Berhampore

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Berhampore
Baharampur
City
Residency1 debaditya chatterjee.jpg
Dutch satyajit sinha.jpg
Armenian church Berhampore.jpg
Berhampore montage
Berhampore is located in West Bengal
Berhampore
Berhampore
Location in West Bengal, India
Berhampore is located in India
Berhampore
Berhampore
Berhampore (India)
Coordinates: 24°06′N 88°15′E / 24.1°N 88.25°E / 24.1; 88.25Coordinates: 24°06′N 88°15′E / 24.1°N 88.25°E / 24.1; 88.25
Country India
State West Bengal
DistrictMurshidabad
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyBerhampore Municipality
 • MPAdhir Ranjan Chowdhury
Area
 • City104.25 km2 (40.25 sq mi)
 • Metro
194.67 km2 (75.16 sq mi)
 • Rank7th
Elevation
18 m (59 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • City305,609
 • Density2,900/km2 (7,600/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
742101, 742102, 742103
Telephone code91-3482-2xxxxx
Vehicle registrationWB57, WB58
Lok Sabha constituencyBerhampore (Lok Sabha constituency)
Vidhan Sabha constituencyBerhampore (Vidhan Sabha constituency)
Websiteberhamporemunicipality.org

Berhampore (pronounced [bɑ:(h)ərəmˌpʊə],[citation needed] Bengali pronunciation: [bɔ.ɦɔ.rɔm.pur]) is a city and a municipality in the state of West Bengal, India. As of 2011 census,[3] Berhampore urban agglomeration had a population of 305,609 and was the seventh largest city in West Bengal (after Kolkata, Asansol, Siliguri, Durgapur, Bardhaman and Malda). Berhampore is the administrative headquarters of the Murshidabad district. It is located about 200 km (124 mi) from Kolkata, the state capital. It is one of the most important business, administrative, educational and political hub of Bengal as well as of India. Congress Lok Sabha leader Shri Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury has been elected from this city since 1999. It is one of the most popular urban agglomerations of West Bengal state. It was the first centre of East India Company in India. Not only the British but also the Dutch and the French established their companies in this city and, as a result, it grew as a production hub of India. It is famous for its famous sweets such as Chanabora, Manohara, Rasgulla and many more. The city is divided into five administrative regions: Gora Bazar, Khagra, Indraprastha, Cossimbazar, Haridasmati. Berhampore was a part of Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 which took place at Berhampore Cantonment region (Barrack Square). It was used by many foreign traders as their production hub. Before becoming a city many janpadas such as Saidabad; Farasdanga; Kalikapur had become famous. Cossimbazar had also become world famous for its muslin clothes. This city used to be the headquarters of Rajshahi administrative region till 1875.

History[edit]

Berhampore was fortified in 1757 by the East India Company, after the Battle of Plassey in June 1757, and it continued as a cantonment until 1870. But the foundation of the city of Berhampore remains questionable.[clarification needed]

Karnasubarna, which is very near to Berhampore, has a history dating back to 600 AD. Many buildings from the late 1600s can still be seen. It used to be known as Brahmapur because many of the Brahmin families settled here. The cantonment was constituted as a municipality in 1876 and was the headquarters of Murshidabad district. The Berhampore College was founded in 1853 and in 1888 made over to a local committee, mainly supported by Rani Swarnamayi. On 27 February 1857, the first major armed battle of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 took place in Barrack Square, Berhampore.[4] Berhampore was ruled by Raja Krishnath, his ancestors and successors (he was succeeded by his sister's side of the family as he did not have any direct descendants). In 1901, Berhampore had a population of 24,397, and included the ancient town of Kasim Bazar.[5]

Geography[edit]

Cities, towns and locations in the Berhampore and Kandi subdivisions, Murshidabad district
M: municipal town, CT: census town, R: rural/ urban centre, H: historical centres
Owing to space constraints in the small map, the actual locations in a larger map may vary slightly

Location[edit]

Berhampore is located at 24°06′N 88°15′E / 24.1°N 88.25°E / 24.1; 88.25.[6] It has an average elevation of 18 metres (59 feet).

City & the Ganges
Aerial View of Berhampore and the Ganges

The city is located approximately 200 km north of Kolkata by road at 24°4′N 88°9′E / 24.067°N 88.150°E / 24.067; 88.150 and is situated on the eastern side of the Bhagirathi River, a major distributary of the Ganges which is known as the Hooghly River in its lower reaches.

Note: The map alongside presents some of the notable locations in the subdivisions. All places marked in the map are linked in the larger full screen map.

Fort at Berhampore, c. 1850

Civic administration[edit]

Police station[edit]

Berhampore police station has jurisdiction over Berhampore municipal area and a part of Berhampore CD Block.[7]

Climate[edit]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.9
(94.8)
37.2
(99.0)
44.5
(112.1)
46.4
(115.5)
48.3
(118.9)
46.9
(116.4)
40.4
(104.7)
48.3
(118.9)
40.3
(104.5)
39.5
(103.1)
37.8
(100.0)
34.0
(93.2)
48.3
(118.9)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 28.7
(83.7)
32.8
(91.0)
38.3
(100.9)
40.7
(105.3)
41.2
(106.2)
39.4
(102.9)
36.0
(96.8)
35.9
(96.6)
36.0
(96.8)
35.8
(96.4)
33.6
(92.5)
30.2
(86.4)
42.4
(108.3)
Average high °C (°F) 25.5
(77.9)
29.0
(84.2)
34.0
(93.2)
37.0
(98.6)
36.5
(97.7)
34.9
(94.8)
33.0
(91.4)
33.2
(91.8)
33.1
(91.6)
33.0
(91.4)
31.0
(87.8)
27.3
(81.1)
32.3
(90.1)
Average low °C (°F) 12.2
(54.0)
15.5
(59.9)
19.8
(67.6)
23.7
(74.7)
25.0
(77.0)
26.1
(79.0)
26.1
(79.0)
26.3
(79.3)
25.8
(78.4)
23.9
(75.0)
19.1
(66.4)
14.3
(57.7)
21.5
(70.7)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 8.9
(48.0)
11.5
(52.7)
15.4
(59.7)
19.3
(66.7)
20.9
(69.6)
23.2
(73.8)
24.0
(75.2)
24.0
(75.2)
23.4
(74.1)
20.3
(68.5)
14.9
(58.8)
10.9
(51.6)
8.8
(47.8)
Record low °C (°F) 3.9
(39.0)
5.0
(41.0)
8.9
(48.0)
15.0
(59.0)
15.3
(59.5)
16.6
(61.9)
21.0
(69.8)
19.6
(67.3)
21.1
(70.0)
15.6
(60.1)
8.3
(46.9)
5.7
(42.3)
3.9
(39.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 8.2
(0.32)
17.7
(0.70)
22.3
(0.88)
52.4
(2.06)
129.4
(5.09)
229.2
(9.02)
293.7
(11.56)
269.7
(10.62)
298.5
(11.75)
126.7
(4.99)
9.9
(0.39)
7.6
(0.30)
1,465.5
(57.70)
Average rainy days 0.8 1.4 1.9 3.0 6.6 12 13.5 13.7 12.6 5.1 0.8 0.5 71.8
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 63 60 53 58 68 79 85 84 84 78 67 65 70
Source: India Meteorological Department[8][9]

Demographics[edit]

In the 2011 census, Berhampore Urban Agglomeration had a population of 305,609, out of which 156,489 were males and 149,120 were females. The 0–6 years population was 23,182. Effective literacy rate for the 7+ population was 88.38.[3] Bengali is the predominant language, spoken by 98.02% of the population. Hindi is spoken by 1.46%.[10]

Religion in Berhampore (2011)[11]
Hindus
90.14%
Muslims
9.07%
Other or not stated
0.79%

As of 2001 Indian census,[12] Berhampore had a population of 160,168. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Berhampore has an average literacy rate of 79%, higher than the national average of 59.5%, with 53% of the males and 47% of females literate. 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Economics[edit]

Initially, most of the residents of this city were government employees and there were few agricultural as well as silk traders. Gradually, the importance of the city increased due to its geographic location. Due to its historical importance, this city also earns a good number of tourists, thus making tourism another prominent industry there.

Major industries include agricultural related industries like rice and oil-seed milling. Home-crafts like silk weaving, ivory carving, and precious metal working are other important industries in this city. Khagra, a neighbourhood in Bahrampur is renowned for its manufacture of bell-metal and brass utensils, as well as ivory, and wood carving.[13][14] A famous type of metal used to make bells called "Khagrai Kansha" is made in the city. This is a type of brass that is used to make utensils like dishes & bowls.

The city has many big shops which now have become prime shopping destinations.

The multiplexes in the town include Silver Screen which is located near Berhampore Court railway station and Mohan Multiplex inside Mohan Mall. Tickets of these multiplexes are available from BookMyShow.

Berhampore is famous for the sweet chhanabora, the savoury khaja, and the sweet manohara. It is also known for Murshidabad silk (tassar).

Kalika is being used in most of the sweet shops, goldsmiths' shops and many other small scale industries. The name Kalika is the Goddess Kali.

Transport[edit]

Baharmpur Railway Station, Murshidabad

Rail – Berhampore is 186 km from Kolkata by train. The train station is named as Berhampore Court (BPC), and it stands on the Sealdah–Lalgola line of the Eastern Railway. Main trains are the Bhagirathi Express (13103/13104), Hazarduari Express (13113/13114), and Dhano Dhanye Express (13117/13118). Other passenger trains include Sealdah–Lalgola passenger, Sealdah–Berhampore Court MEMU passenger, Ranaghat Jn–Lalgola EMU Locals, Krishnanagar City Jn–Lalgola EMU Locals. In the northern part of the town there is another railway station named Cossimbazar, which is the next railway station on the Sealdah–Lalgola route.

Khagraghat Road (KGLE) station stands on the Howrah–Azimganj Junction line of the Eastern Railway. Main trains of this line are Sealdah–New Alipurduar Teesta–Torsa Express, Howrah–Dibrugarh Kamrup Express, Kolkata–Radhikapur Express, Hatey Bazare Express, Howrah–Malda Town Intercity Express, Puri–Kamakhya express via Howrah, Digha–New Jalpaiguri Paharia express, and Nabadwip Dham–Malda Town Express.

Road – as Berhampore is the administrative headquarters of the Murshidabad district and as it stands just in a central position of West Bengal, it acts as the link between North Bengal and South Bengal. This town is well connected by NH 12 and National Highway 34. The local transportation dependent on rickshaws and E-rickshaws (known as tuk-tuk or toto car). There are bus services on regular basis from South Bengal to North Bengal and vice versa.

There are two bus terminals in the city – one for the government bus services and the other bus terminus for private buses is called 'Mohona'. There are regular bus services to Kolkata (Esplanade). Bus services are also available to other parts of West Bengal such as Durgapur, Sainthia, Siuri, Asansol, Burdwan, Bankura, Jhargram, Bolpur, Rampurhat, Nalhati, Kirnahar, Malda, Siliguri, Balurghat, Gangarampur, Krishnanagar, Ranaghat. Bus service is also available to Dumka (Jharkhand).

Water – Berhampore city is situated on the banks of Bhagirathi. Berhampore north to Berhampore south is connected via launchboats. Regular boat transport is also available from Berhampore to other towns of Murshidabad such as Azimganj and Jiaganj.

Tourist spots[edit]

New Cossimbazar Palace
European Residency Cemetery, late 1600 A.D.
The Dutch graveyard

Berhampore is a famous place for tourists in West Bengal. It gets tourists' flow from locals as well as from foreigners, being the first headquarters of the East India Company[citation needed] and having a long history enriched by the Nawabs of Bengal, Sultans of Bengal, Zamindar and other European colonial forces such as Dutch, Portuguese, English (British Raj) and French.

Arts and culture[edit]

Having patronage from the Nawabs, artists from various field of arts sowed the seed of cultural heritage in this place. The calm lifestyle of this city still evokes a rich cultural environment. Almost all well-to-do parents send their children to at least one school of art. Among them, dancing, acting, recitation, painting, and music are the most popular.

Elegant pieces of hand-craft arts can also be found in this region, namely the handcraft in making of carpet, bamboo and jute crafts, and miniature paintings.

This city can be considered one of the main cultural hubs of West Bengal. 'Rabindra Sadan' named after Bengal's very own Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore is the place where most of the indoor cultural activities take place.

Theatre groups like Berhampore Repertory Theater, Rangasram, Chhandik, Jugagni and Prantik are based out of this town. These groups organise theatre festivals throughout the year mostly during the winter season. These festivals allow people from the city, nearby towns and villages to witness performances from different theatre groups from all over the state, different states and even groups from across the border of Bangladesh. A relatively new theatre group, Berhampore Gangchil, has started their own productions focusing on junior school students.

Education[edit]

Among the government-aided high schools for boys, Krishnath College School, Berhampore, Berhampore J.N. Academy, Iswar Chandra Institution (ICI), Gurudas Tarasundari Institution (GTI) and Saidabad Manindra Chandra Vidyapith (MCV) are the most popular ones.

The high school for girls include Berhampore Maharani Kashiswari Girls High School, Mahakali Pathshala, Shrish Chandra Vidyapith and Lipika Memorial Girls' High school.

All the above-mentioned schools are affiliated with State Bengal Board and are Bengali medium schools.

There are also private schools like Gitaram Academy, Prabharani Public School, Mary Immaculate School, Don Bosco School, Viddyottam Public School which are affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education or Indian Certificate of Secondary Education|Council for Indian School Certificate Examinations are English medium schools.

The city also has a Kendriya Vidyalaya, situated close to Babul Bona Road, the first Secondary batch having graduated from the school in 2001.

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya is in swarnomoyee road near Berhampore Court Station.

University[edit]

Colleges[edit]

Legacy[edit]

The city of Berhampore also shares its name with Berhampore at Wellington, New Zealand. The daughter of Major Paul married local land owner George Hunter. Major Paul was an Indian Army officer. George Hunter to show respect to his father in law gave Berhampore the name of the suburb. The old house of the "De" family (relatives of the Cossimbazar Raj) at Churamani Chowdhury Lane is also one of the oldest buildings in Berhampore and was at one point of time the property of the Cossimbazar Raj.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Berhampore City".
  2. ^ a b "Berhampore Info".
  3. ^ a b "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  4. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Berhampur" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 774.
  5. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cossimbazar" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 218.
  6. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Baharampur, India". www.fallingrain.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  7. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad". Table 2.1. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  8. ^ "Behrampore Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 200–201. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  9. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. 231. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  10. ^ "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue (Urban): West Bengal". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  11. ^ "Table C-01 Population By Religion - West Bengal". census.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  12. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  13. ^ "Handicrafts and silk industry". Murshidabad district administration. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2007.
  14. ^ "Crafts and artisans of India". craftandartisans.com. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2007.
  15. ^ "Berhampore College". BC. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  16. ^ "Berhampore Girls' College". BGC. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  17. ^ "Berhampore Girls' College". College Admission. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  18. ^ "Central Sericulture and Research Institute, Berhampore (W.B.)". Central Silk Board, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  19. ^ "Government College of Engineering & Textile Technology, Berhampore". GCETTB. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  20. ^ "Krishnath College". KC. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  21. ^ "Krishnath College". College Admission. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  22. ^ "Murshidabad College of Engineering & Technology". meetbhb. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  23. ^ "Murshidabad Medical College & Hospital, Murshidabad". collegedunia. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  24. ^ "Monarch College of Art and Technology". College Admission. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  25. ^ "Prabharani Public School". PPS. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  26. ^ "Union Christian Training College". UCTC. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  27. ^ "Shreya Ghoshal's :: Official Website". www.shreyaghoshal.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]