Baiturrahman Grand Mosque

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Baiturrahman Grand Mosque
Masjid Raya Baiturrahman
مسجد رايا بيتر الرحمن
Meuseujid Raya Baiturrahman
Meuseujid Raya.JPG
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque
Basic information
Location Indonesia Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Geographic coordinates 5°33′13″N 95°19′1.9″E / 5.55361°N 95.317194°E / 5.55361; 95.317194Coordinates: 5°33′13″N 95°19′1.9″E / 5.55361°N 95.317194°E / 5.55361; 95.317194
Affiliation Islam
Branch/tradition Sunni (Shafi'i)
Architectural description
Architect(s) G. Bruins
Architectural type Mosque
Architectural style Mughal revivalism
Groundbreaking 1879
Completed 1881
Specifications
Capacity 30,000
Interior area 1,500 m2 (16,000 sq ft)
Dome(s) 7 Domes
Minaret(s) 8 Minarets

Baiturrahman Grand Mosque is a Mosque located in the center of Banda Aceh city, Aceh Province, Indonesia. The Baiturrahman Grand Mosque is a symbol of religion, culture, spirit, strength, struggle and nationalism of Acehnese people. The mosque is a landmark of Banda Aceh and has survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.

History[edit]

The original multi-tiered Great Mosque of the Sultanate of Aceh is the most prominent building in this 18th-century view of Banda Aceh.

The original Masjid Raya ("Grand Mosque") was built in 1612 during the reign of Iskandar Muda, Sultan of Aceh. Some say the original mosque was built even earlier in 1292 by Sultan Alaidin Mahmudsyah. The original royal mosque features a multi-tiered thatched roof, a typical Acehnese architecture.[1]

During the First Aceh Expedition, the mosque became a center of armed resistance against the Dutch and was razed to the ground on 6 January 1874 by the East Indies Governor General van Swieten.[2] In March 1877, the Dutch offered to rebuild the mosque to the local rulers.[3] Construction only began in 1879, when the first stone was laid by Tengku Qadhi Malikul Adil who became its first imam. Construction was completed on 27 December 1881 during the reign of Muhammad Daud Syah, the last sultan of Aceh. Many Acehnese initially refused to pray at Baiturrahman because it was built by the Dutch, whom they were warring against. Nowadays, however, it is a source of pride for Banda Aceh.[3]

Before 1935, the new Baiturrahman Grand Mosque featured one dome and one minaret.

At first, the Baiturrahman Mosque featured one dome and one minaret. More domes and minarets were added in 1935, 1958 and 1982. Today the mosque has seven domes and eight minarets, including one that is claimed to be the highest minaret in Banda Aceh.[4]

Baiturrahman Grand Mosque survived the 2004 earthquake and tsunami but suffered minor damages such as wall cracks. The earthquake had slightly tilted and cracked the 35 meter minaret by the main gate. During the disaster, The mosque served as a temporary shelter for displaced persons and only reopened for prayers after two weeks.[4]

Architecture and design[edit]

Facade of Baiturrahman Grand Mosque.

The mosque was originally designed by the Dutch architect Gerrit Bruins.[5][6] The design was subsequently adapted by L.P. Luijks, who also supervised the construction work done by contractor Lie A Sie.[5] The design chosen is Mughal revival style, characterized by grand domes and minarets. The unique black domes are constructed from hard wood shingles combined as tiles.

The interior is decorated with relieved wall and pillars, marble staircase and floor from China, stained-glass windows from Belgium, well-decorated wooden doors, and ornate bronze chandeliers. The building stones are from the Netherlands. At the time of its completion, this new design presented a stark contrast compared with the original mosque that many Acehnese refused to pray in the mosque, because it was built by the Dutch "infidels". Today however, the mosque has become the pride of Banda Aceh.[3]

Today, the mosque has 7 domes, 8 minarets, and 32 pillars.

Replica[edit]

A miniature of Baiturrahman Grand Mosque is featured in Minimundus miniature park, Austria.

Traditions[edit]

Blessing of buffaloes at the Baiturrahman mosque at the end of Ramadan

A scene of the blessing of buffaloes at the end of the fasting month of Ramadan was captured by Dutch photographer Christiaan Benjamin Nieuwenhuis.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gunawan Tjahjono (1998). Indonesian Heritage-Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press. pp. 81–82. ISBN 981-3018-30-5. 
  2. ^ http://iskandarnorman.blogspot.com/2014/07/ragam-daar-di-baiturrahman.html
  3. ^ a b c http://www.travelmarker.nl/bestemmingen/azie/indonesie/bezienswaardigheden/banda_aceh.htm
  4. ^ a b http://lestariheritage.net/aceh/webpages/sites01.html Aceh Heritage
  5. ^ a b http://atjehpost.co/articles/read/4881/Amazing-Baiturrahman-Kisah-Awal-Mula-Masjid-Raya-Banda-Aceh Amazing Baiturrahman; Kisah Awal Mula Masjid Raya Banda Aceh
  6. ^ Van der Klaauw, C.J., ed. (24 December 1940). Geslachtslijst Bruins. p. 6.