson became associated with members of the suburban-based Touhy Gang (not the Capone mob, as usually reported). Within two years, Nelson and his gang had graduated to armed robbery. On January 6, 1930, they invaded the home of magazine executive Charles M. Richter. After trussing him up with adhesive tape and cutting the phone lines, they ransacked the house and made off with $25,000 worth of jewelry (equivalent to approximately $352,938 in 2015 dollars). Two months later, they carried out a similar theft in the Sheridan Road bungalow of Lottie Brenner Von Buelow. This job netted $50,000 in jewels, including the wedding ring of the bank's owner. Chicago newspapers nicknamed them "The Tape Bandits."
On April 21, 1930, Nelson robbed his first bank, making off with $4,000. A month later, Nelson and his gang pulled their home invasion scheme again, netting $25,000 worth of jewels. On October 3 of that year, Nelson hit the Itasca State Bank for $4,600; a teller later identified Nelson as one of the robbers. Three nights later, Nelson stole the jewelry of the wife of Chicago mayor Big Bill Thompson, valued at $18,000. She later described her attacker this way, "He had a baby face. He was good looking, hardly more than a boy, had dark hair and was wearing a gray topcoat and a brown felt hat, turned down brim." Years later, Nelson and his crew were linked to a botched roadhouse robbery in Summit, Illinois on November 23, 1930. In the resulting gunfight, three people were killed and three more wounded. Three nights later, Nelson's gang robbed a Waukegan Road tavern, and Nelson ended up committing his first murder of note, when he shot and killed a stockbroker named Edwin R. Thompson.
Throughout the winter of 1931, most of the Tape Bandits were rounded up, including Nelson. The Chicago Tribune referred to their leader as "George 'Baby Face' Nelson" who received a sentence of one year to life in the state penitentiary at Joliet. In February 1932, Nelson escaped during a prison transfer. Through his contacts in the Touhy Gang, Nelson fled west and took shelter with Reno gambler/crime boss William Graham. Using the alias of "Jimmy Johnson", Nelson wound up in Sausalito, California, working for bootlegger Joe Parente. During these San Francisco Bay area criminal ventures, Nelson most probably first met John Paul Chase and Fatso Negri, two men who were at his side during the later half of his career. While in Reno the next winter, Nelson first met the vacationing Alvin Karpis, who in turn introduced him to Midwestern bank robber Eddie Bentz. Teaming with Bentz, Nelson returned to the Midwest the next summer and committed his first major bank robbery in Grand Haven, Michigan on August 18, 1933. The robbery was a near-disaster, even though most of those involved made a clean getaway.
The Grand Haven bank job apparently convinced Nelson he was ready to lead his own gang. Through connections in St. Paul's Green Lantern Tavern, Nelson recruited Homer Van Meter, Tommy Carroll, and Eddie Green. With these men (and two other local thieves), Nelson robbed the First National Bank of Brainerd, Minnesota of $32,000 on October 23, 1933 (equivalent to approximately $582,992 in 2015 dollars). Witnesses reported that Nelson wildly sprayed sub-machine gun bullets at bystanders as he made his getaway. After collecting his wife Helen and four-year-old son Ronald, Nelson left with his crew for San Antonio, Texas. While here, Nelson and his gang bought several weapons from underworld gunsmith Hyman Lehman. One of those weapons was a .38 Colt automatic pistol that had been modified to fire fully automatic (Nelson used this same gun to murder Special Agent W. Carter Baum at Little Bohemia Lodge several months later).
By December 9, a local woman tipped San Antonio police to the nearby presence of "high powered Northern gangsters". Two days later, Tommy Carroll was cornered by two detectives and opened fire, killing Detective H.C. Perrin and wounding Detective Al Hartman. All the Nelson gang, except for Nelson, fled San Antonio. Nelson and his wife traveled west to the San Francisco Bay Area, where he recruited John Paul Chase and Fatso Negri for a new wave of bank robberies in the coming spring.
Partnership with John Dillinger
On March 3, 1934, John Dillinger made his famous "wooden pistol" escape from the jail in Crown Point, Indiana. Although the details remain in some dispute, the escape is suspected to have been arranged and financed by members of Nelson's newly formed gang, including Homer Van Meter, Tommy Carroll, Eddie Green, and John "Red" Hamilton, with the understanding that Dillinger would repay some part of the bribe money out of his share of the first robbery. The night Dillinger arrived in the Twin Cities, Nelson and his friend John Paul Chase were driving when they were cut off by a car driven by a local paint salesman named Theodore Kidder. Nelson lost his temper and gave chase, crowding Kidder to the curb. When the salesman got out to protest, Nelson fatally shot him.
Two days after this, the new gang (with Hamilton's participation as the sixth man uncertain) struck the Security National Bank at Sioux Falls, South Dakota. In the robbery, which netted around $49,000 (figures differ slightly), Nelson severely wounded motorcycle policeman Hale Keith with a burst of sub-machine-gun fire as the officer was arriving at the scene.
The six men were soon identified as "the Second Dillinger gang", due to Dillinger's extreme notoriety, but the gang had no official leader. On March 13, one week after the robbery in Sioux Falls, the gang robbed the First National Bank in Mason City, Iowa. Dillinger and Hamilton both were shot and wounded in the robbery, where they made away with $52,000. On April 3, federal agents ambushed and killed Eddie Green, though he was unarmed and they were uncertain of his identity. In the aftermath of the Mason City robbery, Nelson and John Paul Chase fled west to Reno, where their old bosses Bill Graham and Jim McKay were fighting a federal mail fraud case. Years later, the FBI determined that, on March 22, 1934, Nelson and Chase abducted and killed the chief witness against the pair, Roy Fritsch. Fritsch's quartered body, while never found, was said to have been thrown down an abandoned mine shaft.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2012)|
On the afternoon of April 20, Nelson, Dillinger, Van Meter, Carroll, Hamilton, and gang associate (errand-runner) Pat Reilly, accompanied by Nelson's wife Helen and three girlfriends of the other men, arrived at the secluded Little Bohemia Lodge in Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin, for a weekend of rest. The gang's connection to the resort apparently came from the past dealings between Dillinger's attorney, Louis Piquett, and lodge owner Emil Wanatka. Though gang members greeted him by name, Wanatka maintained that he was unaware of their identities until some time on Friday night. According to Bryan Burrough's book Public Enemies: America's Greatest Crime Wave and the Birth of the FBI, 1933–34, this most likely happened when Wanatka was playing cards with Dillinger, Nelson, and Hamilton. When Dillinger won a round and raked in the pot, Wanatka caught a glimpse of Dillinger's pistol concealed in his coat, and noticed that Nelson and the others also had shoulder holsters.
The following day, while she was away from the lodge with her young son at a children's birthday party, Wanatka's wife informed a friend, Henry Voss, that the Dillinger gang was at the lodge, and the F.B.I. was subsequently given the tip early on April 22. Melvin Purvis and a number of agents arrived by plane from Chicago, and with the gang's departure imminent, attacked the lodge quickly and with little preparation, and without notifying or obtaining help from local authorities.
Wanatka offered a one-dollar dinner special on Sunday nights, and the last of a crowd estimated at 75 were leaving as the agents arrived in the front driveway. A 1933 Chevrolet coupé was leaving at that moment with three departing lodge customers, John Hoffman, Eugene Boisneau and John Morris, who apparently did not hear an order to halt because the car radio drowned out the agents yelling at them to stop. The agents quickly opened fire on them, instantly killing Boisneau and wounding the others, and alerting the gang members inside.
Adding to the chaos, at this moment Pat Reilly returned to the lodge after an out-of-town errand for Van Meter, accompanied by one of the gang's girlfriends, Pat Cherrington. Accosted by the agents, Reilly and Cherrington backed out and escaped under fire, after a number of misfortunes.
Dillinger, Van Meter, Hamilton, and Carroll immediately escaped through the back of the lodge, which was unguarded, and made their way north on foot through woods and past a lake to commandeer a car and a driver at a resort a mile away. Carroll was not far behind them. He made it to Manitowish and stole a car, making it uneventfully to St. Paul.
Nelson, who had been outside the lodge in the adjacent cabin characteristically attacked the raiding party head on, exchanging fire with Purvis, before retreating into the lodge under a return volley from other agents. From there he slipped out the back and fled in the opposite direction from the others. Emerging from the woods ninety minutes later, a mile away from Little Bohemia, Nelson kidnapped the Lange couple from their home and ordered them to drive him away. Apparently dissatisfied with the car's speed, he quickly ordered them to pull up at a brightly lit house where the switchboard operator, Alvin Koerner, aware of the ongoing events, quickly phoned authorities at one of the involved lodges to report a suspicious vehicle in front of his home. Shortly after Nelson had entered the home, taking the Koerners hostage, Emil Wanatka arrived with his brother-in-law George LaPorte and a lodge employee (while a fourth man remained in the car) and were also taken prisoner. Nelson ordered Koerner and Wanatka back into their vehicle, where the fourth man remained unnoticed in the back seat.
As they were preparing to leave, with Wanatka driving at gunpoint, another car arrived with two federal agents – W. Carter Baum and Jay Newman, and a local constable, Carl Christensen. Nelson asked the agents who they were and upon the agents identifying themselves, Nelson quickly opened fire with a custom-converted machine gun pistol, severely wounding Christensen and Newman and killing Baum, shot three times in the neck. Nelson was later quoted as having said that Baum had him "cold" and couldn't understand why he hadn't fired. It was found that the safety catch on Baum's gun was on.
Nelson then stole the FBI car. Less than 15 miles away, the car suffered a flat tire and finally became mired in mud as Nelson attempted unsuccessfully to change it. Back on foot, he wandered into the woods and took up residence with a Chippewa family in their secluded cabin for several days before making his final escape in another commandeered vehicle.
Three of the women who had accompanied the gang, including Nelson's wife Helen Gillis, were captured inside the lodge. After grueling interrogation by the F.B.I., the three were ultimately convicted on harboring charges and released on parole.
With an agent and an innocent bystander dead, and four more severely wounded, including two more innocent bystanders, and the complete escape of the Dillinger gang, the F.B.I came under severe criticism, with calls for J. Edgar Hoover's resignation and a widely circulated petition demanding Purvis' suspension.
Nelson as public enemy #1
At the time of the Little Bohemia shootout, Nelson's identity as a member of the Dillinger gang had been known to the F.B.I. for only two weeks. Following the killing of Baum, Nelson became nationally notorious and was made a high-priority target of the Bureau. The focus on him and the murdered agent also served to deflect some of the intense criticism directed at Hoover and Purvis following the Little Bohemia debacle.
A day after the Little Bohemia raid, Dillinger, Hamilton, and Van Meter ran through a police road block near Hastings, Minnesota, drawing fire from officers there. A ricocheting bullet struck Hamilton in the back, fatally wounding him. Hamilton reportedly died in hiding on April 30 or May 1, 1934, and was secretly buried by Dillinger and others including Nelson, who had rejoined the gang in Aurora, Illinois.
On June 7, gang member Tommy Carroll was killed when trying to escape arrest in Waterloo, Iowa. Carroll and his girlfriend Jean Crompton (who had been captured and tried with Helen Gillis after Little Bohemia) had grown close to the Nelsons, and his death was a personal blow to them. The couple went into hiding during the ensuing weeks, and although they were in the Chicago area, their precise movements in this period remain obscure. The Nelsons reportedly lived in various tourist camps, while continuing to secretly meet with family members whenever possible.
On the morning of June 30, Nelson, Dillinger, Van Meter, and one or more additional accomplices robbed the Merchants National Bank in South Bend, Indiana. One man involved in the robbery is believed to have possibly been Pretty Boy Floyd, based on several eyewitness identifications as well as the later account of Joseph "Fatso" Negri, an old Nelson associate from California who was serving as a gofer to the gang at this time. Another rumored participant was Nelson's childhood friend Jack Perkins, also an associate of the gang at that time. (Perkins was later tried for the robbery and acquitted).
When the robbery began, a policeman named Howard Wagner had been directing traffic outside; responding quickly to the scene and attempting to draw his gun, he was shot dead by Van Meter, who was stationed outside the bank. Also outside the bank, Nelson exchanged fire with a local jeweler, Harry Berg, who had shot him in the chest - ineffectively, because of Nelson's bullet-proof vest. As Berg retreated into his store under a return volley from Nelson, a man in a parked car was wounded. Nelson also grappled briefly with a teenage boy, Joseph Pawlowski, who tackled him until Nelson (or Van Meter) stunned Powlowski with a blow from his gun. When Dillinger and the man identified as Floyd (unconfirmed) emerged from the bank with sacks containing $28,000, they brought three hostages with them (including the bank president) to deter gunfire from three patrolmen on the scene. The policemen fired nonetheless, wounding two of the hostages before grazing Van Meter in the head. The gang escaped, and Van Meter recovered. In the constant and chaotic exchange of gunfire, several other bystanders were wounded by shots, ricochets, or flying broken glass. It proved to be the last confirmed robbery for all of the known and suspected participants, including Floyd (unconfirmed).
During the month of July, as the FBI manhunt for him continued, Nelson and his wife fled to California with associate John Paul Chase, who remained with Nelson for the rest of his life. Upon their return to Chicago on July 15, the gang held a reunion meeting at a favorite rendezvous site. When the meeting was interrupted by two Illinois state troopers, Fred McAllister and Gilbert Cross, Nelson fired on their vehicle with his converted "machine gun pistol", wounding both men as the gangsters retreated. Cross was badly injured, but both men survived. Nelson's responsibility was uncertain until verification came later in the form of a confession from Chase.
On July 22, 1934, Dillinger was ambushed and killed by FBI agents outside the Biograph Theater in Lincoln Park, Chicago. The next day the FBI announced that "Pretty Boy" Floyd was now Public Enemy No. 1. On October 22, 1934, Floyd was killed in a shootout with agents including Melvin Purvis. Subsequently, J. Edgar Hoover announced that "Baby Face" Nelson was now Public Enemy No. 1.
On August 23, Van Meter was ambushed and killed by police in St. Paul, Minnesota, leaving Nelson as the sole survivor of the so-called "Second Dillinger Gang".
In the ensuing months, Nelson and his wife, usually accompanied by Chase, drifted west to cities including Sacramento and San Francisco, California and Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada. They often stayed in auto camps, including Walley's Hot Springs, outside of Genoa, Nevada, where they hid out from October 1 before returning to Chicago around November 1. Nelson's movements during the final month of his life are largely unknown.
By the end of the month, FBI interest had settled on a former hideout of Nelson's, the Lake Como Inn in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, where it was believed that Nelson might return for the winter. When the Nelsons and Chase did return to the inn on November 27, they briefly came face to face with surprised and unprepared FBI agents who had staked it out. The fugitives sped away before any shots were fired. Armed with a description of the car (a black Ford V8) and its license plate number (639-578), agents swarmed into the area.
A short but furious gun battle between FBI agents and Nelson took place on November 27, 1934, outside Chicago in the town of Barrington, resulting in the deaths of Nelson and Federal Agents Herman "Ed" Hollis and Samuel P. Cowley.
On the morning of November 27, Nelson, along with Helen Gillis and John Paul Chase, headed south in a stolen V8 Ford towards Chicago on then State Highway 12. Nelson, always keen to spot federal agents, caught sight of a sedan driven in the opposite direction by agents Thomas McDade and William Ryan. The agents and the outlaw simultaneously recognized each other and after several U-turns by both vehicles, Nelson wound up in pursuit of the agents' car. When Nelson's powerful Ford caught up to the agents' weaker sedan, Nelson and Chase fired at the agents. Ryan and McDade returned fire sped up then pulled into a field and awaited Nelson and Chase, who had stopped pursuing. McDade and Ryan were unaware that one of their shots had punctured the water pump of Nelson's Ford. With Nelson's Ford rapidly losing power a Hudson automobile driven by two more agents: Herman Hollis (who had been one of the agents who fired the fatal shots that killed Dillinger the previous July) and Cowley began pursuing the Ford.
With his pursuers attempting to pull alongside, Nelson had Helen Gillis, who was driving, swerve into the entrance of Barrington's North Side Park and stop. Hollis and Cowley overshot Nelson's car by over 100 feet (30 m), and stopped at an angle. Upon exiting their vehicle's passenger door, the agents took cover behind the car. The ensuing shootout was witnessed by more than dozen people.
Just after ordering Helen Gillis to take cover in a nearby ditch, Nelson and Chase opened fire on the agents with a Colt Monitor machine rifle and a Thompson submachine gun, respectively. Both Cowley and Hollis returned fire from behind their vehicle. A single .45 slug from Cowley's machine gun struck Nelson in the abdomen, slicing through the liver and pancreas before exiting the lower back. Nelson leaned on the Ford's running board, then swapped out his jamming Thompson for a .351 Winchester rifle. Despite his wound, Nelson moved from behind the car and advanced toward the agents while firing the customized to fully automatic Winchester. Two of his bullets struck Cowley in the chest and stomach, knocking him over. Buckshot pellets from Hollis's shotgun then struck Nelson in the legs and knocked him down. As Nelson regained his feet, Hollis, possibly already wounded, moved to better cover behind a utility pole. As he drew his service pistol, Hollis was mortally wounded by a round to the head. Nelson staggered over Hollis's body, aimed his smoking rifle at the agent's fallen form for a moment then limped toward the agents' Hudson. Nelson drove the car next to the disabled Ford. After loading the agents' car with the Ford's guns and supplies, Nelson let Chase get behind the wheel of the agents' car and the two men and Helen Gillis fled the scene. Nelson had been shot a total of seventeen times; nine bullets had struck his torso and eight of Hollis's shotgun pellets had hit his legs. The only mortal wound was the round that tore into his side at the gun battle's start. After telling his wife "I'm done for", Nelson gave directions as Chase drove them to a safe house on Walnut Street in Wilmette. Nelson died in bed with his wife at his side, at 7:35 p.m.
Hollis was pronounced dead soon after arriving at the hospital. At a different hospital, Cowley lived for long enough to confer briefly with Melvin Purvis and have surgery, before succumbing to a stomach wound similar to Nelson's. Following a telephone tip from a Chicago Telephone Company employee, Carl Fyhrie, who was working on the telephone lines and saw a body on the ground, Nelson's body was discovered wrapped in a Native American patterned blanket by FBI agent Walter Walsh, in front of St. Peter Catholic Cemetery in Skokie, which still exists. Helen Gillis later stated that she had placed the blanket around Nelson's body because, "He always hated being cold..."
Newspapers then reported, based on the questionable wording of an order from J. Edgar Hoover ("...find the woman and give her no quarter"), that the FBI had issued a "death order" for Nelson's widow, who wandered the streets of Chicago as a fugitive for several days, described in print as America's first female "public enemy". After surrendering on Thanksgiving Day, Helen Gillis, who had been paroled after capture at Little Bohemia, served a year in prison for harboring her husband. Chase was apprehended later and served a term at Alcatraz.
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The predominant image of Baby Face Nelson as a short statured psychopathic man with a Napoleonic complex is undoubtedly unrealistic and overly simplified. Even though Nelson appeared the antithesis of popular, Robin Hood-like gangsters of the Depression era, e.g. John Dillinger and Pretty Boy Floyd, he most likely did not have a psychopathic personality but exhibited psychopathic traits only.
Without much doubt, Nelson was a volatile hot-tempered man who had a pathological hatred of lawmen; however, even though he was accused of killing civilians, Nelson appears never to have gone out of his way to do so.
For example, when Nelson asked agent W. Carter Baum to identify himself, and Agent Baum stated he and the two other men he was riding with in the car were lawmen only then did Nelson spray their car with machine-gun fire. Another example of Nelson not deliberately killing civilians is the March 6, 1934 robbery of the Security National Bank & Trust Company in Sioux Falls. Nelson had become enraged by the sound of the alarm, demanding to know who set the alarm off. Upon seeing police officer Hale Keith pull up on a motorcycle alongside the bank, Nelson had leaped onto a railing and fired a burst through a plate glass window, striking Keith four times and severely wounding the police man. He reportedly screamed "I got one!" after shooting Keith. Nelson could have killed any bank employee he thought might have set off the alarm but he didn't.
As far as his short stature instituting feeling of inferiority, it is quite possible Nelson had a short man's complex; however, Nelson was just below the average height of a man at that time. Whether suffering a complex about his height or not, feeling guilt over the killing of strangers was not a preoccupation Nelson indulged in. Furthermore, unlike the other gangsters Nelson associated with, Nelson paradoxically was a devoted family man who often had his wife and children with him while running from the law.
On his death bed, Nelson's wife said that he cried for his children and experienced remorse at leaving their young lives so soon.
Nelson has been portrayed in multiple films. These include:
- Baby Face Nelson, a 1957 film starring Mickey Rooney
- The FBI Story, a 1959 film starring James Stewart, with William Phipps as Nelson
- Dillinger, a 1973 film featuring Richard Dreyfuss as Nelson. In this film the shootout between Nelson and FBI Agents Cowley and Hollis is depicted as taking place during the Little Bohemia raid.
- Baby Face Nelson, a 1995 film starring C. Thomas Howell
- O Brother, Where Art Thou?, a 2000 film featuring Michael Badalucco as Nelson. When he last appears he is being taken by an angry mob to meet his death in the electric chair. The film is set in Mississippi in 1937, three years after the real Nelson's death.
- Public Enemies, a 2009 film starring American actor Johnny Depp, with Stephen Graham as Nelson. In this film, Nelson is portrayed as being killed by Melvin Purvis at the Little Bohemia shootout, and thus does not become Public Enemy Number One after Dillinger's death. However, the film still portrays Nelson as getting up and continuing to fire immediately after being shot several times.
- A character in the musical Bugsy Malone (1976), one of the 'Down and Outs', is named "Baby Face"
- Nickel, Steven; William J. Helmer (2002). Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House. pp. 13–14. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Bryan Burrough. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press, pg.98 ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
- Voorhees, Donal (May 3, 2001). The Indispensable Book of Useless Information: Just When You Thought It Couldn't Get Any More Useless--It Does. Penguin. p. 221. ISBN 0-399-53668-X.
- Stewart, Tony. Dillinger, the Hidden Truth - Reloaded. p. 396.
- Burrough, p. 99.
- "Nelson Arrested as Thief When 13." New York Times. November 29, 1934. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- "Baby Face" Nelson FBI Website
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- Burrough, pp. 175-76.
- Burrough, pp. 176, 319.
- Burrough, pp. 175-78.
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- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 150–167. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Burrough, Bryan. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press, pp. 234–247, ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing. p. 169. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 170–79. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Burrough, Bryan. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press, pp. 274–278, ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
- Burrough, p. 259.
- Cromie, Ronert; and Pinkston, Joseph. (1962) Dillinger: A Short And Violent Life. Chicago Historical Bookworks, pp. 207–230. ISBN 978-0-924772-06-1.
- Nickel, Steven; William J. Helmer (2002). Baby Face Nelson: Portrait of a Public Enemy. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 203–255. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 236–237, 250–251, 263–264. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 239–246. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing. p. 240. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Cromie, Ronert; and Pinkston, Joseph. (1962) Dillinger: A Short And Violent Life. Chicago Historical Bookworks, pp. 207-230. ISBN 978-0-924772-06-1.
- Nickel, Steven; William J. Helmer (2002). Baby Face Nelson: Portrait of a Public Enemy. Cumberland House Publishing. p. 222. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing. p. 256. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 272–273. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Cromie, Ronert; and Pinkston, Joseph. (1962) Dillinger: A Short And Violent Life. Chicago Historical Bookworks, pp. 245–246. ISBN 978-0-924772-06-1.
- Burrough, Bryan. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press. pp. 382-383 ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
- Burrough, Bryan. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press. p. 383, ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 289–302. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Burrough, Bryan. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press. pp. 384-387, ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 305–306. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 308–309. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Burrough, p. 453
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 311–338. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 334–342. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Nickel, Steven; William J. Helmer (2002). Baby Face Nelson: Portrait of a Public Enemy. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 341–360. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
- Special Agent Herman E. Hollis. Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- Inspector Samuel P. Cowley. Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- "CRACK AGENT TAKES CHARGE.; Washington Orders H.H. Clegg to Direct Nelson Chase." New York Times. November 28, 1934. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- "Blasting a G-Man Myth". Time Magazine. September 24, 1979. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- Burrough, p. 482.
- "Wife Lying in Ditch Saw Nelson Shot." New York Times. December 6, 1934. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J., Baby Face Nelson, Cumberland House, 2002, p. 364
- "'Kill Widow Of Baby Face!', U.S. Orders Gang Hunters". Chicago Herald-Examiner. November 30, 1934.
- Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House, 2002, pp. 343–363.
- "Baby Face Nelson". Find a Grave. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- Alan Gevinson (1997). Within Our Gates: Ethnicity in American Feature Films, 1911-1960. University of California Press. p. 327. ISBN 978-0-520-20964-0.
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