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A backlash is a strong adverse reaction to an idea, action, or object. It is usually a reflection of a normative resentment rather than a denial of its existence. In Western identitarian political discourse, the term is commonly applied to instances of bias and discrimination against marginalized groups. In this form of discourse, backlash can be explained as the response- or counter reaction- to efforts of social progress made by a group to gain access to rights.
Historical Western Examples
- 13th Amendment - Jim Crow Laws were racial backlash in response to the amendment to the constitution.
- Civil Rights- Voting restrictions implemented.
- Women's Movement- Backlash centered on infertility issues, women's "biological clock" and shortage of men.
Contemporary Western Examples
- Me Too Movement- Impacted women in the workforce. Men were more reluctant to hire women deemed attractive, more reluctant to have one-on-one meetings with women, and had greater fears of being unfairly accused. In addition to this, 56% of women surveyed predicted that men would continue to harass them but would be more cautious to avoid being caught. Backlash of date-rape prevalent with misleading language used in media. In 1987 it was called an "epidemic" and in 1993, "rape hype"; terms that were exaggerated and victim oriented.
- Gay Rights- With the legalization of gay marriage, homosexual couples are facing challenges from companies such as bakeries refusing to make cakes on the grounds of religious beliefs.
- Abortion- Defund Planned Parenthood Act
- "This bill temporarily restricts federal funding for Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. Specifically, the bill prohibits, for a one-year period, the availability of federal funds for any purpose to this entity, or any of its affiliates or clinics, unless they certify that the affiliates and clinics will not perform, and will not provide any funds to any other entity that performs, an abortion during such period. This restriction does not apply in cases of rape or incest or where a physical condition endangers a woman's life unless an abortion is performed.
- Racial Backlash- Former President Donald Trump wins 2016 election running on campaign based on "whiteness", claiming former President Obama wasn't legitimate with "Birther" lie.
- Transgender Rights- Bathroom bills & medical bans are proposed to restrict the rights of transgender youth and adults. Arguments center around fair play in sports and sexual harassment in bathrooms.
- Black Lives Matter- Backlash within media reported on destructive riots. Blue Lives Matter and All Lives Matter campaigns created in response.
- Voting Rights- Restrictions proposed relating to absentee voting, voting times, drop boxes, and limitations on provisions (food & water) given during voting lines. These policies target lower-income or lower socio-economic individuals giving them less flexibility.
- Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women, a book by Susan Faludi
- "An accurate charting of American women's progress through history might look more like a corkscrew tilted slightly to one side, its loops inching closer to the line of freedom with the passage of time-but, like a mathematIcal curve approaching infinity, never touching its goal."
- EDSA III
- Estallido social
- Straight pride
- White backlash
- White Lives Matter
- Yellow vests movement
- Faludi, Susan (1991). Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women. New York City: Crown Publishing Group. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-517-57698-4.
- Tim, Bower (2019-09-01). "The #MeToo Backlash". Harvard Business Review. ISSN 0017-8012. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
- "The Date Rape Backlash". Media Education Foundation Online Store. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
- "Court Rules Bakery Illegally Discriminated Against Gay Couple". ACLU of Colorado. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
- Hartzler, Vicky (2019-01-25). "H.R.369 - 116th Congress (2019-2020): Defund Planned Parenthood Act of 2019". www.congress.gov. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
- Barbaro, Michael (2016-09-16). "Donald Trump Clung to 'Birther' Lie for Years, and Still Isn't Apologetic". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
- Murphy, Hannah; Murphy, Hannah (2021-04-21). "How Trans Kids Landed in the Crossfire of the Culture Wars -- and the Damage It Could Do". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
- "History of the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter: Social activism on Twitter". Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. 2016-08-15. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
- Howard, Brad (2021-04-16). "Here's how new voting laws across the nation sparked a major corporate backlash". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
- Thomas, Sue (December 2008). "'Backlash' and Its Utility to Political Scientists". Politics & Gender. 4 (4): 615–623. doi:10.1017/S1743923X08000494. ISSN 1743-9248.
- Greendorfer, Susan L. (1998-04-01). "Title IX Gender Equity, Backlash and Ideology". Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal. 7 (1): 69–93. doi:10.1123/wspaj.7.1.69. ISSN 1063-6161.
- Pierce, Jennifer L. (2003-09-01). "Traveling from Feminism to Mainstream Sociology and Back: One Woman's Tale of Tenure and the Politics of Backlash". Qualitative Sociology. 26 (3): 369–396. doi:10.1023/A:1024070310729. ISSN 1573-7837. S2CID 142585188.
- Alexander, Jeffrey C. (1990-09-13). Durkheimian Sociology: Cultural Studies. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521396479.
- Pierce, Jennifer L. (2003-03-01). ""Racing for Innocence": Whiteness, Corporate Culture, and the Backlash Against Affirmative Action". Qualitative Sociology. 26 (1): 53–70. doi:10.1023/A:1021404020349. ISSN 1573-7837.
- Lindbekk, Tore (1998-04-01). "The Education Backlash Hypothesis: The Norwegian Experience 1960-92". Acta Sociologica. 41 (2–3): 151–162. doi:10.1177/000169939804100204. ISSN 0001-6993. S2CID 145098305.
- Bozorgmehr, Mehdi (2012-05-01). "Behind the Backlash: Muslim Americans after 9/11". Contemporary Sociology. 41 (3): 358–359. doi:10.1177/0094306112443520cc. ISSN 0094-3061.
- Mann, Kirk; Roseneil, Sasha (1994-11-01). "'Some Mothers Do 'Ave 'Em': Backlash and the gender politics of the underclass debate". Journal of Gender Studies. 3 (3): 317–331. doi:10.1080/09589236.1994.9960579. ISSN 0958-9236.
- Rogers, Mary F.; Lott, Phillip B. (1997-06-01). "Backlash, the Matrix of Domination, and Log Cabin Republicans". The Sociological Quarterly. 38 (3): 497–512. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1997.tb00489.x. ISSN 0038-0253.
- Phelan, Julie E.; Rudman, Laurie A. (2010). "Prejudice Toward Female Leaders: Backlash Effects and Women's Impression Management Dilemma". Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 4 (10): 807–820. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00306.x. ISSN 1751-9004.
- Kennedy, Mary; Lubelska, Cathy; Walsh, Val (2005-08-04). Making Connections: Women's Studies, Women's Movements, Women's Lives. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781135749798.
- Pierce, Jennifer L. (2013). "White Racism, Social Class, and the Backlash Against Affirmative Action". Sociology Compass. 7 (11): 914–926. doi:10.1111/soc4.12082. ISSN 1751-9020.
- Alexander, Jeffrey C. (2013-04-01). "Struggling over the mode of incorporation: backlash against multiculturalism in Europe". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 36 (4): 531–556. doi:10.1080/01419870.2012.752515. ISSN 0141-9870.
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