|Group:||Group II (ssDNA)|
Bacilladnavirus is a genus of single stranded DNA viruses. Species in this genus infect diatoms. The name is derived from the phrase: ssDNA virus infecting Bacillariophytes. Although other single-stranded DNA viruses which infect diatoms have been discovered (Chaetoceros debilis DNA virus (CdebDNAV), C. tenuissimus DNA virus (CtenDNAV), C. lorenzianus DNA virus (ClorDNAV), C. sp. strain TG07-C28 DNA virus (Csp05DNAV), C. setoensis DNA virus (CsetDNAV), and Thalassionema nitzschioides DNA virus (TnitDNAV)), the only species officially classified in this genus is Chaetoceros salsugineum DNA virus 01 (CsalDNAV01.) In addition, 4 genomes of uncultured bacilladnaviruses have been sequenced directly from environmental samples.  It was suggested that the family Bacillariodnaviridae or Bacilladnaviridae be used to classify these viruses, but this classification has not been officially proposed or accepted.
The genome of these viruses appears to be unique. It consists of a single molecule of covalently closed circular single stranded DNA of 4.5-6 kilobases as well as a segment of linear ssDNA of ~1 kilobase. The linear segment is complementary to a portion of the closed circle creating a partially double stranded region.
There are at least three major open reading frames. Similar to other eukaryotic ssDNA viruses, bacilladnaviruses are likely to replicate their genomes by the rolling-circle mechanism, initiated by the virus-encoded endonuclease (Rep). However, the latter protein of bacilladnaviruses displays unique conserved motifs and in phylogenetic trees forms a monophyletic clade separated from other groups of ssDNA viruses. The capsid protein of bacilladnaviruses has the jelly-roll fold and is most closely related to the corresponding proteins from members of the family Nodaviridae, which have ssRNA genomes.
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The virions are ~34 nanometers (nm) in diameter.
The virions accumulate in the nucleus.
Mature virions are released by lysis of the host.
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- Tomaru, Yuji; Nagasaki, Keizo (2011). "Diatom Viruses". In Joseph Seckbach and Patrick Kociolek. The Diatom World. Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology. 19. Springer. p. 211. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1327-7_9. ISBN 978-94-007-1326-0.
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