Baglihar Dam

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Baglihar Dam
Baglihar Dam Chenab River.JPG
Baglihar Dam is located in Jammu and Kashmir
Baglihar Dam
Location of Baglihar Dam in Jammu and Kashmir
LocationRamban district, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Coordinates33°09′43″N 75°19′40″E / 33.16194°N 75.32778°E / 33.16194; 75.32778Coordinates: 33°09′43″N 75°19′40″E / 33.16194°N 75.32778°E / 33.16194; 75.32778
Construction began1999
Opening date2008
Dam and spillways
Type of damGravity
ImpoundsChenab River
Height143 m (469 ft)
Length317 m (1,040 ft)
Elevation at crest843 m (2,766 ft)
Dam volume1,800,000 m3 (63,566,400 cu ft)
Spillway typeChute type
Spillway capacity16,500 m3/s (582,692 cu ft/s)[1]
Total capacity395,950,000 m3 (321,002 acre⋅ft)[2]
Active capacity32,560,000 m3 (26,397 acre⋅ft) above 836 m msl
Surface area8,079,000 m2 (1,996 acres)
Normal elevation840 m msl (FRL or full pond level)
Power Station
Commission dateStage I: 2008-09
Stage II: 2015-16
Hydraulic head130 m (427 ft) (gross)
TurbinesStage I: 3 x 150 MW Francis-type
Stage II: 3 x 150 MW Francis-type
Installed capacityStage I: 450 MW
Stage II: 450 MW
Total: 900 MW

Baglihar Dam (Hindi: Baglihār Bāndh), also known as Baglihar Hydroelectric Power Project, is a run-of-the-river power project on the Chenab River in the Ramban district of Jammu and Kashmir, India.[3] The first power project executed by the Jammu and Kashmir Power Development Corporation, it was conceived in 1992 and approved in 1996, with construction begun in 1999. The project was estimated to cost US$1 billion. The project consists of two-stage of 450MW each. The first stage of the project was completed in 2008-09 and was dedicated to the nation by the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh of India. The second stage of the project was completed in 2015–16, and was subsequently dedicated to the nation by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India.[4][2]

Indus Waters dispute[edit]

After construction began in 1999, Pakistan objected that the design parameters of the Baglihar project violated the Indus Water Treaty of 1960. The treaty provides for India to make use of the three western rivers of the Indus River system, including Chenab River, in constrained ways.[5] India can only establish run-of-the-river power projects with limited reservoir capacity and limited control over flows needed for feasible power generation. Availing this provision, India planned for several run-of-the-river projects, with Pakistan objecting to them. In the case of the Baglihar and Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plants, Pakistan claimed that some design parameters were too lax. It claimed that they were not needed for feasible power generation but for gaining an excessive ability to accelerate, decelerate or block the flow of the water, thus giving India a strategic leverage in times of political tension or war.

During 1999-2004 India and Pakistan held several rounds of talks on the design of the project, but could not reach an agreement. After the failure of talks on 18 January 2005, Pakistan raised six objections to the World Bank, a broker and signatory of Indus Water Treaty. In April 2005 the World Bank determined the Pakistani claim as a ‘Difference’, a classification that is in-between the less serious ‘Question’ and the more serious ‘Dispute’. In May 2005, it appointed Professor Raymond Lafitte, a Swiss civil engineer as a neutral expert to adjudicate the difference.

Lafitte declared his final verdict on 12 February 2007,[6][7] in which he upheld some minor objections of Pakistan, requiring that pondage capacity be reduced by 13.5%, the height of dam be reduced by 1.5 meters, and power intake tunnels be raised by 3 meters, thereby limiting some flow control capabilities of the earlier design. However, he rejected Pakistani objections on height and gated control of the spillway, declaring that these featurees conformed to the engineering norms of the day. Pakistan government expressed its disappointment at the outcome.

The verdict acknowledged India's right to construct 'gated spillways' under Indus Water Treaty. The report allowed pondage of 32.56 million cubic meters against India's demand for 37.5 million cubic metres. The report also recommended reducing the height of freeboard from 4.5 m to 3.0 m. The verdict permitted drawdown flushing to prevent silt accumulation in the reservoir which has enhanced the life of the reservoir to above 80 years. Without drawdown flushing, the reservoir would have been completely silted in 13 years period by 2017.[8]

On 1 June 2010, India and Pakistan had a meeting of the Permanent Indus Commission, where they resolved the issue relating to the initial filling of Baglihar dam. According to PTI, "the two sides discussed the issue at length without any prejudice to each other's stand...Indian and Pakistani teams resolved the issue relating to the initial filling of Baglihar dam after discussions." Pakistan also agreed not to raise the issue further.[9][10]

Panorama of Baglinhar Dam

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Wieland, Martin; Ren, Qingwen; Tan, John S.Y., eds. (2004). New developments in dam engineering. London: Balkema. pp. 315–316. ISBN 0-415-36240-7.
  2. ^ a b "Pakistan-India Relations" (PDF). Pakistani Institute of Legislative Development and Transparency (PILDAT). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  3. ^ "Ramban mishap: Baglihar dam gates to be closed to trace missing passengers". The Tribune (Chandigarh). 2 September 2020. Archived from the original on 5 March 2023.
  4. ^ Baglihar Briefing, Kashmir Life, 11 November 2015.
  5. ^ Venkatasubramanian, Varsha (2021). "The Indus Water's Treaty: India and Pakistan's Water Divorce". Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  6. ^ "Baglihar Hydroelectric Plant: Expert Determination" (PDF). Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  7. ^ "Baglihar Hydroelectric Plant: drawings annexure to Expert Determination" (PDF). Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  8. ^ "Baglihar Hydroelectric Plant Case Documents Expert Determination" (PDF). Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  9. ^ India, Pakistan resolve Baglihar dam issue, The Hindu, 1 June 2010.
  10. ^ Gargi Parsai, India, Pak resolve matters relating to filling of Baglihar dam, Hindustan Times, 1 June 2010.


  • Bakshi, Gitanjali; Trivedi, Sahiba (2011), The Indus Equation (PDF), Strategic Foresight Group, retrieved 28 October 2014
  • Gazdar, Haris (26 February 2005), "Baglihar and Politics of Water: A Historical Perspective from Pakistan", Economic and Political Weekly, 40 (9): 813–817, JSTOR 4416263
  • Salman, Salman M. A. (2008). "The Baglihar difference and its resolution process - a triumph for the Indus Waters Treaty?". Water Policy. 10 (2): 105–117. doi:10.2166/wp.2008.060b.}
  • Sinha, Rajesh (18 February 2006), "Two Neighbours and a Treaty: Baglihar Project in Hot Waters", Economic and Political Weekly, 41 (7): 606–608, JSTOR 4417834
  • Wirsing, Robert G.; Jasparro, Christopher (May 2006), Spotlight on Indus River Diplomacy: India, Pakistan, and the Baglihar Dam Dispute (PDF), Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, archived (PDF) from the original on 23 March 2020

External links[edit]