Bactrocera dorsalis

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Bactrocera dorsalis
Bactrocera dorsalis.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Tephritidae
Genus: Bactrocera
Subgenus: Bactrocera
Species: B. dorsalis
Binomial name
Bactrocera dorsalis
(Hendel, 1912)
Bactrocera dorsalis distribution.PNG
Bactrocera dorsalis range

Dacus dorsalis

Bactrocera dorsalis is a species of tephritid fruit fly that is endemic to Southeast Asia, but has also been introduced to Hawaii, the Mariana Islands and Tahiti. It is one of the major pest species in the genus Bactrocera with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits.[1]

It is similar to the closely related species B. carambolae and B. occipitalis, and recent scientific evidence showed that B. papayae, B. invadens and B. philippinensis belong to the same biological species as B. dorsalis.[2]

Males of the species respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations.[3] [4] They are also important pollinators/visitors of wild orchids, Bulbophyllum cheiri and Bulbophyllum vinaceum, in Southeast Asia, which lure the flies using methyl eugenol.[5][6]

Life cycle[edit]

Mated female B. dorsalis punctures the skin of mature fruit and deposit eggs in few batches depending on the quality of the fruit. Eggs then hatch to larvae and moult twice while feeding on the flesh of the fruit. The third instar larvae exits the fruit and burrow into the soil to pupate. In a week or two the adult emerges from the pupae and within a week they became mature and mating continues.[7]

Invasive species[edit]

The insect was eliminated from Miami-Dade County in Florida in February 2016, where it was detected in August 2015.[8]


  1. ^ Drew, R.A.I. & Raghu, S. (2002). The fruit fly fauna (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the rainforest habitat of the Western Ghats, India. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 50(2):327-352. PDF (with description of B. dorsalis, and key to Indian Bactrocera species)
  2. ^ Schutze, M. K., et al. (2015) Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data. Syst. Ent. 40(2): 456-471.
  3. ^ Tan, K.H. and Serit, M. (1994) Adult population dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in relation to host phenology and weather in two villages of Penang Island, Malaysia. Environmental Entomology 23(2): 267-275.
  4. ^ Hee, A. K. W. & Tan, K. H. (2005) Bioactive fractions containing methyl eugenol-derived sex pheromonal components in haemolymph of the male fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bull. entomol. res. 95(6):615-620
  5. ^ Tan, K.H., Nishida R. and Toong, Y.C. (2002) Bulbophyllum cheiri floral synomone lures fruit flies to perform pollination. J.Chem. Ecol. 28:1161-1172
  6. ^ Tan, K. H., Tan, L. T. and Nishida, R. (2006) Floral phenyl propanoid cocktail and architecture of Bulbophyllum vinaceum orchid in attracting fruit flies for pollination. J. Chem. Ecol. 32:2429-2441.
  7. ^ Vargas, Roger I.; Walsh, William A.; Kanehisa, Dale; Jang, Eric B.; Armstrong, John W. (1997-03-01). "Demography of Four Hawaiian Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) Reared at Five Constant Temperatures". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 90 (2): 162–168. doi:10.1093/aesa/90.2.162. ISSN 0013-8746. 
  8. ^

Further reading[edit]

  • Allwood, A.J., Chinajariyawong, A., Drew, R.A.I., et al. (1999) Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in south east Asia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 7:1-92.

External links[edit]