Badge of Military Merit
||This article needs attention from an expert in Military history. The specific problem is: some editors insist that there are many more than three recipients, see page history and talk page. (October 2009)|
The Badge of Military Merit is considered the first military award of the United States Armed Forces. Although the Fidelity Medallion is older, after being issued to three soldiers for a specific event in 1780 it was never awarded again, so the Badge of Military Merit is often considered the oldest. The Purple Heart is the official successor decoration of the Badge of Military Merit.
The Badge of Military Merit was first announced in General George Washington's general orders to the Continental Army issued on August 7, 1782 at the Headquarters in Newburgh. Designed by Washington in the form of a purple heart, it was intended as a military order for soldiers who exhibited, "not only instances of unusual gallantry in battle, but also extraordinary fidelity and essential service in any way."
The writings of General Washington indicate that three badges, two Honorary Badges of Distinction and a Badge of Military Merit, were created on August 7, 1782. This is thought to be the first time in modern history that military awards had been presented to common soldiers. The practice in Europe was to honor high-ranking officers who had achieved victory, rather than honoring common soldiers. But in America, as General Washington said, the "road to glory in a patriot army and a free country is…open to all."
Of the Badge of Military Merit, Washington said:
The General ever desirous to cherish virtuous ambition in his soldiers, as well as to foster and encourage every species of Military merit, directs that whenever any singularly meritorious action is performed, the author of it shall be permitted to wear on his facings over the left breast, the figure of a heart in purple cloth, or silk, edged with narrow lace or binding. Not only instances of unusual gallantry, but also of extraordinary fidelity and essential service in any way shall meet with a due reward. Before this favour can be conferred on any man, the particular fact, or facts, on which it is to be grounded must be set forth to the Commander in chief accompanied with certificates from the Commanding officers of the regiment and brigade to which the Candadate [sic] for reward belonged, or other incontestable proofs, and upon granting it, the name and regiment of the person with the action so certified are to be enrolled in the book of merit which will be kept at the orderly office. Men who have merited this last distinction to be suffered to pass all guards and sentinals [sic] which officers are permitted to do. The road to glory in a patriot army and a free country is thus open to all. This order is also to have retrospect to the earliest stages of the war, and to be considered as a permanent one.
Most historians indicate that only three people received the Badge of Military Merit during the American Revolutionary War, all of them noncommissioned officers, and the only ones who received the award from General Washington himself. Those soldiers are as follows:
On May 3, 1783
- Sergeant William Brown of the 5th Connecticut Regiment of the Connecticut Line
- Sergeant Elijah Churchill of the 2nd Regiment Light Dragoons
On June 10, 1783
While these three soldiers were most likely the first to receive the Badge of Military Merit, discharge certificates of other Revolutionary War soldiers indicate that they also received the "Badge of Merit" for their years of faithful service. Microfilmed images of these discharges bearing Washington's signature can be found in the individual records of soldiers at the National Archives.
George Washington's papers show that he also referred to the Badge of Military Merit as the Badge of Merit. This is evident in his orders to award the above-mentioned Sergeants Brown, Churchill and Bissell. The "book of merit" or orderly book mentioned by Washington in his general orders of August 7, 1782 in which the awards were to be recorded has never been found.
Some examples of other soldiers who were awarded the "Badge of Merit" for faithful service, according to their discharges (it is unclear whether the badges referred to are Honorary Badges of Distinction or the Badge of Military Merit):
- John Sithens, Fife, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, discharged June 5, 1783.
- John Pasko, Soldier 3rd Massachusetts Regiment, discharged June 8, 1783.
- Peter Shumway, Soldier, 4th Massachusetts Regiment, discharged June 9, 1783.
- Sergeant William Dutton, 7th Massachusetts Regiment, discharged June 10, 1783.
Status of original badges
Sergeant William Brown's badge was discovered in a Deerfield, New Hampshire barn in the 1920s and is alleged to be in the possession of the Society of the Cincinnati, New Hampshire Branch. It is now displayed at the American Independence Museum in Exeter, New Hampshire. Other sources say that Brown's badge was reported missing in 1924, and further, that the badge from New Hampshire belongs to an unknown fourth recipient. The photograph above shows Sergeant Churchill's badge, which is owned by New Windsor Cantonment, National Temple Hill Association. Churchill's badge was discovered when a Michigan farmer who was the great grandson of Churchill wrote to a New York historical society saying he possessed the badge. It was proven authentic and now is on display at the National Temple Hill Association in Vails Gate, New York. Sergeant Bissell's badge was lost in an 1813 house fire.
After the Revolutionary War, the Badge of Military Merit fell into disuse although it was never officially abolished. In 1932, the United States War Department authorized the new Purple Heart Medal for soldiers who had previously received either a Wound Chevron or the Army Wound Ribbon. At that time, it was also determined that the Purple Heart Medal would be considered the official "successor decoration" to the Badge of Military Merit.
Notes and references
- Phoenix, J. (August 7, 2007). "The 225th Anniversary of the Purple Heart". West Point Association of Graduates. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- "The George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799". George Washington, August 7, 1782, General Orders. August 7, 1782. Retrieved October 1, 2006.
- Honorary Badges of distinction are to be conferred on the veteran Non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the army who have served more than three years with bravery, fidelity and good conduct; for this purpose a narrow piece of white cloath [sic] of an angular form is to be fixed to the left arm on the uniform Coat. Non commissioned officers and soldiers who have served with equal reputation more than six years are to be distinguished by two pieces of cloth set in parellel [sic] to each other in a simular [sic] form; should any who are not entitled to these honors have the insolence to assume the badges of them they shall be severely punished. On the other hand it is expected those gallant men who are thus designated will on all occasions be treated with particular confidence and consideration. George Washington's General Orders of August 7, 1782
- Moran, Donald N. "Medals and Awards of The Revolution". Sons of Liberty Chapter, Sons of the American Revolution. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- Fitzpatrick, John C. The Writings of Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1931-1944; reprint, New York: Greenwood Press, 1970.
- "The George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799". George Washington, April 27, 1783, General Orders. April 27, 1783. Retrieved October 1, 2006.
- "The George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799". George Washington, June 8, 1783, General Orders. June 8, 1783. Retrieved October 1, 2006.
- "The Badge of Military Merit" article from the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution
- Rees, John U. ""The music of the Army...", An Abbreviated Study of the Ages of Musicians in the Continental Army". (Originally published in The Brigade Dispatch, Vol. XXV, No. 4, 2-12).
- "Pension Records: John Pasko". Fold3. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Tice, Joyce M. "Tri-Counties Genealogy & History: 1897 Tioga County History". Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- "Pension Records: William Dutton". Westford Colonial Minutemen. Retrieved June 22, 2007.
- Note: A photograph of Sergeant Brown's badge appears on page 423 (Plate VII) of the National Geographic publication Insignia and Decorations of the U.S. Armed Forces
- First page of "For Military Merit" by Allen Pennell Wescott in Military Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 3 (Autumn, 1941), pp. 211-214 from JSTOR, the Scholarly Journal Archive
- Military Order of the Purple Heart (2001). The Legacy of the Purple Heart. Paducah, Kentucky: Turner Publishing Company. p. 19. ISBN 1-56311-723-1. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- "The Institute of Heraldry". Purple Heart. Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
- Orders, Decorations and Medals: United States Purple Heart referencing Live Wire Fayetteville Online Saturday, September 16, 2000[dead link]