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Bad (album)

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A man in his late twenties stands and looks forward. His hair is curly and black. He is wearing a black jacket that has several buckles and pants. The background is white and beside him are the words "Michael Jackson" in black capital letter, and over them, "Bad" in red.
Studio album by
ReleasedAugust 31, 1987
RecordedJanuary 1985 – July 1987[1]
StudioWestlake Recording Studios
(Los Angeles, California)
Michael Jackson chronology
The Original Soul of Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson studio album chronology
Singles from Bad
  1. "I Just Can't Stop Loving You"
    Released: July 20, 1987
  2. "Bad"
    Released: September 7, 1987
  3. "The Way You Make Me Feel"
    Released: November 9, 1987
  4. "Man in the Mirror"
    Released: January 16, 1988
  5. "Dirty Diana"
    Released: April 18, 1988
  6. "Another Part of Me"
    Released: July 11, 1988
  7. "Smooth Criminal"
    Released: October 24, 1988
  8. "Leave Me Alone"
    Released: February 13, 1989
  9. "Liberian Girl"
    Released: July 4, 1989

Bad is the seventh studio album by American singer and songwriter Michael Jackson. It was released on August 31, 1987 in the United States by Epic Records and internationally by CBS Records,[2] nearly five years after Jackson's previous solo studio album, Thriller. Bad was written and recorded over more than three and a half years, and was the final collaboration between Jackson and producer Quincy Jones. The lyrical themes include media bias, paranoia, racial profiling, romance, self-improvement and world peace.

Bad saw Jackson exercise more artistic freedom than his previous albums. He composed nine of its eleven tracks, and received co-producer credit for the entire album. Nine songs were released as singles, including one promotional single; seven charted in the top 20 on the Billboard Hot 100, including a record-breaking five number ones. The album reached number one in thirteen countries and the top 20 in other territories.

Bad was nominated for six Grammy Awards, winning Best Music Video (for "Leave Me Alone") and Best Engineered Recording – Non Classical. It has been named one of the greatest albums of all time by several publications, including Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, where it appears at number 202. It is one of the best-selling albums, with an estimated 35 million copies sold worldwide. In 2017, the album was certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America for sales of over ten million copies in the United States.


Jackson in 1988

Jackson's previous albums, Off the Wall and Thriller, were critically and commercially successful,[3][4] eventually selling over 20 million and 65 million units worldwide, respectively.[5][6] Jackson's aim for Bad was that it would sell 100 million copies.[7]

The first studio album Jackson released in almost five years since the release of Thriller, Bad was the third, and final, collaboration between Jackson and Quincy Jones. It was produced by Jones, with co-production credit given to Jackson.[8] Jackson began recording demos for the anticipated follow-up to Thriller in November 1983 while recording Victory with the Jacksons.[1] Work was disrupted in July 1984, when Jackson embarked on the Victory Tour with his brothers.[1] Work resumed after the tour ended and after recording We Are the World, and recording officially began in January 1985.[1] In early 1985, work was disrupted again so Jackson could prepare for Disney's 4D film experience Captain EO, which featured an early pre-album extended cut of "Another Part of Me."[1] Work in the studio resumed in August of that year, and would continue until November 1986, when recording was halted yet again so Jackson could film the Bad short film.[1] Recording resumed in January 1987 and the album was completed in July.[1]

Jackson wrote a reported 60 songs for the new album and recorded 30, wanting to use them all on a 3-disc set.[9] Jones had suggested that the album be cut down to a ten-track single LP.[9] When the album was released on CD, a bonus 11th track, "Leave Me Alone", was included.[8] It was later released as a single. Later reissues of the LP also include this song. Jackson was credited for writing nine out of eleven of the songs on the album.[9] Other writing credits included Terry Britten and Graham Lyle for "Just Good Friends" and Siedah Garrett and Glen Ballard for "Man in the Mirror".[8]

Composition and lyrics[edit]

The album's song lyrics relate to romance and paranoia, the latter being a recurring theme in Jackson's albums.[3] Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic noted that Bad moved Jackson "deeper into hard rock, deeper into schmaltzy adult contemporary, deeper into hard dance – essentially taking each portion of Thriller to an extreme, while increasing the quotient of immaculate studiocraft."[3]

"Bad" was originally intended as a duet between Jackson and musician Prince.[9] Other artists that were supposed to be featured on the album included Diana Ross, Whitney Houston, Aretha Franklin and Barbra Streisand, but none of those collaborations ended up happening.[9] The song was viewed as a revived "Hit the Road, Jack" progression with lyrics that pertain to 'boasting'.[10] "Dirty Diana" was viewed by AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine as "misogynistic"[3] and its lyrics, describing a sexual predator, do not aim for the "darkness" of "Billie Jean", instead sounding equally intrigued by and apprehensive of a sexual challenge, while having the opportunity to accept or resist it.[10] "Leave Me Alone" was described as being a "paranoid anthem".[3] "Man in the Mirror" was seen as Jackson going "a step further" and offering "a straightforward homily of personal commitment", which can be seen in the lyrics, "I'm starting with the man in the mirror/I'm asking him to change his ways/And no message could have been any clearer/If you wanna make the world a better place/Take a look at yourself and then make a change."[10] The lyrics to "Speed Demon" are about driving fast.[11]

"Liberian Girl"'s lyrics were viewed as "glistening" with "gratitude" for the "existence of a loved one".[10] "Smooth Criminal"'s recalled "the popcorn-chomping manner" of "Thriller".[10] The track was thought of as an example of "Jackson's free-form language" that keeps people "aware that we are on the edge of several realities: the film, the dream it inspires, the waking world it illuminates".[10] The music in "I Just Can't Stop Loving You", a duet with Siedah Garrett, consisted mainly of finger snaps and timpani.[10] "Just Good Friends", a duet with Stevie Wonder, was viewed by critics as sounding good at the beginning of the song, ending with a "chin-bobbing cheerfulness".[10] "The Way You Make Me Feel"'s music consisted of blues harmonies.[12] The lyrics of "Another Part of Me" deal with being united, as "we".[12] Critics Richard Cromelin (from the Los Angeles Times)[13] and Richard Harrington (from The Washington Post) associated the song's lyrics with the Harmonic Convergence phenomenon that occurred around the time of the album's release, with Harrington highlighting the verse: "The planets are lining up / We're bringing brighter days / They're all in line / Waiting for you / Can't you see? / You're just another part of me".[14]


A male with black hair singing into a microphone. The male is wearing a blue jacket and a white shirt with black pants and a white belt.
Jackson performing "The Way You Make Me Feel" during the Bad world tour

Bad was released on August 31, 1987.[12][15] By September 26, it had debuted at number one on the Billboard 200,[16] and remained there for six consecutive weeks.[17] The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) certified Bad ten times platinum for shipping ten million copies in the United States alone.[18] Though Jackson furthered his stance as a global pop superstar, in the United States, Bad failed to match the sales of Thriller, causing some in the media to label the album a "disappointment" in comparison.[9][19]

In the United Kingdom, Bad sold 500,000 copies in its first five days of release, and as of 2008 is certified 13× platinum with sales of 3.9 million, making it Jackson's second best-selling album in the United Kingdom.[20] Bad peaked at number one in 25 countries[21] including Austria,[22] Canada,[23] Japan,[24] New Zealand,[25] Norway,[26] Sweden,[27] Switzerland[28] and the United Kingdom.[29] The album also charted at No. 13 in Mexico[30] and at No. 22 in Portugal.[31] Bad has received various certifications worldwide. It was certified 7× platinum for the shipment of over 700,000 units in Canada by the Canadian Recording Industry Association.[32] In Europe, the 2001 reissue was certified platinum by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) for the sales of one million units.[33] The album was also certified platinum by the IFPI for the shipment of over 20,000 units in Hong Kong.[34] Globally, Bad is Jackson's second best-selling album behind Thriller, with sales between 30 and 35 million units.[35][36]


By the time Bad was released, Thriller had sold millions, raising expectations for the new album. A commemorative special on Jackson's life, The Magic Returns, aired on CBS around the time of the release of Bad.[12] At the end of the documentary, the channel debuted the music video for "Bad", directed by Martin Scorsese and featuring Wesley Snipes.[12] The marketing strategy, mastered by Frank DiLeo among others, also included Jackson producing another mini-movie around the time of the Bad World Tour. That film, Moonwalker, included performances of songs from Bad, including "Speed Demon", "Leave Me Alone", "Man in the Mirror" and "Smooth Criminal", the latter two released as sole videos at the end of the film.[37][38] Jackson's tour for Bad was a major financial success, grossing $125 million.[39][40]


Bad was the first album to have five consecutive singles — "I Just Can't Stop Loving You", "Bad", "The Way You Make Me Feel", "Man in the Mirror" and "Dirty Diana" — peak at number one on the Billboard Hot 100. The record was tied by Katy Perry's 2010 album Teenage Dream.[41]

Lead single "I Just Can't Stop Loving You" reached number one on September 19, 1987. It also reached number one on Billboard's R&B/Hip Hop Songs chart and number two on the Adult Contemporary chart.[42] It was at number one for two weeks in the UK,[43] four weeks in the Netherlands[44] and seven weeks in Norway.[45] "Bad", peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 on October 16, 1987,[46] and charted in the top 10 internationally.[47] "The Way You Make Me Feel" charted within the top ten and twenty internationally.[48] "Man in the Mirror" charted at number one on Billboard's Hot 100 in March 1988[49] and charted at reached numbers 4, 8 and 10 in New Zealand, Australia and Austria.[50] On July 2, 1988, "Dirty Diana" reached number one on the Hot 100[51] and charted in the top ten in several countries.[52]

"Another Part of Me" achieved less success, reaching number 11 on the Billboard Hot 100, and topped the Billboard R&B/Hip Hop Songs chart.[42][53] It reached numbers 5, 14 and 32 in the Netherlands, New Zealand and France.[54] "Smooth Criminal" became the sixth top ten single on the Billboard Hot 100,[42] and charted in the top ten in five territories.[55] Released outside the United States and Canada, "Leave Me Alone" topped the Irish charts,[56] and reached the top ten in five other countries.[57] The album's last single was "Liberian Girl", which did not chart on the Billboard Hot 100, but charted mainly within the top twenty internationally.[58]

in the UK, seven of the Bad singles reached the UK top ten by 2009 (six initially, until "Man in the Mirror" jumped from position 21 to 2 in 2009), as did the singles from Jackson's next album, Dangerous, between 1991 and 1993. This was a record for any studio album in the UK until Calvin Harris broke this in 2013.[citation needed]

Critical reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Review scores
AllMusic4.5/5 stars[3]
Blender4/5 stars[59]
Encyclopedia of Popular Music3/5 stars[60]
Entertainment WeeklyB+[61]
Los Angeles Times3/4 stars[13]
MusicHound R&B3.5/5[62]
The Philadelphia Inquirer4/4 stars[63]
Rolling Stone4/5 stars[10]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide3.5/5 stars[64]
The Village VoiceB+[65]

In a contemporary review for The New York Times, Jon Pareles called Bad "a well-made, catchy dance record by an enigmatic pop star". He said while nothing on the record compared to "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'", the music's "concocted synthesizer-driven arrangements" were "clear" and carried "a solid kick".[12] In USA Today, Edna Gundersen called it Jackson's "most polished effort to date," that is "calculated but not sterile."[66] Davitt Sigerson from Rolling Stone wrote that "even without a milestone recording like 'Billie Jean', Bad is still a better record than Thriller." He believed the filler, such as "Speed Demon", "Dirty Diana" and "Liberian Girl", made Bad "richer, sexier and better than Thriller's forgettables."[10]

Richard Harrington of The Washington Post felt that while the album could not live up to post-Thriller expectations, it would be "considerably fairer to compare" Bad with Off the Wall. His overall opinion on Bad was that it was "a very good record" that is "immaculately produced and with some scintillating vocal performances from Jackson".[67] Richard Cromelin of the Los Angeles Times called Bad "a fair-to-strong array of soul and rock blends", commenting that the record was "not bad" and was more "reminiscent of Off the Wall's uniform strength than Thriller's peaks and valleys". Cromelin felt that it would be "disappointing" if this album's "creative level" is where Jackson wants to stay.[68]

Robert Christgau was more critical in The Village Voice. He said its "studio mastery", along with Jackson's "rhythmic and vocal power", had made for "the strongest and most consistent black pop album in years", but lamented its lack of "genius" in the vein of "Beat It" or "Billie Jean" and panned the underlying themes in Jackson's lyrics. "He's against burglary, speeding, and sex ('Dirty Diana' is as misogynistic as any piece of metal suck-my-cock), in favor of harmonic convergence and changing the world by changing the man in the mirror. His ideal African comes from Liberia. And he claims moonwalking makes him a righteous brother. Like shit."[65]

In 1988, Bad was nominated for Grammy Awards for Album of the Year, Best Pop Vocal Performance – Male, Best R&B Vocal Performance – Male, and won for Best Engineered Recording – Non Classical.[69] The following year, it was nominated for Record of the Year for "Man in the Mirror",[70] and in 1990 won for Best Music Video – Short Form (for "Leave Me Alone").[71]


A black jacket with five round golden medals on its left and right shoulder and a gold ban on its left arm sleeve. The jacket has two belt straps on the right bottom sleeve. Underneath the jacket is a golden belt, with a round pendant in the center of it. There is a red light reflecting on the jacket and belt as well as a gold squared plat on the left side of the jacket and belt.
Jackson wore a gold-plated military styled jacket with a belt during the Bad era to give himself an edgier look.[9]

According to Jayson Rodriguez of MTV, "following the twin cannons that were Off the Wall and Thriller wouldn't be an easy task for most, but Jackson's follow-up, 1987's Bad, was formidable by all accounts."[19] He felt that Bad was "wrongfully dismissed by critics because it wasn't the sales blockbuster that Thriller was" and that during the Bad era, Jackson's vocal hiccups and stammered "shamone" would become staples in his music that were "heightening and highlighting the emotion of his lyrics."[19] Rolling Stone commented that "the best way to view" Bad was not as "the sequel to Thriller.[10] In 2009, VH1 said of the album:

Understandably, the expectations for the album were ridiculously high, and grew even higher after Jackson planned duets with the likes of Prince (on the title track) and Whitney Houston (and Aretha Franklin and Barbra Streisand). None of those collaborations ended up happening, but they only increased the hype for the album. Bad was a deeply personal project for Jackson – he wrote nine of the 11 songs – one that saw him gain further independence and debut a harder-edged look and sound.[9]

In 2009, Jim Farber of the Daily News wrote that Bad "streamlined the quirks" of Jackson's two previous albums to "create his most smooth work of pop to date."[72] A writer for The Daily Telegraph commented that while Bad was another worldwide commercial success, the album "inevitably failed to match the success of Thriller despite Jackson's massive and grueling world tour".[73] In 2009, a writer for the Miami Herald reflected back on the anticipation for Bad, describing the album's release as being the "most hotly anticipated album in history".[74] That same year, Stephen M. Silverman, a writer for People magazine, viewed Bad as being "when some slippage" in Jackson's "popularity began to show".[75]

In July 2016, it was announced by the Official Charts Company that Bad was the ninth best-selling album in British history with sales of 4 million units, charting behind Thriller.[76] Bad, along with other studio albums released by Jackson, is among the best-selling albums of all-time.[77] In 2003, the album was ranked number 202 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time".[78] It was also included in the book titled 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.[79] In 2009, VH1 listed Bad at number 43 on their list of "100 Greatest Albums of All Time of the MTV Generation".[80] In 2012, Slant Magazine listed the album at number 48 on its list of "Best Albums of the 1980s".[81]

In a retrospective review for AllMusic, Stephen Thomas Erlewine stated that Jackson "approached" Bad much the same way he approached Thriller, which was to "take the basic formula of the predecessor, expand it slightly, and move it outward." While the album "rebounds with songs that prove mechanical can be tolerable if delivered with hooks and panache," it still made Bad feel like an "artifact of its time instead a piece of music that transcends it", according to Erlewine.[3]

In the Encyclopedia of Popular Music, Colin Larkin wrote, "In musical terms, Bad certainly broke no fresh ground; appealing though its soft funk confections were, they lacked substance, and represented only a cosmetic advance over his two earlier albums with [Quincy Jones]."[60] Joseph Vogel was more enthusiastic about the record. "On Bad, Jackson's music is largely about creating moods, visceral emotions, and fantastical scenarios....[with] each song work[ing] as a dream capsule, inviting the listener into a vivid new sound, story, space." He called Bad "a compelling, phantasmagorical album, which a handful of critics recognized from the beginning."[82]

The album's songs have been covered and parodied by multiple recording artists since its release in the late 1980s. Notable cover versions include Alien Ant Farm's cover of "Smooth Criminal" and Shakaya's cover of "The Way You Make Me Feel". Notable parody versions include "Weird Al" Yankovic, who had previously recorded a parody of Jackson's song "Beat It".[83] Yankovic parodied "Bad", titling his version "Fat", in 1988; the song won a Grammy Award the same year for Best Concept Music Video.[83]


Organization Country Accolade Year Source
Grammy Awards United States Best Engineered Recording – Non-Classical (Bad) 1988 [69]
Grammy Awards United States Best Music Video – Short Form ("Leave Me Alone") 1990 [71]
Quintessence Editions Ltd. United Kingdom 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die (No rank) 2003 [79]
Rolling Stone United States 500 Greatest Albums of All Time (Ranked #202) 2003 [78]
VH1 United States 100 Greatest Albums of All Time of the MTV Generation (Ranked #43) 2009 [80]

Bad was ranked as the 138th best album of all time on the Billboard Top 200 Albums of All Time.[84]

Bad 25[edit]

It was announced on May 3, 2012, that the Estate of Michael Jackson and Epic Records would be releasing a 25th anniversary album of Bad. The album was named Bad 25 and was released on September 18, 2012.[85] Since the release of Bad 25, there has been a discontinuation of the 2001 special edition.

Track listing[edit]

1."Bad"Michael Jackson4:08
2."The Way You Make Me Feel"Jackson4:59
3."Speed Demon"Jackson4:03
4."Liberian Girl"Jackson3:55
5."Just Good Friends" (with Stevie Wonder)4:09
6."Another Part of Me"Jackson3:55
7."Man in the Mirror"5:21
8."I Just Can't Stop Loving You" (with Siedah Garrett)Jackson4:27
9."Dirty Diana"Jackson4:42
10."Smooth Criminal"Jackson4:20

Re-issues of Bad feature a number of changes when compared to the original 1987 release:

  • "Bad" – The original mix was replaced with the 7" single mix. The most notable difference is the lack of horns in all the choruses except for the last two. Horns are also missing from the second and third pre-choruses. The rhythm guitar during the choruses is also turned up along with the hi-hats.
  • "The Way You Make Me Feel" – The full-length remix used for the single with louder vocals and ad libs added to the end replaced the original album mix.
  • "I Just Can't Stop Loving You" omits Michael Jackson's spoken intro.
  • "Dirty Diana" is replaced with the single edit of the song.
  • "Smooth Criminal" went through two changes on the album. It was remixed to make the kick drum heavier and the bass synth fatter. The quick-sequenced synclavier behind the bass has been rendered mono as well. The first version of this mix left the breathing intact, but was later removed after some time.
  • "Leave Me Alone" was not included on the original vinyl nor cassette releases but was included on the CD release and now is included in all releases.


Personnel as listed in the album's liner notes are:[8]

  • Michael Jackson - vocals, backing vocals
  • Background vocals: Siedah Garrett (tracks 7–8), The Winans (7), and The Andraé Crouch Choir (7)
  • Bass guitar: Nathan East (track 8)
  • Hammond organ B3: Jimmy Smith (track 1)
  • Synthesizer: Greg Phillinganes (track 1)
  • Drums: John Robinson (tracks 1–4, 9–10), Miko Brando (3), Ollie E. Brown (3, 5), Leon "Ndugu" Chancler (8), Bill Bottrell (10), Bruce Swedien (5, 10), Humberto Gatica (5)
  • Programming: Douglas Getschal (tracks 1–4, 9), Cornelius Mims (5), Larry Williams (11)
  • Guitar: David Williams (tracks 1–3, 6, 9–10), Bill Bottrell (3), Eric Gale (2), Danny Hull, Steve Stevens (solo, 9), Dann Huff (7–8), Michael Landau (5), Paul Jackson Jr. (6, 9, 11)
  • Trumpet: Gary Grant, Jerry Hey (tracks 1–3, 5–6, 10)
  • Sounds engineered: Ken Caillat and Tom Jones
  • Percussion: Paulinho da Costa (tracks 1–5, 8), Ollie E. Brown (2, 7)
  • Keyboards: Stefan Stefanovic, Greg Phillinganes (track 7)
  • Saxophone: Kim Hutchcroft (tracks 1–3, 5–6, 10), Larry Williams (1–2, 5–6, 10)
  • Synclavier (tracks 1–6, 8–10), digital guitar (1), finger snaps (2), sound effects (3): Christopher Currell
  • Synthesizer: John Barnes (tracks 1–4, 6, 9–10), Michael Boddicker (1–5, 9–10), Greg Phillinganes (1–3, 5, 8, 11, solo–1), Rhett Lawrence (5–6), David Paich (4, 8), Larry Williams (4–5, 11), Glen Ballard (7), Randy Kerber (7), Randy Waldman (9)
  • Piano: John Barnes (track 8), Kevin Maloney (10)
  • Rhythm arrangement: Michael Jackson (tracks 1–4, 6, 9–11), Quincy Jones (1, 3–5, 7–8), Christopher Currell (1), John Barnes (4, 6, 9–10), Graham Lyle (5), Terry Britten (5), Glen Ballard (7), Jerry Hey (9)
  • Horn arrangement: Jerry Hey (tracks 1–3, 5–6, 10)
  • Programming: Larry Williams (tracks 2), Eric Persing (3), Steve Porcaro (4, 8), Casey Young (11)
  • Saxophone: Larry Williams (track 3)



Region Certification Certified units/Sales
Australia (ARIA)[109] 6× Platinum 420,000^
Austria (IFPI Austria)[110] 4× Platinum 200,000*
Canada (Music Canada)[111] 7× Platinum 700,000^
Denmark (IFPI Denmark) 100,000[112]
Finland (Musiikkituottajat)[113] Gold 51,287[113]
France (SNEP)[114] Diamond 1,795,000[115]
Germany (BVMI)[116] 4× Platinum 2,000,000^
India (IMI) 200,000[117]
Italy (FIMI) 1,000,000[118]
Japan (RIAJ) 1,000,000[119]
Mexico (AMPROFON)[120] Platinum+Gold 350,000^
Netherlands (NVPI) 500,000[121]
New Zealand (RMNZ)[122] 9× Platinum 135,000^
Spain (PROMUSICAE)[123] 3× Platinum 300,000^
Sweden (GLF)[124] 2× Platinum 200,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[125] 13× Platinum 4,140,000[126]
United States (RIAA)[127] Diamond 10,000,000^
Europe (IFPI)[128]
For sales in 2009
1× Platinum 1,000,000*

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Smallcombe 2016, pp. 220–296.
  2. ^ Dyson 1993, p. 60.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Michael Jackson – Bad". AllMusic. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
  4. ^ Holden, Stephen (November 1, 1979). "Michael Jackson – Off the Wall". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  5. ^ Anderson, Kyle (July 20, 2009). "Michael Jackson's Thriller Set to Become Top-Selling Album of All Time". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  6. ^ Wyman, Bill (January 4, 2013). "Did "Thriller" Really Sell a Hundred Million Copies?". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  7. ^ Campbell 1993, p. 147.
  8. ^ a b c d Bad: Special Edition (booklet). Epic Records. 2001.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Michael Jackson's Life & Legacy: The Eccentric King of Pop (1986-1999)". Archived from the original on June 4, 2011.. VH1. MTV Networks. June 7, 2009.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sigerson, Davitt (October 22, 1987). "Michael Jackson – Bad". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  11. ^ Pareles, Jon (September 3, 1987). "Critic's Notebook; How Good Is Jackson's 'Bad'?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Pareles, Jon (August 31, 1987). "Pop: Michael Jackson's 'Bad,' Follow-Up to a Blockbuster". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
  13. ^ a b Cromelin, Richard (December 13, 1987). "Unsilent Nights. . . : Four Stars Being Best, a Guide to the Top 40". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  14. ^ Harrington, Richard (August 31, 1987). "Jackson's 'Bad' Looking Good". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  15. ^ Campbell 1993, p. 153.
  16. ^ a b "Billboard 200 – Week of September 26, 1987". Billboard. September 26, 1987. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  17. ^ Caulfield, Keith (January 6, 2010). "Taylor Swift Edges Susan Boyle For 2009's Top-Selling Album". Billboard. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  18. ^ "Michael Jackson's "Thriller" Certified 33x Platinum; "Bad" Now Diamond". Headline Planet. February 16, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  19. ^ a b c Rodriguez, Jayson (June 25, 2009). "Michael Jackson's Musical Legacy, From The Jackson 5 To Invincible". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  20. ^ "Certified Awards". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  21. ^ "Michael Jackson Feted As Top Artist Of Decade After Selling 110 Million Discs". Vol. 77 no. 22. March 12, 1990. p. 60. ISSN 0021-5996.
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  23. ^ a b "Top RPM Albums: Issue 0880". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
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  25. ^ a b " – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  26. ^ a b " – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  27. ^ a b " – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  28. ^ a b " – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  29. ^ a b "Michael Jackson | Artist | Official Charts". UK Albums Chart. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  30. ^ a b " – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  31. ^ a b " – Michael Jackson – Bad". Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  32. ^ "Gold/Platinum". Music Canada. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  33. ^ "Michael Jackson: Albumi". International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  34. ^ "Hong Kong sales certification". IFPI Hong Kong. 1988. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
  35. ^ "Michael Jackson Bad album set for re-release". The Daily Telegraph. November 9, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
  36. ^ Wyman, Bill (January 4, 2013). "Did "Thriller" Really Sell a Hundred Million Copies?". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
  37. ^ "Review: 'Moonwalker'". Variety. December 31, 1987. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
  38. ^ Hunt, Dennis (January 10, 1989). "VIDEO REVIEW : 'Moonwalker': A Stroll Through a Super Ego". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
  39. ^ Brooks 2002, p. 81.
  40. ^ Grant 2009, pp. 104–105.
  41. ^ Trust, Gary (August 17, 2011). "Katy Perry Makes Hot 100 History: Ties Michael Jackson's Record". Billboard. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  42. ^ a b c "Bad – Awards". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  43. ^ "Michael Jackson". Official Charts Company. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  44. ^ "Michael Jackson – I Just Can't Stop Loving You" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
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  47. ^ "Michael Jackson – Bad" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  48. ^ "Michael Jackson – The Way You Make Me Feel" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
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