Bahá'í Faith in Central America

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The Bahá'í Faith is a diverse and widespread religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in the 19th century in Iran. Bahá'í sources usually estimate the worldwide Bahá'í population to be above 5 million.[1] Most encyclopedias and similar sources estimate between 5 and 6 million Bahá'ís in the world in the early 21st century.[2][3] The religion is almost entirely contained in a single, organized, hierarchical community, but the Bahá'í population is spread out into almost every country and ethnicity in the world, being recognized as the second-most geographically widespread religion after Christianity.[2][4] See Bahá'í statistics.

Summary[edit]

`Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, wrote a series of letters, or tablets, to the followers of the religion in the United States in 1916–1917; these letters were compiled together in the book titled Tablets of the Divine Plan. The sixth of the tablets was the first to mention Latin American regions and was written on 8 April 1916, but was delayed in being presented in the United States until 1919—after the end of the First World War and the Spanish flu pandemic. The first actions on the part of Bahá'í community towards Latin America were that of a few individuals who made trips to Mexico and South America near or before this unveiling in 1919, including Mr. and Mrs. Frankland, and individuals who would later be appointed as Hands of the Cause like Roy C. Wilhelm, and Martha Root. The sixth tablet was translated and presented by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab on 4 April 1919, and published in Star of the West magazine on 12 December 1919.[5]

His Holiness Christ says: Travel ye to the East and to the West of the world and summon the people to the Kingdom of God.…(travel to) the Islands of the West Indies, such as Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, the Islands of the Lesser Antilles (which includes Barbados), Bahama Islands, even the small Watling Island, have great importance…[6]

In 1927 Leonora Armstrong was the first Bahá'í to visit many of these countries where she gave lectures about the religion as part of her plan to compliment and complete Martha Root's unfulfilled intention of visiting all the Latin American countries for the purpose of presenting the religion to an audience.[7]

Seven Year Plan and succeeding decades[edit]

Shoghi Effendi, head of the religion after the death of `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1921, wrote a cable on 1 May 1936 to the Bahá'í Annual Convention of the United States and Canada, and asked for the systematic implementation of `Abdu'l-Bahá's vision to begin.[8] In his cable he wrote:

Appeal to assembled delegates ponder historic appeal voiced by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Tablets of the Divine Plan. Urge earnest deliberation with incoming National Assembly to insure its complete fulfillment. First century of Bahá'í Era drawing to a close. Humanity entering outer fringes most perilous stage its existence. Opportunities of present hour unimaginably precious. Would to God every State within American Republic and every Republic in American continent might ere termination of this glorious century embrace the light of the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh and establish structural basis of His World Order.[9]

Year Number of NSAs
in the world[10][11][12]
1923 3
1936 10
1953 12
1963 70
1973 113
1979 125
1988 148
2001 182
2008 184

Following the 1 May cable, another cable from Shoghi Effendi came on 19 May calling for permanent pioneers to be established in all the countries of Latin America.[8] The Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed the Inter-America Committee to take charge of the preparations. During the 1937 Bahá'í North American Convention, Shoghi Effendi cabled advising the convention to prolong their deliberations to permit the delegates and the National Assembly to consult on a plan that would enable Bahá'ís to go to Latin America as well as to include the completion of the outer structure of the Bahá'í House of Worship in Wilmette, Illinois. In 1937 the First Seven Year Plan (1937–44), which was an international plan designed by Shoghi Effendi, gave the American Bahá'ís the goal of establishing the Bahá'í Faith in every country in Latin America. With the spread of American Bahá'ís in Latin American, Bahá'í communities and Local Spiritual Assemblies began to form in 1938 across the rest of Latin America.

In 1946, a great pioneer movement, the Ten Year Crusade, began with, for example, sixty percent of the British Bahá'í community eventually relocating.[13]

As far back as 1951 the Bahá'ís had organized a regional National Assembly for the combination of Mexico, Central America and the Antilles islands.[8] Many counties formed their own National Assembly in 1961. Others continued to be organized in regional areas growing progressively smaller. From 1966 the region was reorganized among the Bahá'ís of Leeward, Windward and Virgin Islands with its seat in Charlotte Amalie.[14]

Among the more notable visitors was Hand of the Cause Ruhiyyih Khanum when she toured Caribbean Islands for five weeks in 1970.[15]

Countries[edit]

Barbados[edit]

The first Bahá'í to visit Barbados was Leonora Armstrong in 1927[7] while pioneers who moved to the island arrived by 1964.[16] With local converts they elected the first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly in 1965.[17] During October 1966 a trip to ten islands was planned by Lorraine Landau, a pioneer in Barbados.[18] Hand of the Cause `Alí-Muhammad Varqá attended the inaugural election of the Barbados Bahá'ís National Spiritual Assembly in 1981.[19] Since then Bahá'ís have participated in several projects for the benefit of the wider community and in 2001 various sources report up to 1.2% of the island,[20] about 3,500 citizens are Bahá'ís[21] though Bahá'í and government census data report far lower numbers.[22][23]

Costa Rica[edit]

The first pioneers began to settle in Coast Rica in 1940.[24] followed quickly by the first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly being elected in San José in April 1941.[8] The National Spiritual Assembly was first elected in 1961.[10] Bahá'ís sources as of 2009 the national community includes various peoples and tribes of over 4,000 members organized in groups in over 30 locations throughout the country.[24] The Association of Religion Data Archives (relying mostly on the World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated some 13000 Bahá'ís in 2005.[25]

Dominica[edit]

The island of Dominica was specifically listed as an objective for plans on spreading the religion in 1939 Shoghi Effendi,[26] who succeeded `Abdu'l-Baha as head of the religion. In 1983 Bill Nedden is credited with being the first pioneer to Dominica at the festivities associated with the inaugural election of the Dominican Bahá'ís National Spiritual Assembly[19] with Hand of the Cause, Dhikru'llah Khadem representing the Universal House of Justice. Since then Bahá'ís have participated in several projects for the benefit of the wider community and in 2001 various sources report between less than 1.4%[23] up to 1.7% of the island's about 70,000 citizens are Bahá'ís.[21]

Haiti[edit]

The first Bahá'í to visit Haiti was Leonora Armstrong in 1927.[27] After that others visited until Louis George Gregory visited in January 1937 and he mentions a small community of Bahá'ís operating in Haiti.[28] The first long term pioneers, Ruth and Ellsworth Blackwell, arrived in 1940.[29] Following their arrival the first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly of Haiti was formed in 1942 in Port-au-Prince.[30] From 1951 the Haitian Bahá'ís participated in regional organizations of the religion[31] until 1961 when Haitian Bahá'ís elected their own National Spiritual Assembly[32] and soon took on goals reaching out into neighboring islands.[33] The Association of Religion Data Archives (relying mostly on the World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated some 23000 Bahá'ís in Haiti in 2005.[25]

Jamaica[edit]

The community of the Bahá'ís begins in 1942 with the arrival of Dr. Malcolm King.[34] The first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly of Jamaica, in Kingston, was elected in 1943.[35] By 1957 the Bahá'ís of Jamaica were organized under the regional National Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles, and on the eve of national independence in 1962, the Jamaica Bahá'ís elected their own National Spiritual Assembly in 1961.[32] By 1981 hundreds of Bahá'ís and hundreds more non-Bahá'ís turned out for weekend meetings when Rúhíyyih Khánum spent six days in Jamaica.[27] Public recognition of the religion came in the form of the Governor General of Jamaica, Sir Howard Cooke, proclaiming a National Baha'i Day first on 25 July in 2003 and it has been an annual event since.[36] While there is evidence of several active communities by 2008 in Jamaica, estimates of the Bahá'ís population range from the hundreds to the thousands. The Association of Religion Data Archives (relying on World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated some 5137 Bahá'ís in 2005.[25]

Panama[edit]

The same year as the release of the Tablets of the Divine Plan in 1919 Martha Root's made a trip around South America and included Panama on the return leg of the trip up the west coast.[37] The first pioneers began to settle in Panama in 1940.[24] The first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly of Panama, in Panama City, was elected in 1946,[8] and National Spiritual Assembly was first elected in 1961.[10] The Bahá'ís of Panama raised a Bahá'í House of Worship in 1972.[38] In 1983 and again in 1992 some commemorative stamps were produced in Panama[39][40] while the community turned its interests to the San Miguelito and Chiriqui regions of Panama with schools and a radio station.[41] One recent estimation of the Bahá'í community of Panama was of 2.00% of the national population, or about 60000, in 2006.[42] The Association of Religion Data Archives estimated there were some 41000 Bahá'ís in 2005[25] and the largest religious minority in the country.[43]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

The Bahá'í Faith in Trinidad and Tobago begins with a mention by `Abdu'l-Bahá, then head of the religion, in 1916 as the Caribbean was among the places Bahá'ís should take the religion to.[5] The first Bahá'í to visit came in 1927[7] while pioneers arrived by 1956[44] and the first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly was elected in 1957[45] In 1971 the first Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly was elected.[46] A count of the community then noted 27 assemblies with Bahá'ís living in 77 locations.[47] Since then Bahá'ís have participated in several projects for the benefit of the wider community and in 2005/10 various sources report near 1.2% of the country,[48] about 10[49]–16,000[21] citizens, are Bahá'ís.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bahá'í International Community (2006). "Worldwide Community". Bahá'í International Community. Archived from the original on 13 June 2006. Retrieved 31 May 2006. 
  2. ^ a b "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2002". Enyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. Retrieved 31 May 2006. 
  3. ^ adherents.com (2002). "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". adherents.com. Retrieved 28 August 2005. 
  4. ^ MacEoin, Denis (2000). "Baha'i Faith". In Hinnells, John R. The New Penguin Handbook of Living Religions: Second Edition. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-051480-5. 
  5. ^ a b Abbas, `Abdu'l-Bahá (April 1919). Tablets, Instructions and Words of Explanation. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (trans. and comments). 
  6. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá (1991) [1916–17]. Tablets of the Divine Plan (Paperback ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 31–36. ISBN 0-87743-233-3. 
  7. ^ a b c Universal House of Justice (1986). In Memoriam. The Bahá'í World of the Bahá'í Era 136–140 (1979–1983). XVIII (Bahá'í World Centre). pp. 733–736. ISBN 0-85398-234-1. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Lamb, Artemus (November 1995). The Beginnings of the Bahá'í Faith in Latin America:Some Remembrances, English Revised and Amplified Edition. 1405 Killarney Drive, West Linn OR, 97068, United States of America: M L VanOrman Enterprises. 
  9. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1947). Messages to America. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Committee. p. 6. ISBN 0-87743-145-0. OCLC 5806374. 
  10. ^ a b c Hassall, Graham; Universal House of Justice. "National Spiritual Assemblies statistics 1923–1999". Assorted Resource Tools. Bahá'í Academics Resource Library. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  11. ^ Baha'i World Statistics 2001 by Baha'i World Center Department of Statistics, 2001–08
  12. ^ The Life of Shoghi Effendi by Helen Danesh, John Danesh and Amelia Danesh, Studying the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, edited by M. Bergsmo (Oxford: George Ronald, 1991)
  13. ^ U.K. Bahá'í Heritage Site. "The Bahá'í Faith in the United Kingdom –A Brief History". Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2008. 
  14. ^ Universal House of Justice (1966). "Ridván 1966". Ridván Messages. Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  15. ^ "The Great Safari of Hand of the Cause Ruhiyyih Khanum; Barbados". Bahá'í News (483): 17–18. June 1971. 
  16. ^ "NSA of United States Reports Status of Goals in Atlantic and Caribbean Areas; Present Status of Goals". Bahá'í News (407): 1. February 1965. 
  17. ^ "New Goals Won in the Caribbean Area". Bahá'í News (412): 9. July 1965. 
  18. ^ "A Major Event". Bahá'í News (427): 10. October 1966. 
  19. ^ a b Universal House of Justice (1986). In Memoriam. The Bahá'í World of the Bahá'í Era 136–140 (1979–1983). XVIII (Bahá'í World Centre). p. 514. ISBN 0-85398-234-1. 
  20. ^ "International > Regions > Caribbean > Barbados > Religious Adherents". thearda.com. thearda.com. 2001. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  21. ^ a b c "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". thearda.com. thearda.com. 2001. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  22. ^ "Welcome to the Barbados Baha'i Website". National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Barbados. Archived from the original on 14 September 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  23. ^ a b "Redatam". Census. Barbados Statistical Service. 2010. Archived from the original on 4 October 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  24. ^ a b c "La Comunidad Bahá'í en Costa Rica". Official website of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Costa Rica. Comunidad de Bahá'í de Costa Rica. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  25. ^ a b c d "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  26. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1947). Messages to America. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Committee. p. 25. OCLC 5806374. 
  27. ^ a b Locke, Hugh C. (1983). Bahá'í World, Vol. XVIII: 1979–1983. pp. 500–501, 629. 
  28. ^ "Annual Report Inter-America Committee". Bahá'í News (109): p. 3–5. July 1937. 
  29. ^ "InterAmerica Teaching". Bahá'í News (139): p. 4. October 1940. 
  30. ^ "Supplement to Annual Report of the National Spiritual Assembly 1941–42". Bahá'í News (154): p. 11–12. July 1942. 
  31. ^ "Central America, Mexico and the Antilles". Bahá'í News (247): p. 9–10. September 1951. 
  32. ^ a b "National Spiritual Assemblies Statistics". Retrieved 27 November 2008. 
  33. ^ "Teaching Conference Held in Honduras". Bahá'í News (411): p. 1. June 1965. 
  34. ^ Bridge, Abena (5 July 2000). "Divine rites – Uncovering the faiths". Jamaican Gleaner News. 
  35. ^ Bahá'í International Community (25 July 2003). "Joyous festivities in Jamaica". Bahá'í World News Service. 
  36. ^ Bahá'í International Community (11 August 2006). "Jamaicans celebrate 4th National Baha'i Day". Bahá'í World News Service. 
  37. ^ Yang, Jiling; Under the direction of Ian Fletcher (December 2005). "In Search of Martha Root: An American Bahá'í Feminist and Peace Advocate in the early Twentieth Century" (pdf). Electronic Version Approved. Office of Graduate Studies, College of Arts and Sciences, Georgia State University. Retrieved 30 June 2008. 
  38. ^ House of Justice, Universal; compiled by W. Marks, Geoffry (1996). Messaged from the Universal House of Justice: 1963–1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age. Wilmette, Illinois 60091: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 212. ISBN 0-87743-239-2. 
  39. ^ maintained by Tooraj, Enayat. "Bahá'í Stamps". Bahá'í Philately. Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 30 June 2008. 
  40. ^ maintained by Tooraj, Enayat. "Bahá'í Stamps". Bahá'í Philately. Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 30 June 2008. 
  41. ^ International Community, Bahá'í (October–December 1994). "In Panama, some Guaymis blaze a new path". One Country 1994 (October–December). 
  42. ^ "Panama". WCC > Member churches > Regions > Latin America > Panama. World Council of Churches. 1 January 2006. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2008. 
  43. ^ "Panama". National Profiles > > Regions > Central America >. Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  44. ^ "The Guardian's Message to the Forty-Eighth Annual Baha'i Convention". Bahá'í News (303): p. 1–2. May 1956. 
  45. ^ "First Local Spiritual Assembly…". Bahá'í News (321): 8. November 1957. 
  46. ^ "A Year of Progress in Trinidad". Bahá'í News (480): 8–9. March 1971. 
  47. ^ "Outstanding Achievements, Goals". Bahá'í News (484): 3. July 1971. 
  48. ^ "International > Regions > Caribbean > Trinidad and Tobago > Religious Adherents". thearda.com. thearda.com. 2010. Retrieved 2013-06-13. 
  49. ^ "The History of the Bahá'í Faith in Trinidad and Tobago". The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahai´s of Trinidad and Tobago. 2010. Retrieved June 8, 2013. 

References[edit]

  • Academic American Encyclopedia. Grolier Academic Reference. 1998. ISBN 0-7172-2068-0. 
  • Chernow, Barbara A.; Vallasi, George A. (1993). The Columbia Encyclopedia. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-62438-X. 
  • The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition. Brill. 1960. Ref DS37.E523. 
  • Jones, Lindsay, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion (second ed.). MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 0-02-865733-0. 
  • O'Brien, Joanne; Palmer, Martin (2005). Religions of the World. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-6258-7. 

External links[edit]