Bain & Company

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Bain & Company
Incorporated partnership
IndustryManagement consulting
Founded1973; 45 years ago (1973)[1]
FounderWilliam W. Bain Jr. and Patrick F. Graham[1][2]
HeadquartersBoston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Number of locations
59[3]
Key people
Manny Maceda (Worldwide Managing Partner)
Orit Gadiesh (Chairman)
ProductsManagement consulting services
Revenue$3.7-4.5 billion (estimated 2017)[4][5]
Number of employees
8,000 (2018)[6]
Websitewww.bain.com

Bain & Company is a global management consultancy headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts. It is one of the 'Big Three' management consultancies (MBB).[7] The firm provides advice to public, private, and non-profit organizations.

Bain & Company was founded in 1973 by former Group Vice President of Boston Consulting Group William Bain Jr. and his fellow colleagues including Patrick F. Graham.[8] In the late 70s and early 80s the firm grew rapidly in the international business world. Bill Bain later spun off the alternative investment business into Bain Capital in 1984 and appointed Mitt Romney as its first CEO.[9][8] Bain experienced several setbacks and financial troubles from 1987 to the early 1990s. Romney and Orit Gadiesh are credited with returning the firm to profitability and growth in their sequential roles as the firm's CEO and Chairman respectively.[10] In the 2000s, Bain & Company continued to expand and create additional practice areas focused on working with non-profits, technology companies, and others. It developed a substantial practice around working with private equity firms.[10]

Corporate history[edit]

Establishment[edit]

The idea for Bain & Company was conceived by co-founder William Worthington Bain Jr. during his time at the Boston Consulting Group (BCG).[11][12] In 1970, BCG CEO Bruce Henderson decided to divide his firm into three competing mini-firms: blue, red, and green. Bill Bain and Patrick Graham headed the blue team.[13] The blue team accounted for over half of BCG's revenue and profits, and won the internal competition. After the competition, Bill Bain grew increasingly frustrated by the wait for Henderson's retirement, the firm's project-based approach to consulting, and the refusal of management to help clients execute on the firm's advice.[11][12] Around this time, he is quoted to have said to feel like 'a consultant on a desert island, writing a report, putting it in a bottle, throwing it in the water, then going on to the next one'.[13]

Bain was the expected successor of Henderson within BCG in the early 70s.[11][12] However, in 1973, three years after Henderson's competing team decision, Bill Bain resigned to start his own consulting firm.[13][a] Most of the senior members of the 'blue team' followed him to his new found company, which was started from his apartment in the Beacon Hill neighborhood of Boston.[14] A significant part of firms for which he was responsible at BCG also followed Bain to the new company. Within a few weeks, Bain & Company was working with seven former BCG clients;[11] this included two of BCG's largest clients, Black & Decker and Texas Instruments.[12][13][15] As a result, Henderson accused Bill of stealing BCG's clientele.[12] It is believed that the competition Henderson put out laid the foundation for Bain & Company, and is viewed by many as a "disaster" from Henderson.[13]

Bain & Company grew quickly,[16] primarily through word-of-mouth among CEOs and board members.[17] The firm established its first formal office in Boston.[11] This was followed by a European office in London in 1979.[11] Bain & Company was incorporated in 1985.[13] The firm grew an average of 50 percent per year, reaching $150 million in revenues by 1986.[17] The number of staff at the firm tripled from 1980 to 1986, reaching 800 in 1987.[17] By 1987, Bain & Company was one of the four largest "strategy specialist" consulting firms.[16] Employee turnover was 8 percent annually compared to an industry average of 20 percent.[17] Some of the firm's largest clients in this period were National Steel and Chrysler, each of which reduced manufacturing costs with Bain's help.[11]

Turmoil[edit]

In the late 1980s, Bain & Company experienced a series of setbacks.[15] A public relations crisis emerged in 1987, due to a controversy involving Bain's work with Guinness.[11] Tension was growing over the firm's partnership structure, whereby only Bain knew how much the firm was making and decided how much profit-sharing each partner received.[17] The stock market crashed the same year, and many Bain clients reduced or eliminated their spending with the firm.[13] There were two rounds of layoffs, eliminating about 30 percent of the workforce.[13][15][b]

The Guinness share-trading fraud began with Britain's Department of Trade and Industry investigating whether Bain's client Guinness illegally inflated its stock price.[12] Bain had helped Guinness trim 150 companies from its portfolio after a period of excessive diversification,[17] and expand into hard liquor with the acquisition of two whiskey companies,[11] growing profits six-fold.[17] During this time, Bain made an exception to company policy by allowing a consultant to serve as an interim board member and head of finance for Guinness.[12][17] Bain & Company was not accused of any wrongdoing and no charges were pressed against Bain[18] for the manipulation of the stock price, but having a Bain consultant work as both vendor and client drew criticisms of Bain's handling of a conflict of interest situation.[12][17]

In 1985 and 1986, Bain & Company took out loans to buy 30 percent of the firm from Bain and other partners for $200 million and used the shares to create an Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP).[15][19] These shares of the company were bought at five times Bain & Company's annual revenue, more than double the norm, and cost the firm $25 million in annual interest fees, exacerbating the firm's financial troubles.[15] Bain hired former U.S. Army general Pete Dawkins as the head of North America in hopes that new leadership could bring about a turnaround, but Dawkins' leadership led to even more turnover at the firm.[11] Bill Bain also attempted to sell the firm, but was unsuccessful at finding a buyer.[11]

Rebound[edit]

Mitt Romney was hired back as interim CEO of Bain & Company in January 1991[19] and is credited with saving the company from bankruptcy during his one-year stint in the position.[20][21] Romney originally left Bain & Company in 1983 after appointed by Bain to lead Bain Capital,[13][c] an independent private equity firm that would buy companies that Bain & Company partners would improve and re-sell[13] and whose funds these partners invested in.[13] Romney allowed managers to know each other's salaries,[20] re-negotiated the firm's debt,[23] and restructured the organization so more partners had an ownership stake in the firm.[15] Romney convinced the founding partners to give up $100 million in equity.[19] Bain and most of the founding partners left the firm.[13]

Orit Gadiesh

Romney left again in December 1992 to pursue a career in politics[11], but not before he organized an election of new leaders the following year, leading to the appointment of Orit Gadiesh as Chairman and Thomas J. Tierney as Worldwide Managing Director in July 1993.[13][24] Gadiesh improved morale and loosened the firm's policy against working with multiple companies in the same industry in order to decrease the firm's reliance on a small number of clients.[21] Gadiesh has been serving as Chairman ever since. By the end of 1993, Bain & Company was growing once again[14][21]. The firm went from 1,000 employees at its peak, to 550 in 1991, and back up to 800.[21] The firm opened more offices, including one in New York in 2000.[11] From 1992 through 1999, the firm grew 25 percent per year and expanded from 12 to 26 offices.[25] By 1998, the firm had $220 million in annual revenues and 700 staff.[12]

Recent history[edit]

Bain created two technology consulting practice groups, bainlab and BainNet, in 1999 and 2000 respectively.[11] bainlab was originally founded as Bain New Venture Group.[26] It helped startups who otherwise might not afford Bain's fees and accepted partial payment in equity.[26] In February 2000, Gadiesh was elected for her third consecutive term as the firm's chairman, and Tom Tierney was replaced by John Donahoe as managing director.[14] Around 2000, the firm became more involved in consulting private equity firms on which companies to invest in and collaborating with technology consulting firms.[25] By 2005, Bain had the largest share of the market for private equity consulting.[27] By 2018, Bain's Private Equity group was over three times as large as that of the next largest consulting firm serving Private Equity firms, and representing 25% of Bain's global business.[28]

Bain & Company does not publish its revenues, but it is estimated to have experienced double-digit annual growth in the 2000s.[27] Although the market for management consulting was declining, the Big Three management consulting firms like Bain & Company continued to grow.[29] Bain expanded to new offices in other countries,[11] including India in 2006.[30][31] Like the other big consulting firms, it began working more with governments.[29] Bain maintained a "generalist" approach to management consulting, but created a separate specialist business unit for IT and technology.[27] In 2012, Robert Bechek was appointed CEO and was later ranked as the most-liked CEO in Glassdoor employee surveys.[32] On November 20, 2017, Bain announced that Bob Bechek would step down as the worldwide managing director. Emmanuel P. "Manny" Maceda, eldest son of the late Filipino politician Ernesto Maceda, was elected to succeed Bechek as the worldwide managing director effective March 2018.[33][34] In an interview with the Financial Times, Maceda announced to focus on the expansion of Bain's digital practice.[35]

South African Revenue Service Inquiry[edit]

In 2018 Vittorio Massone, the managing partner of Bain's Johannesburg office overseeing sub-Saharan Africa, gave evidence before the Nugent inquiry into the South African Revenue Service. Bain was required to give evidence regarding its 2015 consultancy work related to changing South Africa's tax agency's operating model. Bain proposed multiple changes for the agency, of which Bain claimed none were implemented as proposed.[36][37] It is hypothesized that the changes may have been part of a deliberate effort by then South African President Jacob Zuma and his appointed commissioner, Tom Moyane, to weaken the agency to protect President Zuma's allegedly corrupt inner circle.

Massone testified that he met with Moyane in 2013, a year before Zuma appointed him as commissioner, to discuss the tax agency. It was reported, after Massone had testified, that he had also met with Zuma at his Nkandla residence on a number of occasions in 2013 and 2014, something that was not disclosed at the inquiry. Not only did Bain partner Massone visit former President Zuma at his home, it is said that he presented then President Zuma with a "gift" of cattle[38]. Neither these meetings nor the alleged gift of cattle have been denied by Bain. South African NGO Corruption Watch has called for a criminal probe into the conduct of Massone. The NGO believes the alleged gift of cattle could constitute a bribe and be a contravention of the Prevention & Combating of Corrupt Activities Act.[39]

It emerged at the inquiry during testimony by a procurement official from South Africa's National Treasury, that the process to appoint Bain to restructure the tax agency's operating model was "irregular", which raised suspicions that the decision on which consultancy would win the tender was predetermined.[40]

Massone was not able to explain how a heavily discounted R2 million diagnostic project grew into R164 million project, allegedly in breach of South Africa's public procurement laws. [41][42][43]. Subsequent to the revelations in the inquiry Bain has announced that it has launched an internal investigation into its work for the tax agency. [44]

On 9 September 2018 Bain issued a statement in which it said that it had learned in the first week of its internal probe conducted by international law firm Baker McKenzie that its engagement with Sars “fell short of its operating principles”. Bain further announced that Sub-Saharan Africa managing partner Vittorio Massone had stepped down as Managing Partner for Sub-Saharan Africa, and that Bain would set aside the R164 million it earned from its work at the South African Revenue Service. The firm admitted that its work at Sars had “fallen short” and that it could not accept payment earned for work which was used to “further a different agenda” than was intended.[45]

The Daily Maverick, an investigative news website, concluded in an in-depth report that Vittorio Massone colluded with Tom Moyane and Jonas Makwakwa in order to receive the R187-million contract to restructure SARS and that Massone appears to have lied under oath to the Nugent Inquiry in an attempt to hide the fraud. [46]

Corruption Watch has noted that Bain had procured the services of Baker McKenzie to conduct the internal investigation into the circumstances surrounding its relationship with SARS, however that it had become the practice to claim legal privilege or client confidentiality when the outcome of an investigation was not to a client's liking. Corruption Watch went on to say that they put Baker McKenzie on notice that unless it wanted to damage its own reputation it should not undertake the investigation without an express agreement with Bain that the report it prepares be publicly released at the same time that it is submitted to Bain.[47]

Business Leadership South Africa, a South African business lobby group representing large business organisations, has suspended Bain & Company's membership. BLSA said it believed that Bain’s involvement in the so-called "restructuring" contributed to questionable, unnecessary changes at Sars. These changes are evidenced by, among others, the deliberate shut-down of highly specialised, effective and efficient units that were specifically created to improve revenue collection and the exodus of talent from Sars. This created space for illegal activities and thus directly contributed to a rapidly declining tax morality, it said.[48]

A pattern has emerged where Bain would evidently campaign for tenders by doing pro-bono work for State Owned Enterprise CEO's, or aspirant CEOs prior to their appointment to their positions, much as in the case with Tom Moyane of Sars. The Mail & Guardian reported that Bain was doing pro-bono work in SAA, South Africa's state owned airline, chief executive Vuyani Jarana’s office while at the same time bidding for a R139 million tender to develop an optimal organisational design. [49][50]. A 2014 Bain & Company contract with state owned telecoms company, Telkom, has been described as similarly irregular. Bloomberg reported in 2014 that Massone had meetings with Telkom CEO Sipho Maseko 10 months before Maseko took up the post.[51]

The Nugent inquiry recommended, in early December 2018, that South Africa's National Director of Public Prosecutions institute criminal proceedings in connection with the award of the restructuring contract to Bain & Company.[52]

Consulting services[edit]

Bain & Company provides management consulting services primarily to Fortune 500 CEOs.[11] The firm advises on issues such as private equity investments, mergers & acquisitions, corporate strategy, finance, operations, and market analysis.[53] It also has departments focused on customer loyalty, word of mouth marketing, and digital technology.[54] Most of its consulting is on corporate strategy.[55]

In 2000, The Bridgespan Group was created to work with non-profits and to facilitate pro-bono work for staff.[11] Bain & Company also maintains an in-house social impact practice, and pledged in 2015 to invest $1 billion in pro bono consulting by 2025.[56][57] This practice is built upon different pillars, including social and economic development, climate change, education, and local community development. Organizations that Bain has supported through pro-bono work include UNHCR, the World Childhood Foundation and Teach for America.[58][59] Bain's pro-bono work was in 2015 awarded by Consulting Magazine as a winner of their Excellence in Social and Community Investment Awards for having 'redefined how companies approach corporate social responsibility'.[60]

Later in the 2000s, Bain introduced service packages for specific areas of expertise, such as the supply chain.[11] The firm also became more heavily involved in consulting with private equity firms, advising on what companies to buy, facilitating a turnaround, and then re-selling the company.[27] In early 2006, Bain started selling its "net-promoter score" system, which tracks customer sentiment.[61]

Reception[edit]

Bain & Company claims a typical engagement increases the client's profits by 5-10 times the amount spent on its services.[12] A March 1989 audit by Price Waterhouse found that the market value of Bain's clients increased an average of 456 percent over nine years.[12] The "Bain Index," which tracks the collective stock prices of Bain clients, grew in stock price by 319% from 1980 to 1987, compared to 141% growth in the Dow Jones Industrial Average.[17]

According to Fortune Magazine, Bain asks clients to make long-term commitments to the firm and consultants often become deeply embedded in their clients' daily operations.[17] Sometimes consultants are acting as though, and treated as if, they are a member of the company's own senior management.[13] Often clients become reliant on Bain & Company, who has consultants integrated throughout the company's key functions.[17]

Corporate culture[edit]

Bain & Company is known for being secretive.[12][17] The firm is sometimes referred to as the "KGB of Consulting."[13][55] Clients are given codenames.[62] Employees must sign nondisclosure contracts, promising not to reveal client names, and are required to adhere to a "code of confidentiality."[12]

Bain employees are sometimes called "Bainies."[53] It was originally a pejorative term, but was adopted by employees as an affectionate term.[53] According to Fortune Magazine, were Bain & Company a person, "it would be articulate, attractive, meticulously well groomed, and exceedingly charming. It would exude Southern gentility. But it would also be a shrewd, intensely ambitious strategist, totally in control."[17]

Bain is often placed among the top best places to work in annual rankings by Glassdoor[63] and Consulting Magazine.[64] Bain primarily hires MBAs from prestigious business schools,[12] but it is one of the first firms to hire consultants with a bachelor's degree.[55] The firm is organized primarily by geographic office, with each location acting somewhat independently.[55] It also has a mix of overlapping functional (such as M&A, technology, or loyalty) and industry (financial services, healthcare, etc.) teams.[55] An elected worldwide managing director is allowed up to three, three-year terms under the firm's bylaws.[25] Bain is unusual in the management consulting industry in that new consultants are not required to specialize in an industry or practice area.[53]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some sources say he started a software company first.[11]
  2. ^ Sources conflict on whether total layoffs were 20%, 27%, or 30%.
  3. ^ Mitt Romney's work with Bain Capital was part of his election campaign.[22]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]