Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Bacillaceae
Genus: Bacillus
Species: B. amyloliquefaciens
Binomial name
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Priest et al., 1987

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a species of bacterium in the genus Bacillus that is the source of the BamH1 restriction enzyme. It also synthesizes a natural antibiotic protein barnase, a widely studied ribonuclease that forms a famously tight complex with its intracellular inhibitor barstar, and plantazolicin, an antibiotic with selective activity against Bacillus anthracis.[1]

It is used in agriculture, aquaculture and hydroponics to fight root pathogens such as Ralstonia solanacearum,[2][3] Pythium,[4] Rhizoctonia solani,[5] Alternaria tenuissima[6] and Fusarium[7][8] as well improve root tolerance to salt stress.[9] It is considered a growth-promoting rhizobacteria and has the ability to quickly colonize roots.[10]

Discovery and name[edit]

B. amyloliquefaciens was discovered in soil 1943 by a Japanese scientist named Fukumoto,[11] who gave the bacterium its name because it produced (faciens) a liquifying (lique) amylase (amylo).

Uses[edit]

Alpha amylase from B. amyloliquefaciens is often used in starch hydrolysis. It is also a source of subtilisin, which catalyzes the breakdown of proteins in a similar way to trypsin.

Agriculture[edit]

B. amyloliquefaciens is considered a root-colonizing biocontrol bacteria, and is used to fight some plant root pathogens in agriculture, aquaculture and hydroponics. It has been shown to provide benefits to plants in both soil and hydroponic applications. It takes action against bacterial[12] and fungi pathogens, and may prevent infection though competitive exclusion or out-competing the unwanted pathogen.[2] It has been shown to be effective against several root pathogens that hurt agricultural yields in soil and hydroponics, such as Ralstonia solanacearum in tomatoes,[2][3][13] Rhizoctonia solani in lettuce,[5] Pythium in tomatoes,[4] Alternaria tenuissima in English ivy[6] and Fusarium in bananas and cucumbers.[7][8] It also appears to improve root tolerance against abiotic stress, allowing plants such as maize to tolerate high salt concentrations in hydroponic applications, while also reducing salt concentrations in the plant tissue.[9]

Status as a species[edit]

Between the 1940s and the 1980s, bacteriologists debated as to whether or not B. amyloliquefaciens was a separate species or a subspecies of Bacillus subtilis. The matter was settled in 1987: it was established to be a separate species.[14]

In the American Type Culture Collection, the number for B. amyloliquefaciens is 23350.[15]

B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, the producer of the ultra-narrow spectrum antibiotic plantazolicin, was reclassified in 2015 as B. velezensis NRRL B-41580T (along with B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015 T and B. oryzicola KACC 18228) based on phenotype and genotype coherence.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Molohon, KJ; Melby, JO; Lee, J; Evans, BS; Dunbar, KL; Bumpus, SB; Kelleher, NL; Mitchell, DA (2011). "Structure Determination and Interception of Biosynthetic Intermediates for the Plantazolicin Class of Highly Discriminating Antibiotics". ACS Chem. Biol. 6 (12): 1307–1313. doi:10.1021/cb200339d. PMC 3241860Freely accessible. PMID 21950656. 
  2. ^ a b c Tan, Shiyong; Gu, Yian; Yang, Chunlan; Dong, Yue; Mei, Xinlan; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Yangchun (2015-11-21). "Bacillus amyloliquefaciens T-5 may prevent Ralstonia solanacearum infection through competitive exclusion". Biology and Fertility of Soils. 52 (3): 341–351. doi:10.1007/s00374-015-1079-z. ISSN 0178-2762. 
  3. ^ a b Huang, Jianfeng; Wei, Zhong; Tan, Shiyong; Mei, Xinlan; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Yangchun (2014-11-05). "Suppression of Bacterial Wilt of Tomato by Bioorganic Fertilizer Made from the Antibacterial Compound Producing Strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HR62". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62 (44): 10708–10716. doi:10.1021/jf503136a. ISSN 0021-8561. PMID 25322261. 
  4. ^ a b Zouari, Imen; Jlaiel, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim; Trigui, Mohamed (2016-09-01). "Biocontrol activity of the endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain CEIZ-11 against Pythium aphanidermatum and purification of its bioactive compounds". Biological Control. 100: 54–62. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2016.05.012. 
  5. ^ a b Grube, Martin; Schloter, Michael; Smalla, Kornelia; Berg, Gabriele (2015-01-22). The plant microbiome and its importance for plant and human health. Frontiers E-books. pp. 117–124. ISBN 9782889193783. 
  6. ^ a b Soares, Marcos Antônio; Li, Hai-Yan; Bergen, Marshall; Silva, Joaquim Manoel da; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James Francis (2015-08-22). "Functional role of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in enhancing growth and disease protection of invasive English ivy (Hedera helix L.)". Plant and Soil. 405 (1–2): 107–123. doi:10.1007/s11104-015-2638-7. ISSN 0032-079X. 
  7. ^ a b Shen, Zongzhuan; Wang, Beibei; Lv, Nana; Sun, Yifei; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Rong; Ruan, Yunze; Shen, Qirong (2015-06-03). "Effect of the combination of bio-organic fertiliser with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 on the control of banana Fusarium wilt disease, crop production and banana rhizosphere culturable microflora". Biocontrol Science and Technology. 25 (6): 716–731. doi:10.1080/09583157.2015.1010482. ISSN 0958-3157. 
  8. ^ a b Liu, Yunpeng; Zhang, Nan; Qiu, Meihua; Feng, Haichao; Vivanco, Jorge M.; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu (2014-04-01). "Enhanced rhizosphere colonization of beneficial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by pathogen infection". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 353 (1): 49–56. doi:10.1111/1574-6968.12406. ISSN 1574-6968. 
  9. ^ a b Chen, Lin; Liu, Yunpeng; Wu, Gengwei; Veronican Njeri, Kimani; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Ruifu (2016-09-01). "Induced maize salt tolerance by rhizosphere inoculation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9". Physiologia Plantarum. 158 (1): 34–44. doi:10.1111/ppl.12441. ISSN 1399-3054. 
  10. ^ Qiu, Meihua; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Xingxing; Li, Qing; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu (2014-12-05). "Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 Revealed the Key Proteins Involved in in Situ Root Colonization". Journal of Proteome Research. 13 (12): 5581–5591. doi:10.1021/pr500565m. ISSN 1535-3893. PMID 25299960. 
  11. ^ J. Fukumoto (1943). "Studies on the production of bacterial amylase. I. Isolation of bacteria secreting potent amylases and their distribution". Journal of the Agricultural Chemical Society of Japan (in Japanese). 19: 487–503. 
  12. ^ Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Lin, Ling; Borriss, Rainer; Gao, Xuewen (2014-12-04). "Bacilysin overproduction in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 markerless derivative strains FZBREP and FZBSPA enhances antibacterial activity". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 99 (10): 4255–4263. doi:10.1007/s00253-014-6251-0. ISSN 0175-7598. PMID 25472439. 
  13. ^ Tan, Shiyong; Jiang, Yi; Song, Song; Huang, Jianfeng; Ling, Ning; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong (2013-01-01). "Two Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains isolated using the competitive tomato root enrichment method and their effects on suppressing Ralstonia solanacearum and promoting tomato plant growth". Crop Protection. 43: 134–140. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2012.08.003. 
  14. ^ *F. G. Priest; M. Goodfellow; L. A. Shute; R. C. W. Berkeley (1987). "Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., nom. rev.". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 37 (1): 69–71. doi:10.1099/00207713-37-1-69. 
  15. ^ "ATCC 23350 Strain Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. Retrieved 2016-09-21. 
  16. ^ Dunlap CA, Kim SJ, Kwon SW, Rooney AP (2015). "Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and 'Bacillus oryzicola' are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus velezensis based on phylogenomics". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.000858. PMID 26702995. 

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