Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki
|Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki|
|Subspecies:||B. t. kurstaki|
|Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki|
Bacillus thuringiensis serotype kurstaki (Btk) is a group of bacteria used as biological control agents against lepidopterans. Btk, along with other B. thuringiensis products, is one of the most widely used biological pesticides due to its high specificity; it is effective against lepidopterans, and it has little to no effect on nontarget species. During sporulation, Btk produces a crystal protein that is lethal to lepidopteran larvae. Once ingested by the insect, the dissolution of the crystal allows the protoxin to be released. The toxin is then activated by the insect gut juice, and it begins to break down the gut.
Btk is available commercially and is commonly known as "Garden Dust" or "Caterpillar Killer", both of which are produced by Safer Brand. Other Btk-producing companies include Bonide and Monterey.
Effects on nontarget species
Btk is generally regarded as environmentally safe, as its toxicity is essentially limited to its target pest; humans, wildlife, and beneficial insects are regarded as unaffected by the pesticide. Even so, in 2012, a regulatory review of several strains of Bt by the European Food Safety Authority stated that although there was data supporting the claims of low toxicity, the data was insufficient to prove the claims conclusively.
In studies of the effects of Bt on humans, most subjects were unaffected when exposed to Bt. Some individuals reacted with irritation of the eyes and skin. Other subjects with hay fever reported more significant effects, including throat irritation, upset stomach, and difficulty sleeping.
Trichogramma is a species of parasitic wasp whose females lay their eggs in the eggs of their hosts; after killing the host, an adult wasp emerges. For this reason, trichogramma is often used as a biological control agent, and it can even be used in conjunction with pesticides like Bt. In November 2015, a study was conducted examining the effects of Btk on Trichogramma chilonis wasps. The study showed that high doses of strains of Btk containing δ-endotoxins were acutely toxic to the wasps, while Btk without these toxins had no adverse effects. It further showed that low doses of Btk, regardless of the strain, led to significantly greater longevity in the wasps.
In a 1998 study, Btk was added to different types of soil in order to determine how the type of soil affected the persistence and concentration of Btk. The results of the study showed that insecticidal activity started to decline after only a month in one soil, while in another toxicity was still high after six months. The authors of the study noted that even though Btk is considered non-toxic to nontarget species, the accumulation and persistence of the Btk toxins could eventually lead to environmental hazards or the selection of Btk-resistant lepidopterans.
- Adang, MJ; Staver, MJ; Rocheleau, TA; Leighton, J; Barker, RF; Thompson, DV. "Characterized full-length and truncated plasmid clones of the crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-73 and their toxicity to Manduca sexta". Gene. 36 (3): 289–300. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(85)90184-2. PMID 3000881.
- Choma, Christin; Surewicz, Witold; Carey, Paul; Pozsgay, Marianne; Kaplan, Harvey (February 1990). "Secondary structure of the entomocidal toxin fromBacillus thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki HD-73". Journal of Protein Chemistry. 9 (1): 87–94. doi:10.1007/BF01024989. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- European Food Safety Authority (2012). "Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (strains ABTS 351, PB 54, SA 11, SA 12, EG 2348)". EFSA Journal. 10 (2): 66 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2540.
- Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric (February 2016). "Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis". Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23 (4): 3097–3103. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5830-7.
- Tapp, H; Stotzky, G (15 April 1998). "Persistence of the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in soil". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 30 (4): 471–476. doi:10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00148-X. Retrieved 12 May 2016.