Baden

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Baden
Flag of Baden
Flag
Territory of Baden 1806-1945.
Territory of Baden 1806-1945.
Country  Germany
Region Lander

Baden is a historical German territory. Together with Württemberg and Hohenzollern, two other historical territories, it now forms the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg.[1]

It's neighbor to the north are Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt, to the west are Alsace-Lorraine, to the south are Switzerland, and to the east are Würtemberg and Bavaria.[2]

Geography[edit]

Baden lies in the western part of Germany, in the upper Rhine valley. It consists of several mountain ranges. It contains the Black forest. The mineral springs are celebrated.[2]

Cities on Baden area are (from north to south): Mannheim, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Pforzheim and Freiburg im Breisgau.

History[edit]

In 1715, Karlsruhe was the capital, first of the Margraviate of Baden, then from 1771, the united margraviates Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden. In 1803, the Electorate of Baden, and later in 1806, the Grand Duchy of Baden were formed. In 1918, the Republic of Baden was formed and governed the area during the Weimar Republic, until abolished in 1945.

After WWII this territory was subdivided between Württemberg-Baden and South Baden. Finally, in 1952, it was integrated into Baden-Württemberg, with Stuttgart as capital.

Margraviate[edit]

Main article: Margrave of Baden

The name comes from the Margraves of Baden, a well-established noble family, from in the 12th century, who was cognate with the House of Zähringen. The Margrave title was originally connected to the March of Verona, which was also ruled by the Zähringers. They transferred the title and called themselves Margraves of Baden. Hermann II was the first Zähringer, named after the ancestral seat at Hohenbaden, the thermal bath complex of the former town of Baden.

From 1535 to 1771, the rule was divided, in the Baden-Durlach lines (Protestant) and Baden-Baden lines (catholic). Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden-Baden, the so-called "Turkish Louis" (1677-1707), Rastatt made his residence. In 1715, Karl III. Wilhelm of Baden-Durlach chose Karlsruhe as his new residence. In 1771, Karl Friedrich of Baden-Durlach, inherited the possessions of the extinct line of Baden-Baden, reuniting the two margravates.

Napoleonic Times[edit]

Baden emerged under the patronage of Napoleon, and diplomat Sigismund von Reitzenstein. In the years 1803-1810, Baden made significant territorial gains, consolidating several smaller states. Troops from Baden, fought in the Grande Armée.

19th century[edit]

In 1818, Baden adopted a constitution, with a bicameral legislature, the Badische Ständeversammlung. In 1835, Baden joined the Zollverein. In 1871, Baden joined the German Reich.

Republic of Baden[edit]

Main article: Republic of Baden

In 1918, after unrest at the end of World War I, Baden formed a provisional government, and then Free Peoples Republic. On 21 March 1919, a new constitution. was passed by popular vote.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Andrea Schulte-Peevers; Anthony Haywood; Sarah Johnstone; Jeremy Gray; Daniel Robinson (2007). Germany. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74059-988-7. Retrieved 1 February 2009. 
  2. ^ a b Baynes 1875.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Wikisource-logo.svg Baynes, T.S., ed. (1875–1889). "Baden (1.)". Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.). 
  • Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Hrsg.): Baden 1789–1918. Führer durch die landes- und kulturgeschichtliche Abteilung. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, ISBN 3-88190-273-2.
  • Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Hrsg.): Baden! 900 Jahre – Geschichten eines Landes. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2012, ISBN 978-3-937345-56-7 (Katalog zur Großen Landesausstellung)
  • Hermann Bausinger: Die bessere Hälfte. Von Badenern und Württembergern. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart/München 2002, ISBN 3-421-05591-2.
  • Frank Engehausen: Kleine Geschichte des Großherzogtums Baden. DRW-Verlag Weinbrenner, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2005, ISBN 3-7650-8328-3.
  • Helmut Engler: Große Badener. Gestalten aus 1200 Jahren. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-421-06676-0.
  • Hans Fenske: Der liberale Südwesten. Freiheitliche und demokratische Traditionen in Baden-Württemberg. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-17-007089-4.
  • Rolf Gustav Haebler: Badische Geschichte. Battert Verlag, ohne Ort 1987, ISBN 3-87989-142-7.
  • Heinrich Hauß, Adolf Schmid: Badisches Kalendarium von Tag zu Tag – von Jahr zu Jahr, Personen und Ereignisse. G. Braun, Karlsruhe 2006, ISBN 3-7650-8326-7.
  • Wolfgang Hug: Geschichte Badens. Theiss, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-8062-1022-5.
  • Wolfgang von Hippel: Revolution im deutschen Südwesten. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-17-014039-6.
  • Armin Kohnle: Kleine Geschichte der Markgrafschaft Baden, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-7650-8346-4.
  • Karl Moersch, Peter Hoelzle Kontrapunkt Baden-W… Zur Vorgeschichte und Geschichte des Südweststaates, DRW Verlag, Leinfelden Echterdingen 2002, ISBN 3-87181-478-4
  • Uwe A. Oster: Die Großherzöge von Baden 1806-1918. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2084-5.
  • Karl-Heinz Ott: Heimatkunde Baden. Hoffmann & Campe Verlag, Hamburg 2007. ISBN 978-3-455-38024-8
  • Hansmartin Schwarzmaier: Geschichte Badens in Bildern 1100–1918. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-17-012088-3.

External links[edit]


This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the German Wikipedia.