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Developer(s)Jeremy Ashkenas
Initial releaseOctober 13, 2010; 13 years ago (2010-10-13)
Stable release
1.6.0[1] Edit this on Wikidata / 5 February 2024; 4 months ago (5 February 2024)
RepositoryBackbone.js Repository
Written inJavaScript
Operating systemCross-platform
Size7.9 KB production
72 KB development
TypeJavaScript library

Backbone.js is a JavaScript rich-client web app framework based on the model–view–controller design paradigm, intended to connect to an API over a RESTful JSON interface. Backbone has only hard dependency, which is on one JavaScript library,[2] Underscore.js,. jQuery can also be optionally used for the library.[3] It is designed for developing single-page web applications,[4] and for keeping various parts of web applications (e.g. multiple clients and the server) synchronized.[5] Backbone was created by Jeremy Ashkenas, who is also known for CoffeeScript and Underscore.js.

When handling the DOM Backbone.js adopts an imperative programming style, in contrast with a declarative programming style (common in AngularJS using data-attributes).[6] Trying to provide "the minimal set of data-structuring (models and collections) and user interface (views and URLs)",[7] leaves to the developer the choice of extensions for enhanced functionality. For example, one can use nested views with Backbone Layout Manager or model-view binding with ReSTbasis.


The following web applications are built with Backbone.js:[8]


  1. ^ https://github.com/jashkenas/backbone/releases/tag/1.6.0. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ Alex MacCaw (18 August 2011). JavaScript Web Applications. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-4493-0351-8. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  3. ^ Dependencies, BackboneJS, October 14, 2015
  4. ^ "What SendHub Learned Building a Single-Page Backbone.js App", ReadWrite, March 16, 2012
  5. ^ "Behind the rumours: how we built our Twitter riots interactive", The Guardian, London, 8 December 2011
  6. ^ "Backbone.js". backbonejs.org. Retrieved 2017-06-01.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Backbone.js".
  8. ^ "Companies and Websites using Backbone.js". Archived from the original on 2017-05-12. Retrieved 2019-06-01.
  9. ^ "Organizing Your Company to Embrace Microservices". InfoQ.
  10. ^ John Paul Titlow (22 July 2013). "Inside The Tech Stack Digg Used To Replace Google Reader". Co.Labs. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  11. ^ "Backbone.js and Underscore.js are bundled into Drupal 8".
  12. ^ Backbonification: migrating a large JavaScript project from DOM spaghetti to Backbone.js Archived 2013-01-20 at archive.today, Samuel Clay (NewsBlur) 13th November 2012
  13. ^ "Mobile UI Components". Retrieved 2014-03-22.
  14. ^ "A Shorter Letter". Retrieved 2014-03-22.

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