Baja California Territory

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Baja California Territory
Territory of Mexico
Baja California in Mexico (1824).svg
CapitalLoreto (1824—1829)
La Paz (1829—1931)
 • TypeTerritory of Mexico
• Created
• Divided
Preceded by
Succeeded by
The Californias
State of the Californias
Republic of Sonora
California Department
Department of the Californias
Republic of Baja California
California Department
South Territory of Baja California
North Territory of Baja California
1850 map: Baja California Territory in yellow (left).

Baja California Territory (Territorio de Baja California) was a Mexican territory from 1824 to 1931, that encompassed the Baja California Peninsula of present-day northwestern Mexico. It replaced the Baja California Province (1773–1824) of the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain, after Mexican independence. Along with Alta California, the two territories were split from the Spanish The Californias region.

In 1931 Baja California Territory was divided into "North Territory of Baja California" and "Territory of Baja California Sur". In 1952, the "North Territory" became the 29th State of Mexico as Baja California. In 1974, the "South Territory" became the 31st state as Baja California Sur.[1][2]


Marker of the historical northern border with Alta California

Baja California's northern border with Alta California was first established to demarcate areas of Franciscan and Dominican missionary authority, precisely set on August 19, 1773, near San Juan Bautista Creek by Fray Francisco Palóu. A marker stands on the line formerly dividing the two countries. The marker is behind the ruins of Misión San Miguel Arcángel de la Frontera, in La Misión, Baja California. Palóu's line was adopted as the provincial dividing line in 1804.[3]

In 1848, under the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, this international border was shifted further north to San Diego Bay, adjusting it to the claim of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo and the "sea-to-sea" claims of Sir Francis Drake and of the former colony of South Carolina.[4][5]

Translated into English, the inscription on the marker reads:

San Juan Bautista Creek: Juan Crespí, May 1 for the setting of the first international division line between Old or Lower California (Dominicans) and New or Upper California (Franciscans) five leagues to the north (Valley of the Médanos) being established by: Priest Francisco Palóu on 19 August 1773 (Mojonera of Palou) in compliance with the instructions put forth on the April 7, 1772 Concordato.
Rosarito Historical Society, Baja California A.C. at The Mission, Baja California, on 20 May 1990. Fieldwork and research: . Monument donation: Mario Reyes Coronado De Villasari & family . Construction: Students of the School of Tourism at U.A.B.C.(Autonomous University of Baja California).

See also[edit]

Coordinates: 28°02′15″N 113°19′26″W / 28.0374°N 113.3240°W / 28.0374; -113.3240


  1. ^ "Memoria Política de México". Retrieved 2022-02-26.
  2. ^ Halleck, H. W. (1977). The Mexican War in Baja California : the memorandum of Captain Henry W. Halleck concerning his expeditions in Lower California, 1846-1848. Doyce B. Nunis. Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop. ISBN 0-87093-239-X. OCLC 3620342.
  3. ^ "Historia - Baja California". Retrieved 2022-02-26.
  4. ^ "Historia". Retrieved 2022-02-26.
  5. ^ Craven's report, 1847, in The Mexican War in Baja California, Nunis, D.B., editor, 1977, Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop, ISBN 0-87093-239-X