Bad (Michael Jackson song)
|Single by Michael Jackson|
|from the album Bad|
|B-side||"I Can't Help It"|
|Released||September 7, 1987|
|Michael Jackson singles chronology|
"Bad" is a song by American recording artist Michael Jackson. It was released by Epic Records on September 7, 1987 as the second single from Jackson's third major-label and seventh studio album of the same name. The song was written and composed by Jackson, and produced by Quincy Jones and Jackson. Jackson stated that the song was influenced by a real-life story he had read about, of a young man who tried to escape poverty by attending private school but ended up being killed when he returned home.
"Bad" was well received by contemporary music critics, with some critics noting that "Bad" helped give Jackson an edgier image. The song reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, and remained there for two weeks, becoming the album's second number one single, and Jackson's eighth number one entry on the chart. Internationally, the song was also commercially successful, charting within the top of the charts in eleven countries including Ireland, Italy, Norway and Spain as well as charting in the top ten in Australia, Austria, France, Germany, New Zealand, Switzerland, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The song also peaked at number one in the Netherlands and European charts.
The full version of the music video for "Bad" was released in August 1987, and broadcast as a CBS prime time special. It was directed by Martin Scorsese and co-starred Wesley Snipes in one of his first appearances. The video, inspired in part by the film West Side Story, which shows Jackson and a group of gangsters portraying a street gang dancing in a subway station.
- 1 Background and inspiration
- 2 Composition
- 3 Critical reception
- 4 Chart performance
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 Charts
- 7 Music video
- 8 Choreography
- 9 Live performances
- 10 Glee version
- 11 Track listings and formats
- 12 Official versions
- 13 Personnel
- 14 2012 reissue
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
- 17 External links
Background and inspiration
Michael Jackson wrote Bad in 1986, and recorded it at some point in 1987. It was co-produced by Jackson and Quincy Jones, and was included on his seventh studio album of the same name. "Bad" was originally intended to be a duet between Jackson and musician Prince; although the plans were not fruitful. Prince instead submitted his song "Wouldn’t You Love To Love Me" to Jackson for use on Bad, but he rejected it, so it was instead given to Taja Sevelle for her self-titled album. In Jackson's 1988 autobiography Moonwalk, Jackson discussed the concept of "Bad", elaborating that,
'Bad' is a song about the street. It's about this kid from a bad neighborhood who gets to go away to a private school. He comes back to the old neighborhood when he's on a break from school and the kids from the neighborhood start giving him trouble. He sings, 'I'm bad, you're bad, who's bad, who's the best?' He's saying when you're strong and good, then you're bad.
In a 1988 interview with Ebony and Jet magazines, Jackson said that he had gotten the idea for the song from a true story that he had read about in either Time or Newsweek magazine. Jackson stated that the story was about a student who went to school in upstate New York, who was "from the ghetto", had tried to make something of his life and planned to leave all of his friends behind when he returned from Thanksgiving break. He added that the student's friends' jealousy resulted in them killing the student; Jackson stated that the student's death was not included in the music video. Various Jackson biographers have concluded that the story he was referring was that of Edmund Perry. However, Perry was not killed by kids in his neighborhood; he was killed by a plainclothes police officer when Perry and his brother allegedly attacked and badly beat the officer in a mugging attempt.
The song is written in the key of A minor with a time signature in common time. The pitch is raised almost a quarter of a whole tone from standard pitch, A440 Hz, up to cirka A454 Hz. Jackson's vocal range spans from G3 to C6. The track has a tempo of 114 beats per minute.
"Bad" was viewed as a revived "Hit the Road Jack" progression. Davitt Sigerson wrote in Rolling Stone magazine, "When Jackson declares that 'the whole world has to answer right now,' he is not boasting but making a statement of fact regarding his extraordinary stardom. If anything, he is scorning the self-coronation of lesser funk royals and inviting his fickle public to spurn him if it dare." Sigerson compared the track to material by James Brown, whose "It's a Man's Man's Man's World" is openly referenced by the four chromatic note brass introduction to the song. Lyrically, "Bad" pertains to proving to people that you are tough boasting, with Jackson asking "who's bad?" in a repeating lyric in the song's chorus.
"Bad" was well received by contemporary music critics. Some critics noted that the song helped Jackson's image become more edgy. Davitt Sigerson, a writer for Rolling Stone magazine, commented that the track" needs no "defense" and he generally praised Jackson's vocal performance in the song. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic listed "Bad", along with two other songs from the album, as being top picks from the album's eleven tracks. In separate review of the song, Erlewine commented that Jackson's vocals "sounded like [he was] the love child of James Brown and Mavis Staples" and added that "musically speaking, in this case, 'Bad' is very good". He also noted that the track's "authority and boasting helped to humanize" Jackson and "changed his image", remarking that it was "fun hearing him talking trash and being his own bigger booster". Jennifer Clay of Yahoo Music noted that while Jackson's new edgier image was a "little hard to swallow", the image worked musically on the album's songs "Bad", "Man in the Mirror", and "Dirty Diana".
"Bad" charted within the top ten, at number eight, on the Billboard Hot 100 on October 10, 1987 and peaked at number one on October 24, 1987. "Bad" stayed at the top position for two consecutive weeks. "Bad" was Jackson's Bad album's second number one single on the Billboard Hot 100, and Jackson's eighth number one entry on the chart. The track also charted on the Billboard Hot R&B Singles and Billboard Hot Dance Club Play at number one. "Bad" was commercially successful internationally, generally charting within the top ten, and reaching the top position on some charts. "Bad" debuted at number five on the United Kingdom charts on September 26, 1987. The following week, the song charted at its peak position of number three, where it remained for two weeks. "Bad" remained within the chart's top ten positions for four weeks, and charted within the top 100 for a total of eleven weeks in 1987. "Bad" peaked at number five on Canadian music charts on November 7, 1987. "Bad" peaked at number four in Sweden on October 14, 1987. The song spent four weeks within the chart's top ten. On October 3, "Bad" debuted at number nine in France, and after six weeks of charting within the top ten, the song peaked at number four on November 14. "Bad" debuted on New Zealand music charts at number four on October 18, and the following week moved to its peak position of number two. The song then stayed within the top ten for the next five weeks. The track charted within the top fifty positions for fifteen weeks in 1987 and 1988.
The song also charted at number two in Norway in the thirty-ninth week of 1987, and charted within the top ten positions for eight weeks in 1987. The song was also very successful on the Australian music charts, peaking at number four. "Bad" debuted on Austrian charts at number ten on November 1, 1987. The following week the song charted out of the top ten and the next week returned to the top ten at number nine, which was its peak position. The song debuted at number eighty-seven in Dutch on September 9, 1987. The following week, the song moved up to number eleven, which was seventy-three positions higher than its previous week. The song peaked at number one, and remained at the top position for two consecutive weeks. In 2006, Jackson's music re-entered charts following his music being re-issued for his Visionary album. The track entered Spanish charts for the first time on April 4, 2006, and debuted at the top position. "Bad" remained within the top twenty positions for nine consecutive weeks. The song debuted at its peak position at number five in Italy on April 6. After Jackson's death in June 2009, his music re-entered charts again worldwide. In July, the track peaked at number eleven in Italy, number twenty in Spain, number twenty-five in Sweden, number thirty-seven in Denmark and number forty in the United Kingdom.
In popular culture
The song is used in the 2010 film Megamind
The song is also used in the teaser trailer from the 2016 film The Angry Birds Movie
|Austria (Ö3 Austria Top 40)||9|
|Belgium (Ultratop 50 Flanders)||1|
|Canadian Adult Contemporary (RPM)||1|
|Canadian Digital Singles Chart (Billboard)||30|
|Canadian Top Singles (RPM)||5|
|Germany (Official German Charts)||4|
|Netherlands (Dutch Top 40)||1|
|Netherlands (Single Top 100)||1|
|New Zealand (Recorded Music NZ)||2|
|South Africa (EMA)||1|
|Switzerland (Schweizer Hitparade)||3|
|UK Singles (Official Charts Company)||3|
|US Billboard Hot 100||1|
|US Dance Club Songs (Billboard)||1|
|US Hot Dance Music/Maxi-Singles Sales (Billboard)||1|
|US Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs (Billboard)||1|
|US Rhythmic (Billboard)||1|
|US Billboard Adult Contemporary||33|
|US Cash Box Top 100||1|
|Netherlands (Single Top 100)||27|
|UK Singles (Official Charts Company)||16|
|Austria (Ö3 Austria Top 40)||38|
|Canada (Hot Canadian Digital Singles)||30|
|France (SNEP) Download Chart||12|
|Netherlands (Single Top 100)||53|
|Switzerland (Schweizer Hitparade)||15|
|UK Singles (Official Charts Company)||40|
|US Hot Digital Songs (Billboard)||23|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Silver||491,000|
|United States (RIAA)||Platinum||1,000,000|
*sales figures based on certification alone
|Canada Top Singles (RPM)||54|
|German Singles Chart||75|
|US Billboard Hot 100||59|
|US Cash Box||24|
The full music video for "Bad" is an 18-minute short film written by novelist and screenwriter Richard Price, shot by Michael Chapman, and directed by Martin Scorsese. The video was shot in Brooklyn over a 6-week period during November and December 1986. The video has many references to the 1961 film West Side Story, especially the "Cool" sequence. The video used a different version of the song as opposed to the commercially released version. This version, using a different organ solo in the middle, hasn't been commercially released as of yet.
In the video, Jackson portrays a teenager named Darryl, who has just completed a term at an expensive private school. He returns to the city and takes the subway back to his neglected neighborhood. Darryl finds his home is empty where he is greeted by his old friends. The leader of the group is Mini Max (a then mostly-unknown Wesley Snipes). At first, relations are friendly but slightly awkward. Then, the situation begins to deteriorate as the gang starts to realize how much Darryl has changed. They especially notice how uncomfortable he has become with their criminal activities. Darryl takes the gang to the subway station (Hoyt–Schermerhorn Streets in Brooklyn) in an attempt to show his friends he is still "bad" by robbing an elderly man. He has a change of heart at the last minute and Mini Max chastises him, telling Darryl he's no longer bad. After more disrespect from Mini Max, the video cuts to Darryl and a group of street kids dancing while Darryl is seen performing "Bad". Darryl insists that Max is headed for a fall which is nearly Darryl's undoing. Eventually, Mini Max accepts that and after a final handshake, leaves Darryl in peace. At the end of the video, Darryl is left alone watching his gang leave.
The video was not commercially released until it was included in the video albums; Video Greatest Hits - HIStory (long version on DVD and short version in VHS), Number Ones (short version), Michael Jackson's Vision (long version) and the Target version DVD of Bad 25 (short version). The full video was introduced in a TV special, Michael Jackson: The Magic Returns, on Primetime, a CBS television show on August 31, 1987. The full video won awards at various prestigious award ceremonies including Favorite Single (Soul/R&B) at the American Music Awards and Biggest Selling Album by a Male Soloist in the UK from the Guinness Book of World Records.
After Jackson's death in June 2009, Letitia James, of the New York City Council, began trying to convince the agency to rename or co-name the Hoyt–Schermerhorn Streets station or to hang a plaque at the station in Jackson's honor. However, her request was denied by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in September 2009. James commented, "Having Michael Jackson visit and moonwalk at this station was a huge deal not only for Brooklyn, but all of New York in the '80s [...] And renaming this station in his honor would put it on the map and help ensure that people don't forget." A source from the MTA commented that no subway stations in the MTA system are named or co-named after individuals, mostly because it could confuse riders. The MTA also declined to put a plaque in the station, due to MTA guidelines forbidding such a thing.
The video's choreographers Jackson, Jeffrey Daniel, and Gregg Burge were influenced by West Side Story when designing the dance routines but wanted to keep the scene more contemporary and incorporated the "moonwalk" into the movements. Assistant choreographer Jeffrey Daniel commented, "It's like a train coming across the screen [...] and that's the effect I was looking for and it worked". The music video received a nomination for choreography at the 1988 MTV Video Music Awards Ceremony. The video for "Bad" and Michael Jackson's "The Way You Make Me Feel" video were both nominated for Best Choreography. However, Janet Jackson's video "The Pleasure Principle". won the award.
"Bad" was performed during Jackson's Bad world tour concert series from 1987 to 1989, in both the first and second leg, as the final song in the first leg and sixteenth song in the second leg in the setlist. The song was also included on the first leg only of Jackson's Dangerous World Tour. A small snippet of the song was set to be sung during his performance of "They Don't Care About Us" during his This Is It concerts, which never occurred due to his death. A live version of the song at Wembley 1988 and Yokohama 1987 are available on the DVD Live at Wembley July 16, 1988.
American TV series Glee did a Michael Jackson tribute episode in 2012 entitled "Michael", which included an a cappella version of "Bad" featuring the Beelzebubs as part of The Warblers. This cover debuted and peaked at number 80 at Billboard Hot 100, number 48 at Billboard Digital Songs, number 90 at Billboard Canadian Hot 100, and number 29 at Billboard Adult Pop Songs chart at the week of February 18, 2012.
Track listings and formats
- Album version – 4:06
- 7" single mix (new album version) – 4:06
- Dance extended mix includes "false fade" – 8:23
- Dance remix radio edit – 4:56
- Dub version – 4:06
- A cappella – 3:49
- Afrojack Club Mix – 7:36
- Afrojack remix featuring Pitbull DJ Buddha Edit – 4:31
- "Remember the Time"/"Bad" (Immortal version) – 4:39
|"Bad (Afrojack Remix) (DJ Buddha Edit)"|
|Single by Michael Jackson featuring Pitbull|
|from the album Bad 25|
|Released||August 14, 2012|
1987 (original version)|
2012 (additional overdubs and mixes)
|Michael Jackson singles chronology|
|Pitbull singles chronology|
A remix of "Bad" featuring Afrojack, DJ Buddha and Pitbull was produced for the 2012 Bad 25 album reissue. It was made available as a digital single prior to the album's release, via iTunes and Amazon.com on August 14, 2012.
- Digital Single
- "Bad" (Afrojack Remix) feat. Pitbull [DJ Buddha Edit] - 4:29
- "Bad" (Afrojack Remix) feat. Pitbull [The Derry Mix] - 3:54
Re-titled as "Bad 2012", the single appeared on several countries' music charts, including debuting at number 52 on the Billboard Japan Hot 100 chart, in the week of September 15, 2012 and peaking at number 6 several weeks later. It also appeared on the US Billboard Dance/Electronic Digital Songs Chart at number 45 for one week on September 1, 2012. On the week of September 29, 2012, it debuted on Hot Dance Club Songs chart at Number 42, and peaked at Number 18.
This remix received overwhelmingly negative reviews from music critics. Randall Roberts of the Los Angeles Times wrote that the remixes on Bad 25 were "terrible... and are an insult to MJ's memory not because they rework his music, but because they do it so ungracefully." Evan Sawdey from PopMatters said "Afrojack has two remixes of "Bad" here, obviously trying to make the song sound like it belongs on modern-day radio (one of them, with two guest verses from Pitbull, is just outright trash)" MisterCharlie from SupaJam.com also gave it an extremely negative review. The Guardian's review said it was "a clubbed-up remix featuring the world's worst rapper".
|Austria (Ö3 Austria Top 40)||45|
|Japan Hot 100 Singles||6|
|US Billboard Hot Dance Club Play||18|
|Poland (Polish Airplay Top 100)||89|
- Scorsese, Martin (1987-08-31), Michael Jackson: Bad, retrieved 2016-06-02
- "Michael Jackson's Life & Legacy: The Eccentric King Of Pop (1986–1999)". VH1.com. Viacom. Archived from the original on March 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
- Jackson 1988
- Michael: In His Own Words Archived July 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Exclusive Ebony/Jet Showcase Bad Interview. Hulu.com. 1988.
- Dyson, Michael Eric. The Michael Eric Dyson Reader. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2004
- Taraborrelli, J. Randy. Michael Jackson: The Magic, The Madness, The Whole Story, 1958-2009. New York: Hachette Book Group, 2009.
- "Bad – Michael Jackson Digital Sheet Music (Digital Download)". MusicNotes.com. Alfred Publishing Co. Inc. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
- Davitt Sigerson (1987-10-22). "Album Reviews: "Bad"". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media LLC. Archived from the original on September 9, 2012. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine. "Bad > Overview". Allmusic.com. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine. "Bad > Song Review". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
- "Michael Jackson: Reviews". Ca.Music.Yahoo.com. Yahoo! Inc. 1987-01-01. Archived from the original on August 6, 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
- "October 10, 1987". Billboard.com. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
- "October 24, 1987". Billboard.com. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
- "October 31, 1987". Billboard.com. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
- "Bad awards on Allmusic". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
- "Michael Jackson – Bad (album)". LesCharts.com. Hung Medien. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
- "Despicable Me 3 – Official Trailer – In Theaters Summer 2017 (HD)". YouTube. December 14, 2016.
- "Australian-charts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". ARIA Top 50 Singles.
- "Austriancharts.at – Michael Jackson – Bad" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40.
- "Ultratop.be – Michael Jackson – Bad" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50.
- "Bad in Canadian Adult Contemporary Chart". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
- "Bad in Canadian Top Singles Chart". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
- "Lescharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad" (in French). Les classement single.
- "Offiziellecharts.de – Michael Jackson – Bad". GfK Entertainment Charts.
- "Hungarian Singles Chart Archives". Mahasz. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
- "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Bad". Irish Singles Chart.
- "The best-selling singles of 1987 in Italy". HitParadeItalia (it). Retrieved 2015-07-31.
5. Bad - Michael Jackson [#1, 1987/88]
- "Nederlandse Top 40 – Michael Jackson" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Michael Jackson – Bad" (in Dutch). Single Top 100.
- "Charts.nz – Michael Jackson – Bad". Top 40 Singles.
- "Norwegiancharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". VG-lista.
- "Top 30 Poland" (PDF). LP3. April 9, 1983. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- John Samson. "Bad in South African Chart". Retrieved 2015-07-31.
- Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Singles Top 100.
- "Swisscharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Swiss Singles Chart.
- "Michael Jackson". The Official Charts Company. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
- "Michael Jackson Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- "Michael Jackson Chart History (Dance Club Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- "Michael Jackson Chart History (Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- "Hot Crossover 30: October 31, 1987" (PDF). Billboard. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Whitburn, Joel (1993). Top Adult Contemporary: 1961–1993. Record Research. p. 118.
- "CASH BOX Top 100 Singles – Week ending October 31, 1987". Cash Box magazine. Archived from the original on October 24, 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "Italiancharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Top Digital Download.
- "Spanishcharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad" Canciones Top 50.
- "Michael Jackson". Official Charts Company.
- "Danishcharts.com – Michael Jackson – Bad". Tracklisten.
- "Download French Single Top 50 - June 27, 2009". LesCahrts.com. Hung Medien.
- "British single certifications – Michael Jackson – Bad". British Phonographic Industry. Select singles in the Format field. Select Silver in the Certification field. Enter Bad in the search field and then press Enter.
- Copsey, Rob (27 August 2018). "Michael Jackson Top 60 songs on the official chart". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "American single certifications – Michael Jackson – Bad". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH.
- David Kent's "Australian Chart Book 1970-1992" Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Top 100 Single-Jahrescharts". GfK Entertainment (in German). offiziellecharts.de. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- "Top 100 1987 - UK Music Charts". www.uk-charts.top-source.info.
- "Top 100 Hits of 1987/Top 100 Songs of 1987". www.musicoutfitters.com.
- "CASH BOX Top 100 Singles of 1987 – Week ending December 26, 1987". Cash Box magazine. Archived from the original on October 24, 2016. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
- "Is Michael Jackson For Real?".
- "Michael Jackson's 1987 Cover Story: 'The Pressure to Beat It'". June 25, 2014.
- "'Bad' Choreographer Remembers Michael Jackson". National Public Radio. 2009-06-29. Archived from the original on January 28, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- "Times-Union - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
- Calder, Rich (2009-09-02). "Jacko Off Tracko". New York Post. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- Lee, Jennifer S. (August 28, 2009). "A Compromise for the Michael Jackson Subway Station". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- Fernandez, Manny (2009-08-27). "Brooklyn Sets Aside a Day for a Michael Jackson Party". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
- "'Bad' Choreographer Remembers Michael Jackson". NPR.org. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "MTV Video Music Awards – 1988". MTV. Viacom. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- Gary Trust (2012-02-10). "Weekly Chart Notes: Madonna, Michael Jackson, 'Godspell'". Billboard.com. Retrieved 2012-02-13.
- "Official Track List of Bad 25th Anniversary Special Edition is Unveiled". Sony Music. Michaeljackson.com. 2012-08-06. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
- "iTunes - Music - Bad (Afrojack Remix) (feat. Pitbull) (DJ Buddha Edit) - Single by Michael Jackson". Apple Inc. iTunes. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
- "Amazon.com - Bad (Remix By Afrojack Featuring Pitbull- DJ Buddha Edit) - Michael Jackson featuring Pitbull - MP3 Downloads". Amazon.com. 2012-08-14. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
- "Bad (Remix By Afrojack Featuring Pitbull - The Derry Mix)". discogs.com. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
- "Japan Hot 100 Singles 2012-09-15". billboard.biz. Retrieved 2012-09-13.
- "Dance/Electronic Digital Songs 2012-09-01". Retrieved 2012-09-12.
- "Chart Highlights: Christina Aguilera's 'Body' Dances Onto Pop Songs - Chart Beat". Billboard.com. 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2012-09-18.
- Randall Roberts (2012-09-18). "Michael Jackson's 'Bad 25' box: Is it worth your time and money?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-09-24.
- "Michael Jackson: Bad 25 Deluxe Edition". 2012-09-21. Retrieved 2012-09-24.
- "Single Review: Michael Jackson ft Pitbull - Bad (Afrojack Remix)". 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
- "New music: Michael Jackson – Bad (Remix by Afrojack feat Pitbull)". Guardian.co.uk. 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2012-09-24.
- "Austriancharts.at – Michael Jackson – Bad" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40.
- "Listy bestsellerów, wyróżnienia :: Związek Producentów Audio-Video". Polish Airplay Top 100. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- Grant, Adrian (2009). Michael Jackson: The Visual Documentary. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-1-84938-261-8.
- Halstead, Craig (2003). Michael Jackson The Solo Years. On-Line Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7552-0091-7.
- Jackson, Michael (1988). Moonwalk. Doubleday. ISBN 0-434-37042-8.
- Taraborrelli, J. Randy (2004). The Magic and the Madness. Terra Alta, WV: Headline. ISBN 0-330-42005-4.
- on YouTube