Baena

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Baena
Municipality
Casa del Monte, Baena
Casa del Monte, Baena
Coat of arms of Baena
Coat of arms
Baena is located in Spain
Baena
Baena
Location in Spain
Coordinates: 37°37′10″N 4°19′34″W / 37.61944°N 4.32611°W / 37.61944; -4.32611
Country  Spain
Autonomous Community  Andalusia
Province Córdoba
Comarca Campiña de Baena
Government
 • Mayor María Jesús Serrano Jiménez (PSOE)
Area
 • Total 362.5 km2 (140.0 sq mi)
Elevation(AMSL) 405 m (1,329 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 20,266
 • Density 56/km2 (140/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (GMT +2) (UTC+2)
Postal code 14850
Area code(s) +34 (Spain) + 957 (Córdoba)
Website Town Hall

Baena is a town of Andalucia in the province of Córdoba in southern Spain. It is picturesquely situated near the river Marbella on the slope of a hill 52 kilometres (32 mi) southeast of Córdoba by road. The population of the town is 20,266 (2012).

History[edit]

The site of the Roman town (Baniana or Biniana)[1] could still be traced as late as the First World War, with various Roman antiquities excavated from the site.[2] In 1833, a subterranean vault was discovered, containing twelve cinerary urns with inscriptions commemorating members of the Pompeian family.[1]

The hill is crowned by fortifications. In 1292, the Moors under Mahommed II of Granada vainly besieged the citadel, which was held for Sancho IV of Castile;[2] the five Moorish heads in its coat-of-arms commemorates the occasion.[1] The castile was a base for Gonzalo de Cordova and was held in the 19th century by the Altamira family.[1] At that time, it held four parish churches and three schools conducted by sisters of charity. The girls' school held a high reputation in its province, despite not going beyond reading, writing, arithmetic, and religious instruction.[1] Its population was around 12,000 in the 1870s[1] and 15,000 by the turn of the century.[2] Grain and olive oil were the principal articles of commerce in the 19th century;[1] by the time of the First World War, horse-breeding and linen-weaving had also developed, despite the nearest railroad station being at Luque.[2]

At the beginning of the Spanish Civil War the town was the scenario of the Baena Massacre, a ruthless mass-execution of Spanish republicans where about 700 loyalists were murdered by the orders of rebel Colonel Sáenz de Buruaga.[3][4][5] Other estimates mention up to 2,000 victims following the brutal repression in Baena.[6]

High-quality olive oil continues to be the mainstay of the local economy.[citation needed] Sierras Subbéticas Natural Park is located to the south of the town.[citation needed]

Famous residents[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i EB (1878).
  2. ^ a b c d EB (1911).
  3. ^ Sevilla FC Forum
  4. ^ The massacre of Baena
  5. ^ Paul Preston (2012). The Spanish Holocaust. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06476-X.
  6. ^ No solo corrieron rios de sangre en Badajoz

References[edit]

Coordinates: 37°37′N 4°19′W / 37.617°N 4.317°W / 37.617; -4.317