|Highly Urbanized City|
|City of Bacolod|
|Nickname(s): City of Smiles|
Map of Negros Occidental showing the location of Bacolod City
|Region||Negros Island Region (NIR/Region XVIII)|
|Province||Negros Occidental (geographically only)|
|Legislative District||Lone District of Bacolod City|
|Incorporated||1755 or 1756 (town)|
|Cityhood||June 18, 1938|
|• Mayor (acting)||Greg Gasataya (NPC)|
|• Vice Mayor (acting)||El Cid Familiaran (LP)|
|• City Representative||Evelio Ramos Leonardía (NPC)|
|• City||162.67 km2 (62.81 sq mi)|
|• Metro||578.65 km2 (223.42 sq mi)|
|Elevation||10 m (30 ft)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Density||3,100/km2 (8,100/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)|
Spanish: bacoleño (masculine), bacoleña (feminine)
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|Area code||+63 (0)34|
|Languages||Hiligaynon (Ilonggo), Filipino, English|
Bacolod //, officially the City of Bacolod (Hiligaynon: Dakbanwa sang Bacolod/Syudad sang Bacolod; Tagalog: Lungsod ng Bacolod), is a highly urbanized city in the Philippines. It is the capital of the province of Negros Occidental where it is geographically situated but governed administratively independent from it. Having a total of 511,820 inhabitants as of 2010 census, it is the most populous city in the Negros Island Region and the second most populous city in the Visayas after Cebu City. It is part of the Bacolod Metropolitan Area, which also includes the cities of Silay and Talisay. It is notable for its MassKara Festival held during the third week of October. Known for being a relatively friendly city, it bears the nickname "City of Smiles". In 2008, Bacolod topped a survey by MoneySense Magazine as the "Best Place to Live in the Philippines". The city has also been declared by the Department of Science and Technology as a "center of excellence" for information technology and business process management operations.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Sports
- 7 Infrastructure
- 8 Education
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Sister cities
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Bacólod (English: Bacolod), is derived from bakólod (Old Spelling: bacólod), the Old Hiligaynon or Old Ilonggo (Old Spelling: Ylongo and Ilongo) word for a "hill, mound, rise, hillock, down, any small eminence or elevation", since the resettlement was founded on a stony, hilly area, now the barangay of Granada. It was officially called Ciudad de Bacólod (City of Bacolod) when Municipalidad de Bacólod (Municipality of Bacolod) was converted into a city in 1938.
Spanish colonial period
Historical church accounts provide a glimpse of the early years of Bacolod as a mere small settlement by the riverbank known as Magsung̃ay (English: Magsungay). When the neighboring settlement of Bago was elevated into the status of a small town in 1575, it had several religious dependencies and one of which was the village of Magsung̃ay. The early missionaries placed the village under the care and protection of San Sebastián (English: Saint Sebastian) sometime in the middle of the 18th century. A corregidor (English: magistrate) by the name of Luis Fernando de Luna, donated a relic of San Sebastián for the growing mission, and since then, the village came to be known as San Sebastián de Magsung̃ay.
Bacolod was not established as a town until 1755 or 1756, after the inhabitants of the coastal settlement of San Sebastián de Magsung̃ay, were attacked by forces under Datu Bantílan of Sulu on July 14, 1755 and the villagers transferred from the coast to a hilly area called Bacólod. Bernardino de los Santos became the first gobernadorcillo (English: municipal judge or governor). The town of Bacolod was constituted as a parroquia (English: parish) in 1788 under the secular clergy, but did not have a resident priest until 1802, as the town was served by the priest from Bago, and later Binalbagan. By 1790, slave raids on Bacolod by Moro pirates had ceased.
On 11 February 1802, Fr. Eusebio Laurencio became acting parish priest of Bacolod. In September 1806, Fr. León Pedro was appointed interim parish priest and the following year became the first regular parish priest.
In September 1817, Fray (English: Friar) Julián Gonzaga from Barcelona was appointed as the parish priest. He encouraged the people to settle once again near the sea. He also encouraged migration to Bacolod and the opening of lands to agriculture and industry.
In 1846, upon the request of Msgr. Romualdo Jimeno, bishop of Cebu and Negros at that time, Gobernador General (English: Governor-General) Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa sent to Negros a team of Recollect missionaries headed by Fr. Fernando Cuenca. A decree of 20 June 1848 by Gobernador General Clavería ordered the restructuring of Negros politically and religiously. The following year (1849), Negros Island Gobernadorcillo Manuel Valdevieso y Morquecho transferred the capital of the Province of Negros from Himamaylan to Bacolod and the Augustinian Recollects were asked to assume spiritual administration of Negros, which they did that same year. Transfer of Bacolod to the Recollects, however, took place only in 1871. Fray Mauricio Ferrero became the first Augustinian Recollect parish priest of Bacolod and successor to the secular priest, Fr. Mariano Ávila. In 1863, a compulsory primary public school system was set up.
In 1889, Bacolod became the capital of Occidental Negros when the Province of Negros was politically divided into the separate provinces of Occidental Negros (Spanish: Negros Occidental) and Oriental Negros (Spanish: Negros Oriental).
The success of the uprising in Bacolod was attributed to the low morale of the local Spanish detachment, due to its defeat in Panay and Luzon and to the psychological warfare waged by Generals Aniceto Lacson and Juan Araneta. In 1897, a battle in Bacolod was fought at Matab-ang River. A year later, on November 5, 1898, the Negrense Revolucionarios (English: Negrense Revolutionary Army), armed with knives, bolos, spears, and rifle-like nipa palm stems, and pieces of sawali or amakan mounted on carts, captured the convento (English: convent), presently Palacio Episcopal (English: Bishop's Palace), where Coronel (English: Colonel) Isidro de Castro y Cisneros, well-armed cazadores (English: hunters) and platoons of Guardias Civiles (English: Civil Guards), surrendered.
Cantonal Republic of Negros
On 7 November 1898, most of the revolutionary army gathered together to establish a provisional junta and to confirm the elections of Aniceto Lacson as president, Juan Araneta as war-delegate, as well as the other officials. For a brief moment, the provinces of Occidental Negros and Oriental Negros were reunited under the cantonal government of the Negrense Revolucionarios, from 6 November 1898 to the end of February 1899, making Bacolod the capital. In March 1899, the American forces led by Colonel James G. Smith occupied Bacolod, the revolutionary capital of República Cantonal de Negros (English: Cantonal Republic of Negros).
American colonial period
The public school of Instituto Rizal (English: Rizal Institute) opened its doors to students on 1 July 1902. Colegio de Nuestra Señora de la Consolación (English: College of Our Lady of Consolation), the first private institution in the province of Negros Occidental, was established in Bacolod by the Augustinian sisters on March 11, 1919 and opened in July 1919.
A historic event took place in 1938 when Municipality of Bacolod was elevated into a city through Commonwealth Act No. 326 passed by the 1st National Assembly of the Philippines creating the City of Bacolod. Assemblyman Pedro C. Hernaez of the second district of Negros Occidental sponsored the bill. The law was passed on June 18, 1938. Bacolod was formally inaugurated as a chartered city on October 19, 1938 by virtue of Commonwealth Act No. 404, highlighted by the visit of Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezón. President Quezón appointed Alfredo Montelíbano, Sr. as the first city mayor of Bacolod.
Japanese occupation and allied liberation
|This section does not cite any references (sources). (September 2015)|
In World War II, Bacolod City was occupied by the Japanese forces on May 21, 1942. Lieutenant General Kawano "Kono" Takeshi, the Japanese commanding officer of the 77th Infantry Brigade, 102nd Division, seized the homes of Don (honorific/lang-English:Sir) Generoso Villanueva, a prominent sugar planter—whose home (Daku Balay) served as the "seat of power" (occupational headquarters for the Japanese Forces in Negros and all of the Central Visayan region of the Philippines) and being the tallest building in the city served as the watchtower of the city—and the home of his brother-in-law, Don Mariano Ramos, the first appointed Presidente Municipal (English: Municipal President) of Bacolod. The home of Don Generoso was lived in by Lt General Takeshi throughout the duration of the war and also served as his office and the home of Don Mariano was occupied by a Japanese Colonel serving under the command of Lt General Takeshi. The city was liberated by joint Filipino and American forces on May 29, 1945. It took time to rebuild the city after liberation. However, upon the orders of Lt General Takeshi, both the homes of Don Generoso and Don Mariano were saved from destruction by the retreating Japanese forces.
In March 1945, upon the invasion of the American and Philippine Commonwealth forces, the withdrawal of the Japanese army into the mountains and the temporary occupation of Bacolod by the combined U.S. and Philippine Commmonwealth armed forces, the house of Don Generoso was then occupied by Major General Rapp Brush, commander of the 40th Infantry Division, known as the "Sun Burst" Division, for approximately five months. The local Philippine military built and established the general headquarters and camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army which was active from 1942 to 1946. The 7th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was also active from 1944 to 1946 and was stationed in Bacolod City during and after World War II.
When the country finally gained complete independence from the United States, the city's public markets and slaughterhouses were rebuilt during the administration of former mayor Vicente Remitió from 1947 to 1949. In 1948, a fire razed a portion of the records section of the old city hall that consumed the rear end of the building and with it, numerous priceless documents of the city. When Batas Pambansa Blg. 51 was approved on December 22, 1979 and came into effect in 1980, the chartered City of Bacolod was converted into a highly urbanized city. The political relations with Negros Occidental were severed and the residents effectively lost their eligibility to vote for provincial officials because of this new status. In January 1985, the original hardwood and coral structure of Palacio Episcopal was almost entirely destroyed by a fire. Among the damage of the raging fire were items of significant historical value. The reconstruction of Palacio which took more than two years, was completed in 1990.
Bacolod City is located on the northwestern coast of the Province of Negros Occidental. It is bounded on the north by the City of Talisay; on the east by the town of Murcia; on the south by the City of Bago; and in the west by the Guimaras Strait. The global location of Bacolod City is 10 degrees, 40 minutes 40 seconds - north and 122 degrees 54 minutes 25 seconds - east with Bacolod Public Plaza as the benchmark.
Bacolod has a total land area of 16,145 hectares, including straits and bodies of water and the 124 hectare reclamation area; and is composed of 61 barangay (villages) and 639 purok (smaller units composing a village). It is accessible by sea through the ports of Banago; the BREDCO Port in the Reclamation Area, and the port of Pulupandan. By air, it is accessible through the New Bacolod-Silay International Airport, which is approximately 13 (four is counting from the Lagoon) kilometers away from the center of the city.
Bacolod is ideally located on a level area, slightly sloping as it extends toward the sea with an average slope of 0.9 percent for the city proper and between 3 to 5 percent for the suburbs. The altitude is 32.8 feet or 10.0 meters above sea level with the Bacolod City Public Plaza as the benchmark. Bacolod has two pronounced seasons, wet and dry. The rainy season starts from May to January of the following year with heavy rains occurring during the months of August and September. Dry season starts from the month of February until the last week of April.
|Climate data for Bacolod City|
|Average high °C (°F)||31
|Average low °C (°F)||23
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||39
|Source #1: worldweatheronline.com|
|Source #2: www.myweather2.com|
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- Barangay 41 (Población)
- Punta Taytay
- Vista Alegre
|Population census of Bacolod|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
Bacolod is the Philippines' third fastest growing economy in terms of information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing (BPO) activities. The city has been recommended by the Information and Communication Technology Office of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and Business Processing Association of the Philippines (BPAP) as the best location in the Visayas for BPO activities.
Bacolod ranked 3rd among the top ten "Next Wave Cities" of the Philippines for the best location for BPO and offshoring according to a 2010 report of the Commission on Information and Communications Technology. In 2013, the city was declared a "center of excellence" for IT-business process management operations by the DOST, joining the ranks of Metro Manila, Metro Cebu, and Metro Clark.
Among the notable BPO companies operating in the city are Convergys, Teleperformance, TeleTech, Transcom, Ubiquity Global Services, Collabera Solutions, Panasiatic Solutions, Alliance Call Centre, Focus Direct Inc., Hit Rate Solutions/Next Level IT Teleservices and TeleQuest Voice Services.
Along its highways, sugarcane plantations are a typical scene. As of 2003, 7,216 hectares of the city’s 8,560 hectares of agricultural land were still planted with sugarcane. Meanwhile, 915 hectares were devoted to rice, 120 hectares to assorted vegetables, 100 hectares to coconut, 43 hectares to banana and 34 hectares to corn.
According to the "Philippine Cities Competitiveness Ranking Project 2005" of Asian Institute of Management (AIM), Bacolod tops the list in terms of infrastructure, ahead of such other mid-size cities like Iligan, Calamba, and General Santos. Bacolod also tops the list in terms of quality of life, ahead of such other mid-size cities like San Fernando, Baguio, Iloilo and Lipa. AIM also recognized Bacolod as one of the Top Five most competitive mid-size cities together with Batangas, Iligan, Iloilo, and San Fernando.
Bacolod City hosted the 2005 Southeast Asian Games Football tournament, the 2007 ASEAN Football Championship qualification, the 2010 AFC U-16 Championship qualification and the 2012 AFC Challenge Cup qualification play-off first leg was held at the Panaad Stadium where the Philippines won 2–0 over Mongolia. Likewise the city has the home football stadium of the Philippines national football team (Azkals).
Since Bacolod is also being tagged as a "Football City" in the country, an ordinance was approved by the City Council in June 2015, setting the third week of the month of April every year as the "Bacolod City Football Festival Week".
2008 PBA All-Star Weekend was held in the city and since then has been a regular venue of Philippine Basketball Association out-of-town games. Also, the Sandugo Unigames 2012 was hosted by the city participated by various universities around the country notably those who compete in the UAAP.
The 1996 Philippine Karatedo Federation (PKF) National Championships and the 20th PKF National Open 2007 were held in the city. Both events were hosted by La Salle Coliseum of the University of St. La Salle. The tournaments were participated by hundreds of karatekas all over the country.
There are two major golf courses in the city; the Bacolod Golf and Country Club and the Negros Occidental Golf and Country Club. The city hosted the 61st Philippine Airlines Inter-club Golf Tournament and the 2008 Philippine Amateur Golf Championship. A Golf tournament sponsored by the City Mayor is also held every Masskara.
Mixed martial arts
Bacolod City is home to many mixed martial arts competitions including quarterly fights hosted by the Universal Reality Combat Championship.
The Panaad Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in the city. It is currently used mostly for football matches, and it serves as the home football stadium of the . It was used for the 2005 South East Asian Games. It was the venue of the pre-qualifiers of the 2007 ASEAN Football Championship or ASEAN Cup. The stadium has a seating capacity of 15,500, but holds around 20,000 people with standing areas. It is unofficially designated as the home stadium of the Philippines national football team. Aside from the football field, it also has a rubberized track oval, an Olympic-size swimming pool and other sports facilities.
The stadium is also the home of Panaad Festival, a week-long celebration participated in by all cities and municipalities in the province held annually every summer. The festival is highlighted by merry-making, field demonstrations, pageant and concert at the stadium. The stadium itself features replicas of the landmarks of the 13 cities and municipalities of Negros Occidental.
Bacolod Public Plaza
The Bacolod Public Plaza is one of the notable landmarks in Bacolod City, the capital of Negros Occidental, which is found right in the heart of downtown area, very near to the city hall and right across the San Sebastian Cathedral.
The plaza is the celebrated place of MassKara Festival. It is a week-long festival held each year in Bacolod City every third weekend of October nearest October 19, the city's Charter Anniversary. Bacolod public plaza is the final destination of MassKara street dancing competitions which is the highlights of the celebration.
Capitol Park & Lagoon
The Capitol Park and Lagoon is a provincial park located right in the heart of Bacolod City, Negros Occidental, in the Philippines. One of the landmarks of the park is the carabao (water buffalo) being pulled by a woman. This carabao is located at the northern end of the lagoon. On the other end, there is also another carabao sculpture but the figure is being pulled by a man.
Bacolod currently has 3 large universities and more than a dozen other schools specializing in various courses. Currently, as sanctioned by the Department of Education, all primary and secondary institutions in the city use the K-12 educational system.
The city alone currently hosts three of well-known educational institutions in the country. These are:
- University of St. La Salle (1952), a LaSallian district school and the second oldest campus originally founded by the De La Salle Philippines congregation in the country
- University of Negros Occidental – Recoletos (1941), administered by the Order of Augustinian Recollects and the first university in the province of Negros Occidental and the City of Bacolod
- STI West Negros University (1948), originally founded by Baptist Protestants and later acquired by the STI Education Systems Holdings, Inc.
Other noteworthy tertiary colleges include:
- Colegio San Agustin – Bacolod (1962)
- La Consolacion College–Bacolod (1919)
- Riverside College, Inc. (1961)
- Carlos Hilado Memorial State College (1954)
- John B. Lacson Colleges Foundation – Bacolod, Inc. (1974)
- VMA Global College (1974)
- Bacolod Christian College of Negros (1954)
- Bacolod City College (1997)
- Our Lady of Mercy College – Bacolod (2008)
- College of Arts & Sciences of Asia & the Pacific – Bacolod Campus (2011)
- AMA Computer College – Bacolod Campus
- ABE International Business College – Bacolod Campus
- Asian College of Aeronautics – Bacolod Branch (Main Campus)
The Bacolod-Silay International Airport, located in nearby Silay City, is 15 kilometers north-east from Bacolod. Bacolod is 1 hour by air from Manila, 30 minutes by air from Cebu, 1 hour by air from Cagayan de Oro and 1 hour and 10 minutes by air from Davao City.
Bacolod City Domestic Airport was the airport serving the general area of Bacolod. It was one of the busiest airports in the Western Visayas region, when Bacolod was still part of it. This airport was replaced by the new Bacolod-Silay International Airport, located in nearby Silay City. It was classified as such by the Air Transportation Office, a body of the Department of Transportation and Communications that is responsible for the operations of all other airports in the Philippines except the major international airports. The Bacolod City Domestic Airport ceased operations on January 17, 2008, prior to the opening of the Bacolod-Silay International Airport which began operations the day after.
Banago Wharf and BREDCO Port are the vessels entry point in Bacolod. It has daily access to Iloilo, with different shipping lines such as 2GO Travel (as relaunched in 2012), Weesam Express, Ocean Jet, Montenegro Lines, Jomalia Shipping and Tri Star megalink. There were also access routes to Puerto Princesa City via Iloilo City, Cagayan de Oro City, General Santos City, Zamboanga City, Cotabato City, Butuan City via Cagayan de Oro route, Dipolog City, Iligan City, Ozamiz City, and Surigao City via Cagayan de Oro route. As of 2012 to present, SuperFerry and Negros Navigation was relaunched into 2GO Travel routes from Bacolod going Manila, Iloilo and Cagayan de Oro. Bacolod City is 18–23 hours from the Port of Manila, 2-3hrs from Dumangas Port and 45 minutes-1hr from the Port of Iloilo.
Bacolod City has two main roads, Lacson Street to the north and Araneta Street to the south. The city has a good traffic plan lay-out and very seldom has traffic jams. The streets in the downtown area are one way, making Bacolod free from traffic congestion. Recently, Bacolod City is experiencing an increase in traffic congestion due to an increase in number of vehicles and a perceived lack of implementation of traffic rules by the local government.
By land-RORO-land, Bacolod City is approximately 3 hours from Iloilo City via Dumangas route. By land-ferry-land, Bacolod City is approximately 4 hours and 30 minutes from Cebu City via Toledo-San Carlos City-Salvador Benedicto-Murcia route. By land-RORO-land, Bacolod City to Cebu City via Toledo-Escalante route is approximately 6 hours and 30 minutes or via Mabinay or Canlaon going Cebu City and from Bacolod City to Dumaguete City via Mabinay route is approximately 6 hours and while from Bacolod City to Dumaguete City via Cadiz City-San Carlos City route is approximately 8 hours both routes going Negros Oriental.
- Saicy Aguila – actress, dancer, former Pinoy Big Brother: Season 2 housemate
- Grendel Alvarado – fashion model, winner of Philippines' Next Top Model
- Erica Arlante-Yamakawa – Pinoy Big Brother: Unlimited (Season 4) housemate
- Vickie Rushton – Pinoy Big Brother: All In, 4th Big Placer Housemate
- Alvin Elchico – TV/Radio Host, former provincial correspondent
- Bobby Enriquez – jazz pianist who became prominent in the United States and well-known internationally
- Peque Gallaga – multi award-winning film director
- Allan K. – singer, comedian, actor and TV host
- Ronnie Lazaro – award-winning actor
- Carlo Ledesma – film director, producer, won the Cannes Film Festival award for Best Short Film
- Kuh Ledesma – popular pop and jazz singer; dubbed as the Pop Diva of the Philippines
- Enrique G. Magalona, Jr. – award-winning actor
- Francis Magalona – actor, TV host, VJ, and rapper
- Romy Pastrana – comedian; better known by his screen name "Dagul"
- Aurora Pijuan – beauty queen; crowned Miss International 1970
- Susan Roces – award-winning actress, nicknamed Queen of Philippine Movies; widow of Fernando Poe, Jr.
- Sandra Seifert – beauty queen; crowned Miss Earth-Air 2009 and an international fashion model
- Rosemarie Sonora – former actress
- Rafé Totengco – New York based fashion designer
- Eduardo Sicangco – Scene Designer and Illustrator for Broadway, Opera and film
- Christian Vasquez – actor, model and former Pinoy Big Brother: Celebrity Edition housemate
- Margaret Nales Wilson – beauty pageant contestant, TV personality, and actress
- Joel Torre – award-winning actor and director
- Elsa Martinez Coscolluela – award-winning poet, short-story writer, and playwright
- Rafael Alunan – former Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of Agriculture
- Gen.Victor Ibrado – former Chief of Staff Armed Forces of the Philippines
- Enrique B. Magalona – former senator of the Philippines
- Alfredo Montelibano, Sr. – politician and industrialist, served as Mayor of Bacolod City, Governor of Negros Occidental, and Philippine Secretary of National Defense and Interior
- Monico Puentevella – politician. Formerly a member of Lakas-Kampi-CMD, he was elected to three terms as a member of the House of Representatives of the Philippines, representing the Legislative district of Bacolod City. He was first elected to Congress in 2001, and was re-elected in 2004 and 2007. Current Mayor of Bacolod City.
- Rolando Ramos Dizon – De La Salle brother, former chairman of the Commission on Higher Education
- Antonio Fortich – former Bishop of Bacolod, political activist and Ramon Magsaysay Awardee
- Jesus Varela – Bishop Emeritus of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sorsogon, former President of the Philippine Federation of Catholic Broadcasters
- Nonoy Baclao – professional basketball player; plays for the Philippine Patriots in the ASEAN Basketball League
- Jeffrei Chan – professional basketball player in the Philippine Basketball Association who currently plays for the Rain or Shine Elasto Painters
- Monsour del Rosario – taekwondo champion who has also starred in several Filipino and international action films
- Boyet Fernandez – coach of the Philippine Basketball Association's Sta.Lucia Realtors
- Ramil Gallego – professional pool player
- Reynel Hugnatan – professional basketball player of the Philippine Basketball Association
- Noli Locsin – Philippine Basketball Association Mythical Team awardee
- Donnie Nietes – professional boxer, current WBO Minimumweight World Champion
- Joan Tipon – boxer, Asian Games gold medalist
- Ben Villaflor – boxer who was the WBA world junior lightweight (now called super featherweight) champion during the 1970s
- Genesis Servania – professional boxer; nicknamed "Azukal" and currently undefeated
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Fountain of Justice and downtown Bacolod
Philippine National Bank building, along Lacson Street
SM City Bacolod skyline/aerial view
Robinsons Place Bacolod, along Lacson Street in Barangay Mandalagan
La Salle Coliseum of the University of St. La Salle
Colegio San Agustin - Bacolod Administration Building Facade
A view of the Capitol Park and Lagoon looking towards the Negros Occidental Provincial Capitol building
- Hiligaynon language
- MassKara Festival
- List of private schools in Bacolod City
- List of tertiary schools in Bacolod City
- Silay City
- Talisay City
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- Official Website of the City Government of Bacolod
- Philippine Standard Geographic Code
- OLM to PST
- Local Governance Performance Management System