Pa-Hng (Baheng) has long been recognized as a divergent language. Benedict (1986) argued that one of its dialects constituted a separate branch of the Miao–Yao family, and Ratliff (2010) found it to be the most divergent Hmongic language that she analyzed. Mao & Li (1997) determined that two poorly known languages are closely related to Pa-Hng, though none are mutually intelligible:
- Ratliff, Martha. 2010. Hmong–Mien language history. Canberra, Australia: Pacific Linguistics.
- 毛宗武, 李云兵 / Mao Zongwu, Li Yunbing. 1997. 巴哼语研究 / Baheng yu yan jiu (A Study of Baheng [Pa-Hng]). Shanghai: 上海远东出版社 / Shanghai yuan dong chu ban she.
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