|Studio album by Michael Jackson|
|Released||August 31, 1987|
|Recorded||January 5 – July 9, 1987|
|Studio||Westlake Recording Studios
(Los Angeles, California)
|Michael Jackson chronology|
|Singles from Bad|
Bad is the seventh studio album by American singer and songwriter Michael Jackson. It is his third studio album released through Epic Records. It was released on August 31, 1987, nearly five years after Jackson's previous solo studio album, Thriller. As of 2012, Bad had reportedly sold between 30 and 45 million copies worldwide and has been cited as one of the 30 best-selling albums of all time. In 2017, the album was certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America, denoting sales of over ten million copies in the United States.
Bad was recorded during the first half of 1987. The lyrical themes on the record relate to media bias, paranoia, racial profiling, romance, self-improvement and world peace. The album is widely regarded as having cemented Jackson's status as one of the most successful artists of the 1980s, as well as enhancing his solo career and being one of the best musical projects of his career. Nine of the eleven songs on Bad were released as singles; one was a promotional single and another was released outside of the United States and Canada. Five of the singles hit number one in the United States, while a sixth charted within the top ten, and a seventh charted within the top twenty on the Hot 100. Bad peaked at number one in thirteen countries and charted within the top twenty in other territories. The only songs on the album which were not released as a single were "Speed Demon" and "Just Good Friends", the latter being the only song on the album to also not have a music video accompanying it.
Bad saw Jackson exercise even more artistic freedom than he did with his two previous Epic releases (Off the Wall and Thriller). On Bad, Jackson composed nine of the album's eleven tracks and received co-producer credit for the entire album. The album continued Jackson's commercial success in the late 1980s and garnered six Grammy Award nominations, winning two. Aside from commercial success, the album was well received by contemporary critics. Bad was ranked number 43 in the 100 Greatest Albums of All Time of the MTV Generation in 2009 by VH1 and number 202 in Rolling Stone magazine's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The album marked the final collaboration between Jackson and producer Quincy Jones.
Jackson's previous albums, Off the Wall and Thriller, were critically and commercially successful, eventually selling over 20 million and 65 million units worldwide, respectively. Jackson's aim for Bad was that it would sell 100 million copies.
The first studio album Jackson released in almost five years since the release of Thriller, Bad was the third, and final, musical collaboration between Jackson and Quincy Jones. It was produced by Jones, with co-production credit given to Jackson. Jackson began recording demos for the anticipated follow-up to Thriller a few months after the 1984 Victory Tour with the Jacksons and throughout 1985 while preparing for Disney's 4D film experience Captain EO, which featured an early pre-album extended cut of "Another Part of Me." Album development for Bad began in November 1986 and recording took place between January 5, 1987 and July 9, 1987, at Westlake Audio, where a special wooden stage was built to allow Jackson to dance while recording.
Jackson wrote a reported sixty songs for the new album and recorded thirty, wanting to use them all on a three-disc set. Jones had suggested that the album be cut down to a ten-track single LP. When the album was released on CD, a bonus 11th track, "Leave Me Alone", was included. It was later released as a single. Later reissues of the LP also include this song. Jackson was credited for writing nine out of eleven of the songs on the album. Other writing credits included Terry Britten and Graham Lyle for "Just Good Friends" and Siedah Garrett and Glen Ballard for "Man in the Mirror".
Composition and lyrics
A 25-second sample of Jackson's "Bad" song where the chorus is played. The song's lyrics pertain to boasting, which was viewed by some music critics as Jackson referring to his stardom.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
The album's song lyrics relate to romance and paranoia, the latter being a recurring theme in Jackson's albums. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic noted that Bad moved Jackson "deeper into hard rock, deeper into schmaltzy adult contemporary, deeper into hard dance – essentially taking each portion of Thriller to an extreme, while increasing the quotient of immaculate studiocraft."
The lyrics to "Dirty Diana" pertain to a sexual predator, but unlike "Billie Jean", the sexual challenge is optional.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
"Bad" was originally intended as a duet between Jackson and musician Prince. Other artists that were supposed to be featured on the album included Diana Ross, Whitney Houston, Aretha Franklin and Barbra Streisand, but none of those collaborations ended up happening. The song was viewed as a rived "Hit the Road, Jack" progression with lyrics that pertain to 'boasting'. "Dirty Diana" was viewed by AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine as "misogynistic" and its lyrics, describing a sexual predator, do not aim for the "darkness" of "Billie Jean", instead sounding equally intrigued by and apprehensive of a sexual challenge, while having the opportunity to accept or resist it. "Leave Me Alone" was described as being a "paranoid anthem". "Man in the Mirror" was seen as Jackson going "a step further" and offering "a straightforward homily of personal commitment", which can be seen in the lyrics, "I'm starting with the man in the mirror/I'm asking him to change his ways/And no message could have been any clearer/If you wanna make the world a better place/Take a look at yourself and then make a change." The lyrics to "Speed Demon" are about driving fast.
The Way You Make Me Feel is the album's token love song which was written by Jackson.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
"Liberian Girl"'s lyrics were viewed as "glistening" with "gratitude" for the "existence of a loved one". "Smooth Criminal"'s recalled "the popcorn-chomping manner" of "Thriller". The track was thought of as an example of "Jackson's free-form language" that keeps people "aware that we are on the edge of several realities: the film, the dream it inspires, the waking world it illuminates". The music in "I Just Can't Stop Loving You", a duet with Siedah Garrett, consisted mainly of finger snaps and timpani. "Just Good Friends", a duet with Stevie Wonder, was viewed by critics as sounding good at the beginning of the song, ending with a "chin-bobbing cheerfulness". "The Way You Make Me Feel"'s music consisted of blues harmonies. The lyrics of "Another Part of Me" deal with being united, as "we".
Bad was released on August 31, 1987. By September 26, it had debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, remaining there for the next six consecutive weeks. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) certified Bad ten times platinum for having shipped ten million copies in the United States alone. Though Jackson furthered his stance as a global pop superstar, in the United States Bad failed to match the sales of Thriller, causing some in the media to label the album a "disappointment" in comparison.
Internationally, Bad was commercially successful. In the United Kingdom, the album sold 500,000 copies in its first five days of release, and as of 2008[update] is certified 13× platinum, for sales of 3.9 million, making it Jackson's second biggest-selling album in the United Kingdom. Bad peaked at number one in 25 countries including Austria, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The album also charted at number thirteen in Mexico and at number twenty two in Portugal. Bad has received various certifications worldwide. It was certified 7× platinum for the shipment of over 700,000 units in Canada by the Canadian Recording Industry Association. In Europe, the 2001 reissue was certified platinum by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) for the sales of one million units. The album was also certified platinum by the IFPI for the shipment of over 20,000 units in Hong Kong. Globally, Bad is Jackson's overall second best-selling album, behind Thriller, with a reported sales between 30 and 45 million units as of 2012.
By the time Bad was released, Thriller had already sold millions, raising expectations for the new album. A commemorative special on Jackson's life, The Magic Returns, was aired on CBS around the time of the release of Bad. At the end of the documentary, the channel debuted the video of the title song from the album, "Bad", which was directed by Martin Scorsese and featured then up-and-coming actor Wesley Snipes. The marketing strategy, mastered by Frank DiLeo among others, also included Jackson producing another mini-movie around the time of the Bad World Tour. That film, Moonwalker, included performances of songs from Bad, including "Speed Demon", "Leave Me Alone", "Man in the Mirror" and "Smooth Criminal", the latter two released as sole videos at the end of the film. Jackson's tour for Bad was a major financial success, grossing $125 million by the conclusion.
The lead single "I Just Can't Stop Loving You" became the first of five of the album's singles to reach number one on the Billboard Hot 100. The song reached number one on September 19, 1987. It also charted on Billboard's R&B/Hip Hop Songs chart and the Adult Contemporary chart, peaking at number one and number two respectively. Internationally, the song also peaked at number one, in three territories, United Kingdom, for two weeks, four weeks in the Netherlands and seven weeks in Norway. The album's second single, "Bad", peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 on October 16, 1987. The song charted within the top ten internationally. "The Way You Make Me Feel" became the album's third consecutive single to peak at number one on Billboard's Hot 100. The song primarily charted within the top ten and twenty internationally. "Man in the Mirror" then charted at number one on Billboard's Hot 100 in March 1988 and charted at number four, eight and ten in New Zealand, Australia and Austria. On July 2, 1988, "Dirty Diana" became the fifth consecutive, and final, single to peak at number one on the Hot 100. It was successful internationally, charting within the top ten in several countries.
"Another Part of Me" charted at number eleven on the Billboard Hot 100, while topping the Billboard R&B/Hip Hop Songs chart. Internationally, it was a mid success compared to its previous singles, peaking at number five, fourteen and thirty two in the Netherlands, New Zealand and France. "Smooth Criminal" became the sixth top ten single on the Billboard Hot 100, and saw similar success internationally, charting within the top ten in five territories. Released outside the United States and Canada, "Leave Me Alone" topped the Irish charts, as well as peaking within the top ten in five other countries. The album's last official single was "Liberian Girl", which did not chart on the Billboard Hot 100, but was generally successful internationally, charting mainly within the top twenty.
The singles success of Bad was extremely successful in the UK, where seven of the singles from the album all reached the UK top ten by 2009 (six initially, until "Man in the Mirror" jumped from position 21 to 2 in 2009), just like Dangerous achieved in 1991–1993. This was a record for any studio album in the UK until Calvin Harris broke this in 2013.
|Encyclopedia of Popular Music|||
|Los Angeles Times|||
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
|The Village Voice||B+|
In a contemporary review for The New York Times, Jon Pareles called Bad "a well-made, catchy dance record by an enigmatic pop star". He said while nothing on the record compared to "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'", the music's "concocted synthesizer-driven arrangements" were "clear" and carried "a solid kick". In USA Today, Edna Gundersen called it Jackson's "most polished effort to date," that is "calculated but not sterile." Davitt Sigerson from Rolling Stone wrote that "even without a milestone recording like 'Billie Jean', Bad is still a better record than Thriller." He believed the filler, such as "Speed Demon", "Dirty Diana" and "Liberian Girl", made Bad "richer, sexier and better than Thriller's forgettables."
Richard Harrington of The Washington Post felt that while the album could not live up to post-Thriller expectations, it would be "considerably fairer to compare" Bad with Off the Wall. His overall opinion on Bad was that it was "a very good record" that is "immaculately produced and with some scintillating vocal performances from Jackson". Richard Cromelin of the Los Angeles Times called Bad "a fair-to-strong array of soul and rock blends", commenting that the record was "not bad" and was more "reminiscent of Off the Wall's uniform strength than Thriller's peaks and valleys." Cromelin felt that it would be "disappointing" if this album's "creative level" is where Jackson wants to stay.
Robert Christgau was more critical in The Village Voice. He said its "studio mastery", along with Jackson's "rhythmic and vocal power", had made for "the strongest and most consistent black pop album in years", but lamented its lack of "genius" in the vein of "Beat It" or "Billie Jean" and panned the underlying themes in Jackson's lyrics. "He's against burglary, speeding, and sex ('Dirty Diana' is as misogynistic as any piece of metal suck-my-cock), in favor of harmonic convergence and changing the world by changing the man in the mirror. His ideal African comes from Liberia. And he claims moonwalking makes him a righteous brother. Like shit."
Bad was the recipient of six Grammy Award nominations, winning two. In 1988, it was nominated for Album of the Year, Best Pop Vocal Performance – Male, Best R&B Vocal Performance – Male and Record of the Year for "Man in the Mirror" the following year. Bad won Best Engineered Recording – Non Classical in 1988 and Best Music Video – Short Form for "Leave Me Alone" in 1990. In a retrospective review for AllMusic, Stephen Thomas Erlewine stated that Jackson "approached" Bad much the same way he approached Thriller, which was to "take the basic formula of the predecessor, expand it slightly, and move it outward." While the album "rebounds with songs that prove mechanical can be tolerable if delivered with hooks and panache," it still made Bad feel like an artifact of its time instead a piece of music that transcends it", according to Erlewine.
In the Encyclopedia of Popular Music, Colin Larkin wrote, "In musical terms, Bad certainly broke no fresh ground; appealing though its soft funk confections were, they lacked substance, and represented only a cosmetic advance over his two earlier albums with [Quincy Jones]." Joseph Vogel was more enthusiastic about the record. "On Bad, Jackson's music is largely about creating moods, visceral emotions, and fantastical scenarios....[with] each song work[ing] as a dream capsule, inviting the listener into a vivid new sound, story, space." He called Bad "a compelling, phantasmagorical album, which a handful of critics recognized from the beginning."
Bad made history as being the first album to have five of its singles peak at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 consecutively, as "I Just Can't Stop Loving You", "Bad", "The Way You Make Me Feel", "Man in the Mirror" and "Dirty Diana" all charted at number one on the music chart. To date, only one other album has achieved this milestone: Teenage Dream by Katy Perry, in 2010. The record has still not been surpassed. Jayson Rodriguez of MTV, noted that "following the twin cannons that were Off the Wall and Thriller wouldn't be an easy task for most, but Jackson's follow-up, 1987's Bad, was formidable by all accounts." Rodriguez commented that the album was "wrongfully dismissed by critics because it wasn't the sales blockbuster that Thriller was" and that during the Bad era, Jackson's vocal hiccups and stammered "shamone" would become staples in his music that were "heightening and highlighting the emotion of his lyrics." Rolling Stone commented that "the best way to view" Bad was not as "the sequel to Thriller. In 2009, VH1 said of the album:
Understandably, the expectations for the album were ridiculously high, and grew even higher after Jackson planned duets with the likes of Prince (on the title track) and Whitney Houston (and Aretha Franklin and Barbra Streisand). None of those collaborations ended up happening, but they only increased the hype for the album. Bad was a deeply personal project for Jackson – he wrote nine of the 11 songs – one that saw him gain further independence and debut a harder-edged look and sound.
In 2009, Jim Farber of the Daily News wrote that Bad "streamlined the quirks" of Jackson's two previous albums to "create his most smooth work of pop to date." A writer for The Daily Telegraph commented that while Bad was another worldwide commercial success, the album "inevitably failed to match the success of Thriller despite Jackson's massive and grueling world tour". In 2009, a writer for the Miami Herald reflected back on the anticipation for Bad, describing the album's release as being the "most hotly anticipated album in history". That same year, Stephen M. Silverman, a writer for People magazine, viewed Bad as being "when some slippage" in Jackson's "popularity began to show".
In July 2016, it was announced by the Official Charts Company that Bad was the ninth best-selling album in British history with sales of 4 million units, charting behind Thriller. Bad, along with other studio albums released by Jackson, is among the best-selling albums of all-time. In 2003, the album was ranked number 202 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". It was also included in the book titled 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. In 2009, VH1 listed Bad at number 43 on their list of "100 Greatest Albums of All Time of the MTV Generation". In 2012, Slant Magazine listed the album at number 48 on its list of "Best Albums of the 1980s".
The album's songs have been covered and parodied by multiple recording artists since its release in the late 1980s. Notable cover versions include Alien Ant Farm's cover of "Smooth Criminal" and Shakaya's cover of "The Way You Make Me Feel". Notable parody versions include "Weird Al" Yankovic, who had previously recorded a parody of Jackson's song "Beat It". Yankovic parodied "Bad", titling his version "Fat" in 1988; the song won a Grammy Award the same year for Best Concept Music Video.
|Grammy Awards||United States||Best Engineered Recording – Non-Classical (Bad)||1988|||
|Grammy Awards||United States||Best Music Video – Short Form ("Leave Me Alone")||1990|||
|Quintessence Editions Ltd.||United Kingdom||1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die (No rank)||2003|||
|Rolling Stone||United States||500 Greatest Albums of All Time (Ranked #202)||2003|||
|VH1||United States||100 Greatest Albums of All Time of the MTV Generation (Ranked #43)||2009|||
It was announced on May 3, 2012, that the Estate of Michael Jackson and Epic Records would be releasing a 25th anniversary album of Bad. The album was named Bad 25 and was released on September 18, 2012. Since the release of Bad 25, there has been a discontinuation of the special edition of Bad.
|2.||"The Way You Make Me Feel"||Jackson||4:59|
|5.||"Just Good Friends" (with Stevie Wonder)||Terry Britten, Graham Lyle||4:09|
|6.||"Another Part of Me"||Jackson||3:55|
|7.||"Man in the Mirror"||Siedah Garrett, Glen Ballard||5:21|
|8.||"I Just Can't Stop Loving You" (with Siedah Garrett)||Jackson||4:27|
|CD and digital download bonus track|
|11.||"Leave Me Alone"||Jackson||4:41|
|2001 special edition bonus tracks|
|12.||"Quincy Jones Interview #1"||4:04|
|14.||"Quincy Jones Interview #2"||2:54|
|15.||"Todo Mi Amor Eres Tú" (with Siedah Garrett)||Jackson, Rubén Blades||4:05|
|16.||"Quincy Jones Interview #3"||2:31|
|17.||"Spoken Intro to Fly Away"||0:09|
Re-issues of Bad feature a number of changes when compared to the original 1987 release:
- "Bad" – The original mix was replaced with the 7" single mix. The most notable difference is the lack of horns in all the choruses except for the last two. Horns are also missing from the second and third pre-choruses. The rhythm guitar during the choruses is also turned up along with the hi-hats.
- "The Way You Make Me Feel" – The full-length remix used for the single with louder vocals and ad libs added to the end replaced the original album mix.
- "I Just Can't Stop Loving You" omits Michael Jackson's spoken intro.
- "Dirty Diana" is replaced with the single edit of the song.
- "Smooth Criminal" went through two changes on the album. It was remixed to make the kick drum heavier and the bass synth fatter. The quick-sequenced synclavier behind the bass has been rendered mono as well. The first version of this mix left the breathing intact, but was later removed after some time.
- "Leave Me Alone" wasn't included on the original vinyl nor cassette releases but was included on the CD release and now is included in all releases.
|Australia (ARIA)||6× Platinum||420,000^|
|Austria (IFPI Austria)||4× Platinum||200,000*|
|Canada (Music Canada)||7× Platinum||700,000^|
|Denmark (IFPI Denmark)||100,000|
|Germany (BVMI)||4× Platinum||2,000,000^|
|Hong Kong (IFPI Hong Kong)||Platinum||20,000*|
|Latvia (LaMPA)||14× Platinum||112,000*|
|New Zealand (RMNZ)||9× Platinum||135,000^|
|Spain (PROMUSICAE)||3× Platinum||300,000^|
|Sweden (GLF)||2× Platinum||200,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||13× Platinum||4,000,000^|
|United States (RIAA)||Diamond||10,000,000|
*sales figures based on certification alone
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Michael Jackson – Bad". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- Holden, Stephen (November 1, 1979). "Michael Jackson – Off The Wall". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Anderson, Kyle (20 July 2009). "Michael Jackson's Thriller Set To Become Top-Selling Album Of All Time". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Wyman, Bill (January 4, 2013). "Did "Thriller" Really Sell a Hundred Million Copies?". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
- Campbell 1993, p. 147.
- Bad: Special Edition (booklet). Epic Records. 2001.
- Michael Jackson's Life & Legacy: The Eccentric King Of Pop (1986-1999) at the Wayback Machine (archived June 4, 2011). VH1. MTV Networks. June 7, 2009.
- Sullivan, Randall (2012). Untouchable: The Strange Life and Tragic Death of Michael Jackson. Grove Press. p. 589. ISBN 978-0-80211-962-9.
- Campbell 1993, p. 151.
- Sigerson, Davitt (October 22, 1987). "Michael Jackson – Bad". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Pareles, Jon (September 3, 1987). "Critic's Notebook; How Good Is Jackson's 'Bad'?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
- Pareles, Jon (August 31, 1987). "Pop: Michael Jackson's 'Bad,' Follow-Up to a Blockbuster". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Campbell 1993, p. 153.
- "Billboard 200 – Week of September 26, 1987". Billboard. September 26, 1987. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Caulfield, Keith (January 6, 2010). "Taylor Swift Edges Susan Boyle For 2009's Top-Selling Album". Billboard. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson's "Thriller" Certified 33x Platinum; "Bad" Now Diamond". Headline Planet. February 16, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- Rodriguez, Jayson (June 25, 2009). "Michael Jackson's Musical Legacy, From The Jackson 5 To Invincible". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- "Certified Awards". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- "Michael Jackson Feted As Top Artist Of Decade After Selling 110 Million Discs". Vol. 77 no. 22. March 12, 1990. p. 60. ISSN 0021-5996.
- "Austriancharts.at – Michael Jackson – Bad" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Top RPM Albums: Issue 0880." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Bad" (in Japanese). Oricon. Ranking.oricon.co.jp. Retrieved February 8, 2010.[dead link]
- "Charts.org.nz – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Norwegiancharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Swisscharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson | Artist | Official Charts". UK Albums Chart Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Mexicancharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Portuguesecharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Gold/Platinum". Music Canada. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Michael Jackson: Albumi". International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- "Hong Kong sales certification". IFPI Hong Kong. 1988. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- "Michael Jackson Bad album set for re-release". The Daily Telegraph. November 9, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- "50 fastest selling albums ever". NME. April 27, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- Kaufman, Gil (November 5, 2010). "Michael Jackson's New Album Cover Decoded". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Sinha-Roy, Piya (May 21, 2012). "Michael Jackson is still "Bad," 25 years after album". Reuters. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
- 25th Anniversary Of Michael Jackson's Landmark Album Bad Celebrated With September 18 Release Of New Bad 25 Packages at the Wayback Machine (archived February 22, 2013). Yahoo!. May 21, 2012.
- "Michael Jackson's groundbreaking 'Bad' album will be re-released to celebrate its 25th anniversary". Contactmusic.com. 21 May 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- "Review: 'Moonwalker'". Variety. December 31, 1987. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- Hunt, Dennis (January 10, 1989). "VIDEO REVIEW : 'Moonwalker': A Stroll Through a Super Ego". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- Brooks 2002, p. 81.
- Grant 2009, pp. 104–105.
- "Bad – Awards". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson". Official Charts Company. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson – I Just Can't Stop Loving You" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson – I Just Can't Stop Loving You". Norwegiancharts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "The Hot 100 – Week of October 24, 1987". Billboard. October 24, 1987. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson – Bad" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "The Hot 100 – Week of January 23, 1988". Billboard. January 23, 1988. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson – The Way You Make Me Feel" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "The Hot 100 – Week of March 26, 1988". Billboard. March 26, 1988. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson – Man In The Mirror" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "The Hot 100 – Week of July 2, 1988". Billboard. July 2, 1988. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson – Dirty Diana" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "The Hot 100 – September 10, 1988". Billboard. July 2, 1988. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson – Another Part Of Me". Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson – Smooth Criminal" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "The Irish Charts – All there is to know". Irishcharts.ie. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
- "Michael Jackson – Leave Me Alone" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Michael Jackson – Liberian Girl" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Larkin, Colin (2011). "Jackson, Michael". Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-85712-595-8.
- Greenblatt, Leah (July 3, 2009). "Michael Jackson's Albums". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- Cromelin, Richard (December 13, 1987). "Unsilent Nights. . . : Four Stars Being Best, a Guide to the Top 40". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- Graff, Gary; du Lac, Josh Freedom; McFarlin, Jim, eds. (1998). "Michael Jackson". MusicHound R&B: The Essential Album Guide. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 1-5785-9026-4.
- Pareles, Jon (2004). "Michael Jackson". In Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian. The Rolling Stone Album Guide. Simon and Schuster. p. 414. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- Christgau, Robert (September 29, 1987). "Consumer Guide". The Village Voice. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- Gundersen, Edna (August 31, 1987). "The ever-changing Jackson, Michael jumps back and he's super `Bad'". USA Today.
- Harrington, Richard (August 31, 1987). "Article: Jackson's `Bad': Looking Good; Not a `Thriller' but It's Full of Flash". The Washington Post. HighBeam Research. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Cromelin, Richard (August 31, 1987). "Michael Jackson has a good thing in 'Bad'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
- "30th Grammy Awards – 1988". Rock On The Net. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- "30th Grammy Awards – 1989". Rock On The Net. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- "32nd Grammy Awards – 1990". Rock On The Net. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- Vogel, Joseph (2012). Man in the Music: The Creative Life and Work of Michael Jackson. New York: Sterling. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-40277-938-1.
- Farber, Jim (June 26, 2009). "For Michael Jackson, the beat went on: after 'Thriller,' hits kept coming". Daily News. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Video: Michael Jackson's weird and wonderful life". The Daily Telegraph. June 26, 2009. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- "A Look Back". Miami Herald. June 26, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Silverman, Stephen M. (June 25, 2009). "Superstar: The Incredible Life of Michael Jackson 1958-2009". People. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Gumble, Daniel (July 5, 2016). "UK's 60 Biggest Selling Albums of All Time". Music Week. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
- Mackay, Mairi (June 26, 2009). "Michael Jackson album sales soar". CNN. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time (1-500) at the Wayback Machine (archived January 15, 2007). Rolling Stone.
- 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die at the Wayback Machine (archived April 2, 2015). Quintessence Editions Ltd..
- VH1 – Greatest Albums Ever at the Wayback Machine (archived March 10, 2009). MTV. Viacom.
- "The 100 Best Albums of the 1980s". Slant Magazine. March 5, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- "Michael Jackson Remembered: "Weird Al" Yankovic on Imitation as Flattery". Rolling Stone. July 9, 2009. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "25th Anniversary of Michael Jackson's Landmark Album Bad Celebrated With September 18 Release Of New Bad 25 Packages". Sony Music Entertainment. Michaeljackson.com. May 21, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- (Portuguese) ABPD CD – TOP 10 Semanal at the Wayback Machine (archived November 12, 2014). Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Discos.
- "Czech Albums – Top 100". ČNS IFPI. Note: On the chart page, select 200929 on the field besides the word "Zobrazit", and then click over the word to retrieve the correct chart data. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Danishcharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Michael Jackson – Bad" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- (French) Les Albums (CD) de 1987 par InfoDisc at the Wayback Machine (archived February 1, 2016)
- "Offiziellecharts.de – Michael Jackson – Bad" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "ALBUM – I NUMERI UNO (1980-1989)" (in Italian). It-charts.150m.com. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Oficjalna lista sprzedaży :: OLIS - Official Retail Sales Chart". OLiS. Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Spanishcharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums – Week of October 3, 1987". Billboard. October 3, 1987. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Jahreshitparade 1987" (in German). Austriancharts.at. Hung Medien. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Top 100 Albums of 1987". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "1987年間アルバムヒットチャート" [Japanese Year-End Albums Chart 1987] (in Japanese). Oricon. Entamedata.web.fc2.com. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Chart Archive – 1980s Albums". Everyhit.com. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Jahreshitparade 1988" (in German). Austriancharts.at. Hung Medien. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Top Selling Albums of 1987". Nztop40.co.nz. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Bestenlisten – 80er-Album" (in German). Austriancharts.at. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2009 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association.
- "Austrian album certifications – Michael Jackson – Bad" (in German). IFPI Austria. Enter Michael Jackson in the field Interpret. Enter Bad in the field Titel. Select album in the field Format. Click Suchen
- "Canadian album certifications – Michael Jackson – Bad". Music Canada.
- "BAD Danish Record Award For The Sale Of 100,000 Copies Of The Album in Denmark". MJ Collectors. June 1988. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- "Michael Jackson" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland.
- "Les Albums Certifiés "Diamant"" (in French). InfoDisc. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Les Meilleures Ventes de CD / Albums "Tout Temps"" (in French). InfoDisc. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Michael Jackson; 'Bad')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie.
- Cobo, Leila (July 2, 2009). "Michael Jackson Remains A Global Phenomenon". Billboard. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- "E' Claudio Baglioni il Jackson italiano". La Stampa (in Italian). 12 May 1995. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- "マイケル・ジャクソン「ヒール・ザ・ワールド」" (in Japanese). Sony Music Japan. July 11, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- "International Latvian Certification Awards from 1998 to 2001" (pdf). Latvian Music Producers. DirectuploadAssociation. 2001. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
- "Certificaciones 2009" (in Spanish). AMPROFON. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- "Een ster in het land van lilliputters". Trouw (in Dutch). 29 October 2001. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- "New Zealand album certifications – Michael Jackson – Bad". Recorded Music NZ.
- Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (in Spanish) (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
- "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 1987−1998" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden.
- "British album certifications – Michael Jackson – Bad". British Phonographic Industry. Enter Bad in the field Keywords. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Select Platinum in the field By Award. Click Search
- "American album certifications – Michael Jackson – Bad". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
- Campbell, Lisa D. (1993). Michael Jackson: The King of Pop. Branden Books. ISBN 978-0-82831-957-7.
- Brooks, Darren (2002). Michael Jackson: An Exceptional Journey. Chrome Dreams. ISBN 1-84240-178-5.
- Grant, Adrian (2009). Michael Jackson: The Visual Documentary. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-1-84938-261-8.
- Taraborrelli, J. Randy (2004). The Magic and the Madness. Terra Alta, WV: Headline. ISBN 0-330-42005-4.
|Awards and achievements|
True Blue by Madonna
|Japan Gold Disc Award for Album of the Year
New Jersey by Bon Jovi