Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery

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Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (B.A.M.S.) is a professional degree focused on Ayurveda offered in India, Nepal,[1] Bangladesh,[2] and Sri Lanka.[3]

Ayurveda is a type of alternative medicine,[4][5] and the study of Ayurveda is pseudoscientific while the practice can be classified as protoscience or unscientific.[6]


A 2001 report from the World Health Organization noted that Ayurveda was widely practiced in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka,[7] the four corresponding nations that offer the BAMS degree. Ayurveda was generally not integrated with the national health system of nations outside of the Indian subcontinent.[7]


In India, the curriculum includes the study of Ayurveda and corresponding Ayurvedic subjects such as Rachana Sharira, Kriya Sharira, Dravyuaguna, Svasthavritta and Yoga, Roga Nidana and Vikriti Vijnana, Kaya Chikitsa, Kaumara Bhritya, Prasuti Tantra, Shalya Tantra, Shalakya Tantra etc. along with human anatomy, physiology, pathology & diagnostic procedures, principles of medicine, pharmacology, toxicology, forensic medicine, E.N.T, gynecology & obstetrics, ophthalmology and principles of surgery from modern medicine.[8] The syllabus also includes ancient and medieval classics, sometimes in the Sanskrit language.[9] Institutions in India that offer the degree include the National Institute of Ayurveda and All India Institute of Ayurveda, Delhi.

In India, a student can go on to earn a master's degree in the form of MD (Ayurveda) and MS (Ayurveda), a PhD, and clinical doctorate degrees in traditional and complementary medicine at the university level.[10][11] There are also opportunities to perform research, work in hospital and healthcare administration, and in health supervision.[12][13]

In a report from 2020, the World Health Organization stated there was "a history of combining allopathic and traditional medicine systems in India, including through medical education." The WHO described AYUSH and conventional medical systems as "separate and parallel at the levels of governance, organisation, education and service delivery."[10]

Permission to practice medicine[edit]

BAMS graduates have been permitted to practice medicine in the state of Maharashtra.[14][15] In the state of Karnataka, BAMS doctors appointed in primary health centres in rural areas can practice modern-medicine in case of "emergencies".[16]


  1. ^ "Ayurveda Campus Institute of Medicine". Archived from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Alternative Medical Care : WHO extends support for modernization" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  3. ^ "Programme Review Report: Bachelor of Ayurveda Medicine and Surgery" (PDF). Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurveda Institute University of Kelaniya. 2020.
  4. ^ Smith, Frederick M.; Wujastyk, Dagmar (2008). "Introduction". In Smith, Frederick M.; Wujastyk, Dagmar (eds.). Modern and Global Ayurveda: Pluralism and Paradigms. New York, NY: SUNY Press. pp. 1–28. ISBN 9780791478165. OCLC 244771011.
  5. ^ "A Closer Look at Ayurvedic Medicine". Focus on Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Bethesda, Maryland: National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). US National Institutes of Health (NIH). 12 (4). Fall 2005 – Winter 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-12-09.
  6. ^ Semple D, Smyth R (2013). Chapter 1: Psychomythology. Oxford Handbook of Psychiatry (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-19-969388-7.
  7. ^ a b "Legal Status of Traditional Medicine and Complementary/Alternative Medicine: A Worldwide Review" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  8. ^ "Central Council of Indian Medicine:: Ministry of Ayush, Govt. of India". Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  9. ^ Warrier, Maya (2008). "Seekership, Spirituality and Self-Discovery: Ayurveda Trainees in Britain". Asian Medicine. 4 (2): 423–451. doi:10.1163/157342009X12526658783691. ISSN 1573-420X. PMC 2898496. PMID 20617123.
  10. ^ a b "Traditional medicine in the WHO South-East Asia Region Review of progress 2014–2019" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2020.
  11. ^ Shah, Sandeep. "Regular Courses available in Ayurveda" (PDF). Ministry of AYUSH. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-07-12. Retrieved 2019-02-01.
  12. ^ Pitkar, Urmila A. (2010). "Career options after Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery". International Journal of Ayurveda Research. 1 (3): 192–194. doi:10.4103/0974-7788.72495. ISSN 0974-7788. PMC 2996581. PMID 21170215.
  13. ^ Thomas, Shibu (10 July 2012). BAMS doctor can apply for post of health supervisor: HC The Times of India (Accessed on 11 July 2012)
  14. ^ Kulkarni, Prasad (7 July 2012). Maharashtra: Ayurvedadoctors to go on strike on July 10 Times of India (Accessed on 11 July 2012)
  15. ^ "Now, unani, ayurveda practitioners can prescribe allopathy medicines, perform surgeries". The Indian Express. February 28, 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  16. ^ Yasmeen, Afshan (2017-01-06). "Karnataka Ayuh doctors can now prescribe allopathic drugs during emergencies". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 January 2018.

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