Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari

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Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari
Naqshbandi bukhara.jpg
Mausoleum of Bahauddin Naqshband in Bukhara 39°48'5"N 64°32'11"E
Born 1318
Bukhara
Died 1389
Bukhara
Venerated in Islam

Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari (Persian: بهاءالدین محمد نقشبند بخاری‎‎) (1318–1389) was the founder of what would become one of the largest and most influential Sufi Muslim orders, the Naqshbandi.

Biography[edit]

Concerning his life much information is lacking. This is not surprising since he forbade his followers to record anything of his deeds or sayings during his lifetime, and writings composed soon after his death, such as the Anis at-Talibin of Salah ad-Din Muhammad Bukhari (d. 1383), concentrate upon matters of spiritual and moral interest.

Early life and education[edit]

Baha-ud-Din was born on 18 March 1318 CE (14 Muharram, 718 AH) in the village of Qasr-i-Hinduvan (later renamed Qasr-i Arifan) near Bukhara, in what is now Uzbekistan and it was there that he died in 1389.[1] Most of his life was spent in Bukhara, Chagatai Khanate and contiguous areas of Transoxiana, in keeping with the principle of "journeying within the homeland" (a practise mentioned in "The Sacred Words"),and in Omar Ali-Shah's: "The Rules or Secrets of the Naqshbandi Order", and the only long journeys he undertook were for the performance of hajj on two occasions.

He came into early contact with the Khwajagan (lit: the Masters), and was adopted as spiritual progeny by one of them, Baba Muhammad Sammasi, while still an infant. Sammasi was his first guide on the path, and more important was his relationship with Sammasi's principal khalifa (successor), Amir Kulal, the last link in the silsila, or chain of teachers, before Baha-ud-Din.

It was from Amir Kulal that Baha-ud-Din received his fundamental training on the path and whose company he kept for many years. Still more significant, however, was the instruction Baha-ud-Din received in the method of silent dhikr from the ruhaniya of Abdul Khaliq Gajadwani (ruhaniya refers to an initiation dispensed by the spiritual being of a departed preceptor). Although he was a spiritual descendant of Abdul Khaliq, Amir Kulal practised vocal dhikr, and after Baha-ud-Din received instruction in silent dhikr, he would absent himself from Amir Kulal's circle of followers whenever they engaged in dhikr of the tongue. This separation of Baha-ud-din from Amir Kulal's circle may be thought of as marking the final crystallization of the Naqshbandiya, with silent dhikr, received from Abdul Khaliq and ultimately inherited from Abu Bakr, established as normative for the order, various later deviations nontwithstanding.

Lineage[edit]

In her book "Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth-Century Muslim India" p. 32, Dr.Annemarie Schimmel writes:"Khwaja Mir Dard`s family, like many nobles, from Bukhara; led their pedigree back to Baha'uddin Naqshband, after whom the Naqshbandi order is named, and who was a descendent, in the 11th generation of the 11th Shia imam al-Hasan al-Askari."[2] Baha-ud-din Naqshband's lineage is described as under: Sayyid Baha-ud-din Naqshband Bukhari, son of Sayyid Muhammad Bukhari, son of Sayyid Jalal-ud-din, son of Sayyid Burhan-ud-din, son of Sayyid Abdullah, son of Sayyid Zain al-Abideen, son of Sayyid Qasim, son of Sayyid Sha'aban, son of Sayyid Bulaq, son of Sayyid Taqi Sufi Khilwati, son of Sayyid Fakhr-ur-Din, son of Sayyid Ali Akbar, son of Imam Hasan al-Askari, son of Imam Ali al-Hadi, son of Imam Muhammad al-Taqi, son of Imam Ali ar-Ridha, son of Imam Musa al-Kadhim, son of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, son of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, son of Imam Zayn al-Abidin, son of Imam Husayn ibn Ali, son of Imam Ali ibn Abu-Talib.[3] Although Shiite historians generally reject the claim Hasan al-Askari fathered children other than Muhammad al-Mahdi, the Shiite hadith book Usul al-Kafi, in Bab Mawlid Abi Muhammad al-Hasan b. 'Ali confirms the Sufi claim that Hasan al-Askari had more than one wife, in addition to slave girls, with whom he had relations. In his Usul al-Kafi writes, "When the caliph got news of Imam Hasan 'Askari's illness, he instructed his agents to keep a constant watch over the house of the Imam...he sent some of these midwives to examine the slave girls of the Imam to determine if they were pregnant. If a woman was found pregnant she was detained and imprisoned...".[4][5][6][7][8]

Notable descendant of Hazrat Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband is an Indian Muslim Sufi master (Qutub) Sayyid Tajuddin Baba.[9] Tajuddin Baba was born in 1268 A.H. This date of birth was confirmed by Baba himself.[10] Baba belongs to the family of Hazrat Imam Hassan and Hazrat Imam Hussain, he was a descendent, in the 10th generation of the founder of would Sufi Naqshbandi order Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari and in the 22nd generation of the 11th Shia imam al-Hasan al-Askari.".[11] Baba's forefathers migrated from Mecca and settled down in Madras, India and were mostly employed with the military.

Death[edit]

Baha-ud-Din was buried in his native village, Qasr-i Arifan, in 1389. In 1544 Khan Abd al-Aziz built over his grave a tomb and surrounding buildings. The Memorial complex is located 12 kilometers from Bukhara and is today a place of pilgrimage.[12]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • The Rules or Secrets of the Naqshbandi Order by Omar Ali-Shah (1992) ISBN 2909347095
  • The Masters of Wisdom by John G. Bennett (1995) ISBN 1881408019
  • The Naqshbandi Sufi Way, (History and Guidebook of the Saints of the Golden Chain). by Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani. Kazi Publications, USA (1995) ISBN 0-934905-34-7
  • Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Islamic Supreme Council of America (June 2004), ISBN 1930409230.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "YAWM-A-WILAADAT HAZRAT KHWAJA SHAH BAHAUDDEEN NAQHSHBAND QADDAS ALLAHU SIRRUHUL AZEEZ". 17 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Ruhani Ramadhan 1434H Academia.edu
  3. ^ Tazkare Khwanadane Hazrat Eshan(genealogy of the family of Hazrat Eshan)(by author and investigator:Muhammad Yasin Qasvari Naqshbandi company:Edara Talimat Naqshbandiyya Lahore)p. 63
  4. ^ al-Kafi, by Muhammad Ya'qub Kulayni. Translated by Muhammad Sarwar. Chap. 124, Birth of Abi Muhammad al-Hasan ibn 'Ali, p.705
  5. ^ Dr.Annemarie Schimmels book "Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth-Century Muslim India" BRILL, 1976, p.32
  6. ^ Tazkare Khwanadane Hazrat Eshan(genealogy of the family of Hazrat Eshan)(by author and investigator:Muhammad Yasin Qasvari Naqshbandi company:Edara Talimat Naqshbandiyya Lahore)p. 63
  7. ^ ZiaIslamic "Gulzar auliya" Pg No.19-21
  8. ^ [rederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, John McBrewster "Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari" 2011, ISBN 978-6-1341-5642-4
  9. ^ TajBaba Lineage
  10. ^ Taji, Zaheen Shah (1956). "4". Tajul Auliya. Karachi: Taj Company. p. 43. 
  11. ^ TajBaba Lineage
  12. ^ Mausoleum of Bahauddin Naqshbandi 2003-2013 Hotelica.