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Virus classification
Group: Group II (ssDNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Unassigned
Genus: Bacilladnavirus
Type species

Chaetoceros salsugineum DNA virus 01

Bacilladnavirus is a genus of single stranded DNA viruses. Species in this genus infect diatoms.[1] The name is derived from the phrase: ssDNA virus infecting Bacillariophytes.[2] Although other single-stranded DNA viruses which infect diatoms have been discovered (Chaetoceros debilis DNA virus (CdebDNAV), C. tenuissimus DNA virus (CtenDNAV), C. lorenzianus DNA virus (ClorDNAV), C. sp. strain TG07-C28 DNA virus (Csp05DNAV), C. setoensis DNA virus (CsetDNAV), and Thalassionema nitzschioides DNA virus (TnitDNAV)), the only species officially classified in this genus is Chaetoceros salsugineum DNA virus 01 (CsalDNAV01.)[2][3][4] In addition, 4 genomes of uncultured bacilladnaviruses have been sequenced directly from environmental samples. [5][6] It was suggested that the family Bacillariodnaviridae or Bacilladnaviridae be used to classify these viruses, but this classification has not been officially proposed or accepted.[3][7][5]


The genome of these viruses appears to be unique. It consists of a single molecule of covalently closed circular single stranded DNA of 4.5-6 kilobases as well as a segment of linear ssDNA of ~1 kilobase. The linear segment is complementary to a portion of the closed circle creating a partially double stranded region.

There are at least three major open reading frames. Similar to other eukaryotic ssDNA viruses, bacilladnaviruses are likely to replicate their genomes by the rolling-circle mechanism, initiated by the virus-encoded endonuclease (Rep). However, the latter protein of bacilladnaviruses displays unique conserved motifs and in phylogenetic trees forms a monophyletic clade separated from other groups of ssDNA viruses.[5] The capsid protein of bacilladnaviruses has the jelly-roll fold and is most closely related to the corresponding proteins from members of the family Nodaviridae, which have ssRNA genomes.[5]


These viruses have been isolated from diatoms of the Chaetoceros genus.[8][1]

The virions are ~34 nanometers (nm) in diameter.

The virions accumulate in the nucleus.

Mature virions are released by lysis of the host.


  1. ^ a b Tomaru, Y; Takao, Y; Suzuki, H; Nagumo, T; Koike, K; Nagasaki, K (2011). "Isolation and Characterization of a Single-Stranded DNA Virus Infecting Chaetoceros lorenzianus Grunow". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77 (15): 5285–5293. PMC 3147440Freely accessible. PMID 21666026. doi:10.1128/AEM.00202-11. 
  2. ^ a b ICTV proposals 2009.002a-fF et al., Yuji Tomaru, Keizo Nagasaki. Accessed on line Nov. 20, 2015.
  3. ^ a b ICTV Virus Taxonomy 2014, accessed on line Nov. 20, 2015.
  4. ^ Kimura, K; Tomaru, Y (2013). "Isolation and Characterization of a Single-Stranded DNA Virus Infecting the Marine Diatom Chaetoceros sp. Strain SS628-11 Isolated from Western JAPAN". PLoS ONE. 8 (12): e82013. PMC 3866115Freely accessible. PMID 24358139. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082013. 
  5. ^ a b c d Kazlauskas, D; Dayaram, A; Kraberger, S; Goldstien, S; Varsani, A; Krupovic, M (2017). "Evolutionary history of ssDNA bacilladnaviruses features horizontal acquisition of the capsid gene from ssRNA nodaviruses.". Virology. 504: 114–121. PMID 28189969. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2017.02.001. 
  6. ^ McDaniel, LD; Rosario, K; Breitbart, M; Paul, JH (February 2014). "Comparative metagenomics: natural populations of induced prophages demonstrate highly unique, lower diversity viral sequences.". Environmental microbiology. 16 (2): 570–85. PMID 23879711. 
  7. ^ Tomaru, Yuji; Nagasaki, Keizo (2011). "Diatom Viruses". In Joseph Seckbach and Patrick Kociolek. The Diatom World. Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology. 19. Springer. p. 211. ISBN 978-94-007-1326-0. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1327-7_9. 
  8. ^ Nagasaki, K; Tomaru, Y; Takao, Y; Nishida, K; Shirai, Y; Suzuki, H; Nagumo, T (2005). "Previously Unknown Virus Infects Marine Diatom". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71 (7): 3528–3535. PMC 1169059Freely accessible. PMID 16000758. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.7.3528-3535.2005.