Back injury

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Back injuries result from damage, wear, or trauma to the bones, muscles, or other tissues of the back. Common back injuries include sprains and strains, herniated discs, and fractured vertebrae.[1] The lumbar spine is often the site of back pain. The area is susceptible because of its flexibility and the amount of body weight it regularly bears.[2] It is estimated that low-back pain may affect as much as 80 to 90 percent of the general population in the United States.[3]

Human anatomy of the back

Classification[edit]

Soft tissue graded system[edit]

Muscle and soft tissue injuries can be classified using a graded system.[4]

  • Grade 1 muscle strain is the least severe with damage to few muscle fibers and little if any loss of function.
  • Grade 2 muscle strain indicates a mild to moderate injury with appreciable tissue damage and some loss of function or strength.
  • Grade 3 muscle strain is the most severe injury grade with the muscle being either completely torn or experiencing complete loss of function.[4]

AO spine injury classification system[edit]

Spinal column or vertebral injuries can be classified using the AO spine injury classification system.[5] The three categories - A, B, and C - are based on the location of damage on the vertebra (either on the anterior or posterior segment) and by the direction of the applied injurious force.

  • Type A injuries are those associated with a compression force with damage to the vertebral bodies.
  • Type B injuries are those associated with a distraction force resulting in structural damage to the posterior components of the vertebral column.
  • Type C injuries are those associated with damage to both anterior and posterior aspects of the vertebral column resulting in displacement of the disconnected segments in any direction.[5][6]

This classification system can be used to classify injury to the cervical, thoracolumbar, and sacral regions of the spinal column.

MSU classification for herniated discs[edit]

Herniated discs can be graded based on the size and location of the herniation as seen on an MRI.

Size[edit]

The size of the herniation is the extent to which it protrudes into the vertebral foramen. The MSU Classification for herniated discs uses the proximity of the disc to the facet joint when measuring the size of a herniated disc.[7] Using the MSU Classification, a grade of 1, 2 or 3 can be used to describe the size of a herniated disc with 1 being the least severe and 3 being the most severe.

Location[edit]

The location of the herniation can also be described using the MSU Classification for herniated discs. This classification describes how far away from mid-line a disc protrusion is using a grade of A, B, or C.[7]

  • Grade A describes a herniation at midline.
  • Grade C herniations are the most lateral and protrude into the intervertebral foramen (through which spinal nerves travel).
  • Grade B herniated discs are those located between grade A and C, using the facet joint as the landmark for the lateral border.

MSU Classification is primarily used for classifying herniated discs in the lumbar spine.

Causes[edit]

Many back injuries share similar causes. Strains and sprains to the back muscles can be caused by improper movements while lifting heavy loads, overuse of a muscle, sudden forceful movements, or direct trauma.[8] Herniated discs are associated with age-related degeneration, trauma such as a fall or car accident, and bending or twisting while lifting heavy weights.[9] Common causes of vertebral fractures include trauma from a direct blow, a compression force resulting in improper or excessive axial loading, and hyper-flexion or hyper-extension.[10]

Vertebral fractures in children or elderly individuals can be related to the development or health of their spine. The most common vertebral fracture in children is spondylolysis which can progress to spondylolisthesis.[11] The immature skeleton contains growth plates which have not yet completely ossified into stronger mature bone.[11] Vertebral fractures in elderly individuals are exacerbated by weakening of the skeleton associated with osteoporosis.[12][13]

Diagnosis[edit]

Diagnosis of a back injury begins with a physical examination and thorough medical history by health-care personnel.[8][14] Some injuries, such as sprains and strains or herniated discs, can be diagnosed in this manner. To confirm these diagnoses, or to rule out other injuries or pathology, imaging of the injured region can be ordered. X-rays are often used to visualize pathology of bones and can be ordered when a vertebral fracture is suspected.[15][8] CT scans produce higher resolution images when compared to x-rays and can be used to view more subtle fractures which may otherwise go undetected on x-ray.[16] MRI is commonly referred to as the gold standard for visualizing soft tissue and can be used to assist with diagnosing many back injuries, including herniated discs and neurological disorders, bleeding, and edema.[16][17]

Treatment[edit]

Treatment for back injuries depends on the diagnosis, level of pain, and whether there is loss of function or quality of life.

Conservative[edit]

Non-Conservative[edit]

Surgery is considered when symptoms persist after attempting conservative treatment. It is estimated 10-20 percent of individuals with low back pain fail to improve with conservative measures.[21]

  • A discectomy is a common procedure used to alleviate the radiating pain and neurological symptoms associated with a herniated disc.[22] There are multiple variations of a discectomy with differing approaches to access the herniated disc, but the goal of the procedure is to remove the portion of the intervertebral disc that is protruding into the vertebral foramen.[21]
  • A total disc replacement can also be performed to address a herniated disc. Rather than removing only the portion of the disc that has prolapsed as in a discectomy, this procedure involves removing the entire vertebral disc and replacing it with an artificial one.[23][9]
  • Surgical remedies for vertebral fractures are found to be more effective than conservative treatment.[24] Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are considered minimally invasive surgical procedures and are proposed to relieve pain and restore function of fractured vertebrae.[24]

Prevention[edit]

Suggestions for preventing various back injuries primarily address the causes of those injuries. The risk for back sprains and strains may be reduced with lifestyle choices, including smoking cessation, limiting alcohol, maintaining a healthy weight, and keeping bones and muscles strong with adequate exercise and a healthy diet.[8] The risk for disc herniations can be reduced by using proper techniques when lifting heavy loads, smoking cessation, and weight loss to reduce the load placed on the spine.[8][9][25] Vertebral fractures may be difficult to prevent since common causes are related to accidents or age-related degeneration associated with osteoporosis. Treating osteoporosis with pharmacotherapy, enrolling in a fall prevention program, strengthening muscles and bones with a weight-bearing exercise program, and adopting a nutritional program that promotes bone health are all options to reduce the risk of vertebral fractures associated with osteoporosis.[13][12]

Epidemiology[edit]

  • The two age groups with the highest rate of vertebral column injuries are ages 15–29 and 65 and older.[10]
  • An estimated 50 percent of spinal injuries are attributed to motor vehicle accidents.[10]
  • Although the majority of vertebral fractures go undiagnosed, the annual cost related to treatment of vertebral fractures is estimated to be $1 billion in the U.S.[13]
  • Symptomatic disc herniations are most common between ages 30–50 years.[26] 95 percent of herniated discs diagnosed in patients 25–55 years are located in the lumbar spine.[26]
  • By age 15 an estimated 26-50 percent of children have experienced acute or chronic back pain.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Back injuries". MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health. July 2, 2009. Accessed July 15, 2009.
  2. ^ Shiel, William C. "Lower Back Pain". MedicineNet.com. Jan 22, 2008.
  3. ^ Putz-Anderson, Vern, Thomas Waters, and Arun Garg. (1994). Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH (DHHS) Publication 94–110.
  4. ^ a b Mueller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm; Haensel, Lutz; Mithoefer, Kai; Ekstrand, Jan; English, Bryan; McNally, Steven; Orchard, John; van Dijk, C Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M (April 2013). "Terminology and classification of muscle injuries in sport: The Munich consensus statement". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (6): 342–350. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091448. ISSN 0306-3674. PMC 3607100Freely accessible. PMID 23080315. 
  5. ^ a b Reinhold, Maximilian; Audigé, Laurent; Schnake, Klaus John; Bellabarba, Carlo; Dai, Li-Yang; Oner, F. Cumhur (October 2013). "AO spine injury classification system: a revision proposal for the thoracic and lumbar spine". European Spine Journal. 22 (10): 2184–2201. doi:10.1007/s00586-013-2738-0. ISSN 0940-6719. PMC 3804719Freely accessible. PMID 23508335. 
  6. ^ https://aospine.aofoundation.org/Structure/education/online-education/classifications/Documents/aos_100x150pCard_ThoracoCS.pdf.
  7. ^ a b Mysliwiec, Lawrence Walter; Cholewicki, Jacek; Winkelpleck, Michael D.; Eis, Greg P. (July 2010). "MSU Classification for herniated lumbar discs on MRI: toward developing objective criteria for surgical selection". European Spine Journal. 19 (7): 1087–1093. doi:10.1007/s00586-009-1274-4. ISSN 0940-6719. PMC 2900017Freely accessible. PMID 20084410. 
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  9. ^ a b c d e f "Herniated disk - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2017-08-05. 
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  13. ^ a b c Kendler, D. L.; Bauer, D. C.; Davison, K. S.; Dian, L.; Hanley, D. A.; Harris, S. T.; McClung, M. R.; Miller, P. D.; Schousboe, J. T. (February 2016). "Vertebral Fractures: Clinical Importance and Management". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (2): 221.e1–10. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.09.020. ISSN 1555-7162. PMID 26524708. 
  14. ^ a b c d "Subacute and chronic low back pain: Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment". www.uptodate.com. Retrieved 2017-08-07. 
  15. ^ "X-ray: Imaging test quickly helps diagnosis". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2017-08-06. 
  16. ^ a b Neuroimaging. Newnes. 2016-07-12. ISBN 9780702045387. 
  17. ^ Li, Yiping; Fredrickson, Vance; Resnick, Daniel K. (June 2015). "How Should We Grade Lumbar Disc Herniation and Nerve Root Compression? A Systematic Review". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 473 (6): 1896–1902. doi:10.1007/s11999-014-3674-y. ISSN 0009-921X. PMC 4418997Freely accessible. PMID 24825130. 
  18. ^ a b c Malanga, Gerard A.; Yan, Ning; Stark, Jill (2014). "Mechanisms and efficacy of heat and cold therapies for musculoskeletal injury". Postgraduate Medicine. 127 (1): 57–65. doi:10.1080/00325481.2015.992719. 
  19. ^ Wong, Jessica J.; Côté, Pierre; Ameis, Arthur; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Varatharajan, Thepikaa; Shearer, Heather M.; Brison, Robert J.; Sutton, Deborah; Randhawa, Kristi (2015). "Are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effective for the management of neck pain and associated disorders, whiplash-associated disorders, or non-specific low back pain? A systematic review of systematic reviews by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration" Check |url= value (help). European Spine Journal. 25 (1): 34–61. doi:10.1007/s00586-015-3891-4. 
  20. ^ a b Chou, Roger; Deyo, Richard; Friedly, Janna; Skelly, Andrea; Hashimoto, Robin; Weimer, Melissa; Fu, Rochelle; Dana, Tracy; Kraegel, Paul (2017-04-04). "Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review for an American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline". Annals of Internal Medicine. 166 (7): 493–505. doi:10.7326/M16-2459. ISSN 1539-3704. PMID 28192793. 
  21. ^ a b Xinhua, Li (August 6, 2017). "Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for lumbar disc herniation". Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 33: 19–27. doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2016.01.043 – via Elsevier Science Direct. 
  22. ^ "Diskectomy". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2017-08-07. 
  23. ^ Pham, Martin H.; Mehta, Vivek A.; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C. (2015). "Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement". BioMed Research International. 2015: 1–9. doi:10.1155/2015/719123. ISSN 2314-6133. PMC 4615218Freely accessible. PMID 26523281. 
  24. ^ a b Zhao, Song; Xu, Chang-Yan; Zhu, Ao-Ran; Ye, Long; Lv, Long-Long; Chen, Long; Huang, Qi; Niu, Feng (June 2017). "Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 3 treatments for patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: A network meta-analysis". Medicine. 96 (26): e7328. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000007328. ISSN 1536-5964. PMC 5500066Freely accessible. PMID 28658144. 
  25. ^ Huang, Weimin; Qian, Ying; Zheng, Kai; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun (January 2016). "Is smoking a risk factor for lumbar disc herniation?". European Spine Journal. 25 (1): 168–176. doi:10.1007/s00586-015-4103-y. ISSN 1432-0932. PMID 26160690. 
  26. ^ a b Jordan, Jo; Konstantinou, Kika; O'Dowd, John (2011-06-28). "Herniated lumbar disc". BMJ clinical evidence. 2011. ISSN 1752-8526. PMC 3275148Freely accessible. PMID 21711958.