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Badshahi Mosque

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Badshahi Mosque
بادشاہی مسجد
Badshahi Mosque Lahore 2014.JPG
Basic information
Location Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Geographic coordinates 31°35′17.07″N 74°18′36.45″E / 31.5880750°N 74.3101250°E / 31.5880750; 74.3101250Coordinates: 31°35′17.07″N 74°18′36.45″E / 31.5880750°N 74.3101250°E / 31.5880750; 74.3101250
Affiliation Sunni Islam
Sect Hanafite
Architectural description
Architectural type Mosque
Architectural style Indo-Islamic, Mughal
Completed 1673
Specifications
Capacity 56,000
Dome(s) 3
Minaret(s) 8 (4 major, 4 minor)
Minaret height 176 ft 4 in (53.75 m)
Materials Red sandstone, marble
Side view

The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi, Urdu: بادشاہی مسجد‎, or Imperial Mosque) is a Mughal era mosque in the city of Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab. Officially known as the "Masjid Abul Zafar Muhy-ud-Din Mohammad Alamgir Badshah Ghazi" (Urdu:مسجد ابول ظفر محی الدین محمد عالمگیر بادشاہ غازی ), the mosque was commissioned by the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, and built between 1671 and 1673. It was the largest mosque in the world at the time of completion, and remains the second largest mosque in Pakistan, and one of the largest in the world. It is widely considered to be one of Lahore's most iconic landmarks, and is a major tourist attraction.[1]

Location[edit]

The mosque is located in the Walled City of Lahore, Pakistan, opposite to the famours Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort. The Hazuri Bagh separates the mosque and the fort. On the Eastern side of the garden stand the Roshnai Gate, one of the thirteen original gates of Lahore.[2] The Tomb of Muhammad Iqbal lies beside the mosque on one side;[3] while on the other side is the tomb of Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan, who played a major role in preserving and restoring this building.[4]

History[edit]

1671–1849[edit]

The mosque was constructed by the sixth Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, who, unlike the previous emperors, was not a patron of art and architecture. He built the mosque between 1671 and 1673 under the guidance of Fidai Khan Koka, his "master of ordinance".[5]

On 7 July 1799, the Sikh army of the Sukerchakia chief, Ranjit Singh, took control of Lahore.[6] After the capture of the city, the Badshahi mosque was desecrated[7] by Ranjit Singh, who used its vast courtyard as a stable for his army horses, and its 80 hujras (small study rooms surrounding the courtyard) as quarters for his soldiers and as magazines for military stores. Ranjit Singh used the Hazuri Bagh, the enclosed garden next to it, as his official royal court of audience.[8] In 1818, he built a marble edifice in the garden facing the mosque.[9]

Front view

In 1841, during the First Anglo-Sikh War, Ranjit Singh's son, Sher Singh, used the mosque's large minarets for placement of zamburahs or light guns. It was used to bombard the supporters of Chand Kaur taking refuge in the besieged Lahore Fort, inflicting great damage to the fort itself. In one of these bombardments, the fort's Diwan-e-Aam (Hall of Public Audience) was destroyed (it was subsequently rebuilt by the British but it could not be exactly restored in the previous state).[1] During this time, Henri De la Rouche, a French cavalry officer employed in the army of Sher Singh,[10] used a tunnel connecting the Badshahi mosque to the Lahore fort to temporarily store gunpowder.[11]

Entrance gate, showing the full name of the mosque in calligraphy
In the 1870s

In 1849 during the British Raj, the British continued using the mosque and the adjoining fort as a military garrison. The 80 cells (hujras) built into the walls surrounding the its vast courtyard on three sides were originally study rooms, which were used by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh to house troops and military stores. The British demolished them so as to prevent them from being used for anti-British activities and rebuilt them to form open arcades or dalans.[12]

1849–1947[edit]

Because of increasing Muslim resentment against the use of the mosque as a military garrison, the British set up the Badshahi Mosque Authority in 1852 to oversee the restoration and to re-establish it as a place of religious worship. From then onwards, piecemeal repairs were carried out under the supervision of the Badshahi Mosque Authority. Extensive repairs commenced from 1939 onwards, when Sikandar Hayat Khan took on the task of raising funds for this purpose.[13]

It was not until 1852 that the British established the Badshahi Mosque Authority to oversee the restoration of the mosque as a place of worship. Although repairs were carried out, it was not until 1939 that extensive repairs began, supervised by the architect Nawab Zen Yar Jang Bahadur. The repairs continued until 1960 and were completed at a cost of 4.8 million rupees.[14]

Post-independence[edit]

On the occasion of the 2nd Islamic Summit held at Lahore on 22 February 1974, thirty-nine heads of Muslim states offered their Friday prayers in the Badshahi Mosque, including, among others, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan, Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Muammar Gaddafi of Libya, Yasser Arafat of the Palestine Liberation Organization and Sabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah of Kuwait. The prayers were led by Mawlānā Abdul Qadir Azad, the then khatib of the mosque.[15]

Between 1939 and 1960, the mosque was repaired to bring it back to its original condition.[16]

In 1993, the Government of Pakistan included the Badshahi Mosque in the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage Site.[17]

In 2000, the marble inlay in the main prayer hall was repaired. In 2008, replacement work on the red sandstone tiles on the mosque's large courtyard commenced, using red sandstone especially imported from the original source near Jaipur, India,[18] bringing it to be nearly restored.[19]

Architecture[edit]

Layout

Aurangzeb chose an architectural plan similar to that of Shah Jehan's choice for the Jama Masjid in Delhi, though on a much larger scale.[20]

The mosque's full name "Masjid Abul Zafar Muhy-ud-Din Mohammad Alamgir Badshah Ghazi" is written in inlaid marble above the vaulted entrance constructed of red sandstone.[21] The gate faces east towards the Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort. The massive entrance and mosque are situated on a plinth, which is ascended by a flight of 22 steps at the mosque's main gate which.[22]The gateway itself contains several chambers which are not accessible to the public. One of the rooms is said to contain hairs from the Prophet Muhammad's, and his son-in-law Ali's hairs.[23]

After passing through the massive gate, an expansive sandstone paved courtyard spreads over an area of 276,000 square feet, and which can accommodate 100,000 worshippers when functioning as an Idgah.[22] The courtyard is enclosed by single-aisled arcades.

At each of the four corners of the mosque, there are octagonal, three storeyed minar of red sandstone that are 196 feet (60 m) tall, with an outer circumference of 67 feet and the inner circumference is eight and half feet. Each minaret is topped by a marble canopy. The courtyard is also framed by four smaller minarets.

The prayer chamber has a central arched niche with five arches on either side which is about one third the size of the central niche. The largest dome is behind the central arch and on its two sides there are two bulbous marble domes.[21] The interior of the mosque is adorned with precious and semi-precious stones in floral design common to Mughal art. The chambers on each side of the main chamber contains rooms which were used for religious instruction. The mosque can accommodate 10,000 worshippers in the prayer hall.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Badshahi Mosque". Ualberta.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  2. ^ Waheed ud Din, p.14
  3. ^ a b Waheed Ud Din, p.15
  4. ^ IH Malik Sikandar Hayat Khan: A Biography Islamabad: NIHCR, 1984. p 127
  5. ^ Meri, p.91
  6. ^ "Welcome to the Sikh Encyclopedia". Thesikhencyclopedia.com. 2012-04-14. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  7. ^ City of Sin and Splendor: Writings on Lahore by Bapsi Sidhwa, p23
  8. ^ Khullar, K. K. (1980). Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Hem Publishers. p. 7. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  9. ^ Tikekar, p.74
  10. ^ "De La Roche, Henri Francois Stanislaus". allaboutsikhs.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  11. ^ Grey, C. (1993). European Adventures of Northern India. Asian Educational Services. pp. 343–. ISBN 978-81-206-0853-5. 
  12. ^ Development of mosque Architecture in Pakistan by Ahmad Nabi Khan, p.114
  13. ^ Omer Tarin, Sir Sikandar Hyat Khan and the Renovation of the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore: An Historical Survey, in Pakistan Historical Digest Vol 2, No 4, Lahore, 1995, pp. 21-29
  14. ^ "Badshahi Mosque (built 1672–74)". Retrieved 2013-05-16. 
  15. ^ "Report on Islamic Summit, 1974 Pakistan, Lahore, February 22–24, 1974", Islamabad: Department of Films and Publications, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Auqaf and Haj, Government of Pakistan, 1974 (p. 332)
  16. ^ "Badshahi Mosque: The Jewel of Lahore". Aawsat. Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  17. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Badshahi Mosque, Lahore – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  18. ^ "Badshahi Mosque Re-flooring". Archpresspk.com. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  19. ^ "Badshahi Mosque". Retrieved 2013-05-16. 
  20. ^ Akhter, p.270
  21. ^ a b Meri, p.92
  22. ^ a b Tikekar, p.73
  23. ^ Black, p.21

Notes[edit]

  • Josef W. Meri. Medieval Islamic Civilization. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415966914. 
  • Maneesha Tikekar. Across the Wagah. Bibliophile South Asia. ISBN 8185002347. 
  • Carolyn Black. Pakistan: The culture. Crabtree Publishing Company. ISBN 0778793486. 
  • Waheed Ud Din. The Marching Bells: A Journey of a Life Time. Author House. ISBN 9781456744144. 

External links[edit]