Bagnoles is located some 10 km north-east of Carcassone just east of Conques-sur-Orbiel. Access to the commune is by the D35 road from Conques-sur-Orbiel which passes through the village and continues north-east to Villarzel-Cabardès. The D37 comes from Malves-en-Minervois in the south and passes through the village before continuing north to join the D620 which continues to Villegly. The east of the commune is forested with the remaining two-thirds of the commune farmland.
The Clamoux river flows from north to south through the commune passing through the village then forming part of the south-western border as it flows south to join the Orbiel west of Bouilhonnac. Several streams rise in the east of the commune and flow west to join the Clamoux including the Ruisseau de la Clauze and the Ruisseau de Picharelle which forms part of the southern border of the commune.
In 2010 the commune had 243 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
^At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.