Baby, It's Cold Outside
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"Baby, It's Cold Outside" is a song written by Frank Loesser in 1944. It is a call and response duet in which one of the singers (usually performed by a male voice) attempts to convince a guest (usually performed by a female voice) that they should stay together for a romantic evening because the weather is cold and the trip home would be difficult.
Originally recorded for the film Neptune's Daughter, it has been recorded by many artists since its original release.
In the early part of its history, the song was seen as presenting a liberating stand for women because the guest decides to stay despite what the neighbors might say about her reputation; however, in the 2000s, critiques of the song have highlighted other parts of the lyrics such as "What's in this drink?" and his unrelenting pressure to stay despite her repeated statement of her desire to go home.
Loesser wrote the duet in 1944 and premiered the song with his wife, Lynn Garland, at their Navarro Hotel housewarming party, and performed it toward the end of the evening, signifying to guests that it was nearly time to end the party. Frank would introduce himself as the "Evil of Two Loessers," a play on the theme of the song, trying to keep the girl from leaving. Garland considered it "their song" and was furious when Loesser sold the song to MGM.
The lyrics in this duet are designed to be heard as a conversation between two people, identified as "mouse" and "wolf" on the printed score; they have returned to the wolf's home after a date, and the mouse decides it is time to go home, but the wolf flirtatiously invites the mouse to stay as it is late and "it's cold outside." The mouse wants to stay and enjoy herself/himself, but feels obligated to return home, worried what family and neighbors will think if s/he stays. Every line in the song features a statement from the mouse followed by a response from the wolf. Although the two roles in the duet are often considered to be gender-specific, with the wolf being male and the mouse being female, in the original theatrical release in 1949, there were versions of the song with these roles reversed.
As a duet, the lyrics form a conversation with observations by the "mouse" and interjections by the "wolf." In recent years, there has been criticism of the song, stemming from a modernistic reading of the wolf-mouse dynamic as being sexually predatory. Some commentators perceive the lyrics as the "mouse" as genuinely wanting to leave but being stopped by the "wolf" being coercive in his pleading. These readers cite certain lines as being questionable, including "I simply must go," "The answer is no," "I've got to go home." At the time the song was written and for sometime after, however, it was not socially acceptable for women to agree to spend the night with a man to whom they were not married and the words "I ought to say no, no, no" refer to the social mores which the woman in the song wishes to ignore.
In 1948, after years of informally performing the song at various parties, Loesser sold its rights to MGM, which inserted the song into its 1949 motion picture, Neptune's Daughter. The film featured two performances of the song: one by Ricardo Montalbán and Esther Williams and the other by Red Skelton and Betty Garrett, the second of which has the roles of wolf and mouse reversed. These performances earned Loesser an Academy Award for Best Original Song.
The song "debuted," with slightly different lyrics, at the Oscar ceremony via a performance by Mae West and Rock Hudson. In at least one published version the tempo of the song is given as "Loesserando," a humorous reference to the composer's name.
The following versions were recorded in 1949:
- The song in its original form was released on the soundtrack for Neptune's Daughter sung by Ricardo Montalban and Esther Williams.
- The recording by Dinah Shore and Buddy Clark was recorded on March 17 and released by Columbia Records as catalog number 38463. It first reached the Billboard Best Seller chart on May 6, 1949, and lasted 19 weeks on the chart, peaking at number four.
- The recording by Margaret Whiting and Johnny Mercer was recorded on March 18 and released by Capitol Records as catalog number 567. It first reached the Billboard Best Seller chart on May 6, 1949, and lasted 19 weeks on the chart, peaking at number four.
- The recording by Don Cornell and Laura Leslie with the Sammy Kaye orchestra was recorded on April 12 and released by RCA Victor Records as catalog number 20-3448. It first reached the Billboard Best Seller chart on June 24, 1949, and lasted 10 weeks on the chart, peaking at number 13.
- The recording by Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Jordan was recorded on April 28 and released by Decca Records as catalog number 24644. It first reached the Billboard magazine Best Seller chart on June 17, 1949 and lasted seven weeks on the chart, peaking at number 17.
- A parody recording was made by Homer and Jethro with June Carter; it went to number 9 on the country charts and number 22 on the pop charts.
- Non-charting recordings were made:
Other recordings and performances
"Baby, It's Cold Outside" has been recorded by numerous other artists over the years. At least five different versions of the song have made at least one singles chart in the United States.
- Bob Hope and Doris Day sang the song live on his radio program on June 6, 1949, but did not record it commercially.
- Sammy Davis, Jr. and Carmen McRae recorded the duet in 1957 as part of their collaborative album, Boy Meets Girl.
- Dean Martin recorded the song for his 1959 album A Winter Romance. On this version the part of the "mouse" is sung by Marilyn Maxwell. (Another recording with Dean Martin singing the song, would be re-recorded posthumously in 2002 as a tribute)
- The 1961 Ray Charles/Betty Carter version is the first of two versions to chart on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart (1958 to present) and the only one for over forty-eight years; it peaked at number 91 in March 1962. This version was used in the 1990s on the program A Different World, in which a husband and wife lip sync to the recording as a means of flirtation.
- Joanie Sommers recorded a solo version of the tune on her 1963 album Sommers' Seasons.
- In 1967, Skeeter Davis and Don Bowman released a humorous version as the b-side of their single 'For Loving You.'
- In 1979, Blossom Dearie recorded it with Bob Dorough (Needlepoint Magic – Daffodil Records)
- Ray Charles also sang this duet with Dionne Warwick at the 1987 Grammy Awards.
- Bette Midler and James Caan sang the duet in the 1991 film For the Boys, which was also included on the film's soundtrack.
- The song is also on Robert Palmer's 1992 album Ridin' High. He performs it with Carnie Wilson of Wilson Phillips.
- Vanessa Williams and rhythm and blues/jazz performer Bobby Caldwell featured the song on Williams' first holiday album, Star Bright.
- Liza Minnelli & Alan Cumming recorded it for the Broadway Christmas album Home for the Holidays.
- Bebe Neuwirth and John Lithgow recorded it for NBC Celebrity Christmas released in 2001.
- In 1998, Drew Carey and Shirley Jones sang the song together on a season 4 episode of The Drew Carey Show titled "Drew Dates a Senior."
- In 1999, Cerys Matthews and Tom Jones collaborated to record a version for Jones' album Reload, which was also released in the US on the CD Now That's What I Call Christmas!: The Signature Collection.
- Al Hirt and Ann-Margret performed the song on "The Sound of Christmas" on RCA Victor in 1965. That version later appeared featured on the "Red Hot Holidays" collection released in 1999 on BMG's special markets record label Rock River Communications and distributed by Lane Bryant/Venezia Jeans Clothing Company, a division of The Limited.
- Elvis Costello and Anne Sofie Von Otter sang the song for the Twelfth Night audience at Berward Hall in Stockholm.
- Brian Setzer and Ann-Margret perform the song on the 2002 Brian Setzer Orchestra album Boogie Woogie Christmas.
- Liz Phair and Wheat recorded a version in 2003 that has been released digitally.
- In 2004, Rod Stewart recorded a version with Dolly Parton for his album Stardust: The Great American Songbook, Volume III.
- In 2006, James Taylor released a version featuring Natalie Cole on his James Taylor at Christmas album.
- In 2007, Matt Belsante released a version on the album White Christmas.
- In 2009, Lotta Engberg recorded the song on the album Jul hos mig, as a duet with Alexander Rybak.
- In 2009, Namibian singer Nianell and South African singer Dozi released a version on their duets album It Takes Two.
- In 2011, As part of the duo She & Him, Zooey Deschanel recorded the song with M. Ward for their holiday album, A Very She and Him Christmas.
- In 2011, R&B singer Dina Rae recorded a duet with actor Peter Dante for the Adam Sandler film Jack & Jill
- In 2013, The Choir singer Derri Daugherty and Sixpence None the Richer's Leigh Nash recorded a version for The Choir's Peace, Love & Light Christmas EP.
- In 2013, Jase Robertson and his wife, Missy, recorded the song for the Robertson family's Christmas album, Duck the Halls: A Robertson Family Christmas.
- In 2014, Canadian pop artists Virginia to Vegas and Alyssa Reid recorded their own adaptation of the song which was released as single, charting at no. 5 on the Canadian Hot 100.
- In 2014, Seth MacFarlane and Sara Bareilles recorded a version for MacFarlane's Christmas album, Holiday for Swing. This version peaked at No. 10 on Billboard's weekly Adult Contemporary chart for the week ending December 20, 2014.
- In 2014, American singer Jacob Whitesides recorded a version with singer Orion Carloto. A video was published on YouTube on 20 December, 2014.
- Also in 2014, Idina Menzel and Michael Bublé recorded a version for Menzel's Christmas album, Holiday Wishes. This version debuted and peaked at No. 78 on the weekly Billboard Hot 100 chart for the week ending December 6, 2014. This version also climbed to No. 1 on Billboard's weekly Adult Contemporary chart for the week ending December 20, 2014, spending a total of three weeks on top.
- Also in 2014, Darius Rucker and Sheryl Crow recorded a version for Rucker's Christmas album, Home for the Holidays. This version peaked at No. 13 on Billboard's weekly Adult Contemporary chart for the week ending December 27, 2014.
- In 2014, soap opera personalities Jen Lilley and Eric Martsolf recorded a version for online distribution. It 2015 this version was included on Lilley's soft jazz Christmas album Tinsel Time. 
Two versions have also made the Hot Country Songs charts: Martina McBride in an overdubbed duet with Dean Martin, peaked at number 36, and a duet between Willie Nelson and Norah Jones reached number 55 in January 2010. However, perhaps the most famous country version is the Dolly Parton & Rod Stewart rendition, which in 2004 also made it to number two on the US Adult Contemporary chart.
Featured in popular culture
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- On an episode of his radio show broadcast December 14, 1949, Bing Crosby sang the song in a comedic duet with actor James Stewart.
- Sigourney Weaver and Buster Poindexter performed a duet of the song on the first episode of the 12th season of Saturday Night Live in 1986.
- In 1990, Barry Manilow recorded the song in a duet with K.T. Oslin for Manilow's album Because It's Christmas; his version of the song in particular has become a popular version amongst radio stations whose format changes to Christmas music during the Holiday Season.
- Mayim Bialik and Ted Wass perform this song in an episode of Blossom.
- In 1991 Lauren Bacall and Thora Birch performed it in the movie All I Want for Christmas.
- The song was featured in the video game Mafia II's radio stations.
- Actress/singer Zooey Deschanel, who appeared in the 2003 film Elf, recorded the song with Leon Redbone for the film's soundtrack.
- A version released by country music group Lady Antebellum in 2008 reached number 1 on the Bubbling Under Hot 100. The band performed the song live on NBC's Today Show the morning of Christmas Eve 2008.
- Other odd couples who have recorded the song are Al Hirt and Ann-Margret (on The Most Fabulous Christmas Album Ever and Beauty and the Beard) and Rod McKuen and Petula Clark (on the A 1940s Christmas album). McKuen also performed the song with Dusty Springfield on his "Christmas in New England" special in 1978, using identical instrumentals to the Clark performance.
- In 2006, Leigh Nash recorded this song with Gabe Dixon for her Holiday EP Wishing For This. This version was also featured on a 2006 holiday compilation album called Do You Hear What I Hear? (from Nettwerk records).
- In 2010, Chris Colfer and Darren Criss performed the song on the TV show Glee as Kurt Hummel and Blaine Anderson respectively in the episode "A Very Glee Christmas". It had been released the month before on the album Glee: The Music, The Christmas Album, and although the song was not separately released as a single, it nevertheless charted at number 57 on the Billboard Hot 100 after the show aired. The song was later performed by Cameron Mitchell and Lindsay Pearce on The Glee Project's fifth episode, "Pairability".
- Mindy White of Lydia and Anthony Green of Circa Survive performed the song as a duet in 2010, which was released as a free digital download.
- Astrid and John from the Belgian TV-series Astrid in Wonderland.
- Donald Faison and Zach Braff, who play main characters in the television series Scrubs, released a video on Christmas Eve 2011 performing the song on YouTube.
- Cee Lo Green and Christina Aguilera covered the song for the 2012 holiday album Cee Lo's Magic Moment.
- John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John recorded it with Travolta as the "mouse" and Newton-John as the "wolf" on their 2012 album This Christmas.
- In 2013, Kelly Clarkson covered the song with Ronnie Dunn for her sixth studio album Wrapped in Red.
- On December 21, 2013, Saturday Night Live's Jimmy Fallon and Cecily Strong performed a spoof version in which he succeeds in talking her into a twelve-minute tryst, then immediately regrets it, with her singing about their future relationship and him trying to sing her out the door.
- In 2015 Casey Wilson and Scott Aukerman sang a satirical performance titled, "An Honest Performance of 'Baby It's Cold Outside'", in which the two act out the modern interpretation of the lyrics. 
- List of number-one adult contemporary singles of 2014 (U.S.)
- List of number-one adult contemporary singles of 2015 (U.S.)
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- Loesser, Susan (1993). A Most Remarkable Fella: Frank Loesser and the Guys and Dolls in His Life; A Portrait by His Daughter. Hal Leonard. pp. 79–81. ISBN 1-55611-364-1.
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- ""Baby, It’s Cold Outside" Isn’t About Date Rape!". Salon (website). Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- Wallace, Kelsey (December 6, 2011). Is She and Him Gender-Swapped "Baby, It's Cold Outside" Any Less Rape-y Than the Original? Bitch Media.
- Roger Ebert. "Mae West and Rock Hudson: "Baby, It's Cold Outside!"".
- Michael Feinstein (2010-06-29). "Comment made by Michael Feinstein during Fresh Air Celebrates Frank Loesser's 100th Birthday interview". Wbur.org. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- Whitburn, Joel (1973). Top Pop Records 1940–1955. Record Research.
- "Jul hos mig" (in Swedish). Svensk mediedatabas. 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
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- "Chart Search Virginia to Vegas". Billboard.com. Billboard. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
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- "Amazon.com: Baby It's Cold Outside (feat. Eric Martsolf): Jen Lilley: MP3 Downloads".
- Al Hirt, Beauty and the Beard Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- "Hot 100: Week of December 25, 2010 (Biggest Jump)". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Archived from the original on January 21, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
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- McDonnell, Brandy (October 1, 2013). "Kelly Clarkson collaborates with Reba McEntire, Trisha Yearwood, Ronnie Dunn on Christmas album". Tulsa World. BH Media. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- "An Honest Performance Of "Baby It's Cold Outside"". Funny or Die. December 16, 2015. Retrieved December 16, 2015.