Baghdad Eyalet

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Eyālet-i Baġdād
Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire

 

1535–1864
Location of Baghdad Eyalet
Baghdad Eyalet in 1609
Capital Baghdad[1]
History
 •  Capture of Baghdad 1535
 •  Disestablished 1864
Today part of  Iraq

Baghdad Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت بغداد; Eyālet-i Baġdād‎)[2] was an Iraqi eyalet of the Ottoman Empire centered on Baghdad. Its reported area in the 19th century was 62,208 square miles (161,120 km2).[3]

History[edit]

Safavid shah Ismail I took the Baghdad region from the Aq Qoyunlu in 1508.[4] After the Safavid takeover, Sunni Muslims, Jews and Christians became targets of persecution, and were killed for being infidels.[4] In addition, Shah Ismail ordered the destruction of the grave of Abu Hanifa, founder of the Hanafi school of law which the Ottomans adopted as their official legal guide.[4]

In 1534, Baghdad was captured by the Ottoman Empire,[4] and the eyalet was established in 1535.[5] Between 1623 and 1638, it was once again in Iranian hands. It was decisively recaptured by the Ottomans in 1638,[4] who's possession over Iraq was agreed upon in the 1639 Treaty of Zuhab.

For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East. The city saw relative revival in the latter part of the 18th century under a largely autonomous Mamluk government. Direct Ottoman rule was reimposed by Ali Ridha Pasha in 1831. From 1851-1852 and from 1861–1867, Baghdad was governed, under the Ottoman Empire by Mehmed Namık Pasha. The Nuttall Encyclopedia reports the 1907 population of Baghdad as 185,000.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Sanjaks of Baghdad Eyalet in the 17th century:[6]

Seven of the eighteen Sanjaks of this eyalet were divided into ziamets and Timars:
  1. Sanjak of Hilla
  2. Sanjak of Zeng abad
  3. Sanjak of Javazar
  4. Sanjak of Rumahia
  5. Sanjak of Jangula
  6. Sanjak of Kara tagh
  7. [the name of the seventh sanjak is missing]
The other eleven sanjaks had no ziamets or Timars and were entirely in the power of their possessors:
  1. Sanjak of Terteng
  2. Sanjak of Samwat
  3. Sanjak of Biat
  4. Sanjak of Derneh
  5. Sanjak of Deh-balad
  6. Sanjak of Evset
  7. Sanjak of Kerneh-deh
  8. Sanjak of Demir-kapu
  9. Sanjak of Karanieh
  10. Sanjak of Kilan
  11. Sanjak of Al-sah

References[edit]

  1. ^ John Macgregor (1850). Commercial statistics: A digest of the productive resources, commercial... Whittaker and co. p. 12. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  2. ^ "Some Provinces of the Ottoman Empire". Geonames.de. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  3. ^ The Popular encyclopedia: or, conversations lexicon. 6. Blackie. 1862. p. 698. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  5. ^ Donald Edgar Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire. Brill Archive. p. 126. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  6. ^ Evliya Çelebi; Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (1834). Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa in the Seventeenth Century. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 90. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 

See also[edit]