Bajo Pivljanin

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Bajo Pivljanin
Bajo Pivljanin, head shot.jpg
Detail from Bajo Pivljanin kills a Turk (1878)
Birth name Dragojlo Nikolić[a]
Born c. 1630
Piva, Sanjak of Herzegovina
(now Montenegro)
Died May 1685 (aged c. 55)
Vrtijeljka, near Cetinje, Montenegro Vilayet
(now Montenegro)
Allegiance  Republic of Venice
Years of service 1656–85
Rank
Battles/wars

Bajo Pivljanin (Serbian Cyrillic: Бајо Пивљанин c. 1630 – May 1685) was a Serb hajduk[b] commander mostly active in the Ottoman territories of Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia. Born in Piva, at the time part of the Ottoman Empire, he was an oxen trader who allegedly left his village after experiencing Ottoman injustice. Mentioned in 1654 as a brigand during the Venetian–Ottoman war, he entered the service of the Republic of Venice in 1656. The hajduks were used to protect Venetian Dalmatia. He remained a low-rank hajduk for the following decade, participating in some notable operations such as the raid on Trebinje. Between 1665 and 1668 he quickly rose through the ranks to the level of harambaša ("bandit leader"). After the war, which ended unfavourably for the Venetians, the hajduks were moved out of their haven in the Bay of Kotor under Ottoman pressure. Between 1671 and 1684 Bajo, along with other hajduks and their families, were refugees in Dalmatia. Upon renewed conflict, he was returned to the Bay of Kotor and placed in charge of defending the frontier; in 1685 he and his band fell in battle against the advancing Ottoman governor of Scutari. Regarded as one of the most distinguished hajduks of his time, he is praised in Serbian epic poetry.

Early life[edit]

Dragojlo Nikolić, nicknamed Bajo Pivljanin,[a] was born around 1630 in Piva (modern northwestern Montenegro), at that time part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Herzegovina. According to tradition he was born in the village of Rudinice (in Plužine), while there are two traditions as to which family he belonged.[c] Bajo was an agriculturalist. He traded oxen, which was very common in the 17th and 18th centuries.[1]

According to the poem Sa šta Pivljanin Bajo ode u uskoke,[2] Bajo left Piva and became a hajduk after experiencing violence from Asan-aga Kopčić.[3] With Limun, another trader, he led a band of 30 hajduks.[1]

Cretan War[edit]

Bajo Pivljanin kills a Turk (1878), by Serbian painter Aksentije Marodić (1838–1909)

The hajduks, Ottoman subjects, crossed into Venetian territory from where they "jumped into" Ottoman territory. These guerilla forces closely cooperated[4] and were recruited by the Republic of Venice to defend the Venetian–Ottoman frontier during the Cretan War (1645–69).

Bajo Pivljanin was first mentioned in 1654 as one of 1,500 hajduks staying in Venetian territory. During the Cretan War he mostly operated in the southern parts of Dalmatia and Herzegovina.[5] The population of the areas where Bajo operated was predominantly anti-Ottoman.[6] Bajo Pivljanin was a near friend and favourite of Serbian Orthodox metropolitan Vasilije (Basil) Jovanović during the war.[d] He is believed to have begun organizing his own bands in c. 1655; according to an epic poem, Bajo, Cvjetko Vlastelinović and Đurko Kapetanović established a unit which went for Herzegovina.[1] The hajduks in Herzegovina had in March 1655 carried out one of their greatest operations, raiding Trebinje, taking many slaves and carrying away much loot.[7] They were commanded by Terzić from Nikšić, and left Herzegovina through Cavtat (part of the Republic of Ragusa).[7] The raids led to conflict between Ragusa and the Beys of Novi led by Omer-beg Begzadić, whose villages had suffered the most.[7] In February 1656 the hajduks broke through Rijeka Dubrovačka into Herzegovina and returned with rich loot.[7] The same year Bajo entered Venetian service.[4] After the defeat at Morača in 1649, and the building of the Kolašin fortress (1647–51), there was a reversal in the war, with the Venetians halting their offensive operations.[6] In the years 1655 to 1657, the Ottomans made several attacks to Grbalj and its surroundings (Venetian territory).[6] The main hajduk centre became Perast in the Bay of Kotor, from where they entered Ottoman areas.[4] Bajo killed Amza-kapetan from Trebinje in order to save a girl of the Joković family, after an agreement with Aćim Lješević; Lješević was then accused of the plot and forced to travel to Ottoman capital Istanbul; however, he returned with a ferman that Piva was not to pay their local Ottoman tormentor.[8] Bajo and his hajduks were also present in Popovo and Romanija.[7] According to historian Ljubo Mihić, the most distinguished of the hajduks in this period were Bajo Pivljanin and Stevo Popović.[7]

View of the Bay of Kotor from Perast

Bajo later quickly rose in the hajduk hierarchy; in 1664 and 1665 he was mentioned simply as "Bajo hajduk" in Ragusan documents, in 1666 as "buljubaša", and in 1668 as "viši (higher) harambaša".[9] He was the harambaša (bandit leader) of hajduks in Venetian service who protected the Kotor krajina (frontier) against the Ottomans.

Bajo's strategies included conducting quick raids and destroying bridges upon retreating.[8] The stone bridge on the Tara in Šiplje was destroyed after his band had raided Kolašin.[8] In the beginning of August 1664, hajduk leaders Stevan Popović, Nikola Popović, Vukosav Puhalović, Bajo, Dijete, Čauš, and others, destroyed a merchant caravan on the border with Ragusa, and took 150 cargos of most expensive goods; Armenian merchants, to whom the goods belonged, complained to the Venetian Doge.[10] The Venetian government once again prohibited the hajduks on exaggerated provocations towards the Ottomans, fearing new attacks from Sohrab Mehmed Pasha, the sanjak-bey of Herzegovina.[10] At the beginning of May 1666, he raided a Ragusan ship off the coast of Koločep that was bound for Venice with merchandise, unloading eight wagons of wax and freeing captured merchants, among whom were four Turks, in return for a high payment and a written statement that the wax and money had been given to him voluntarily.[9] The Ragusans claimed that Bajo had at that moment shouted that the provveditore of Venetian Dalmatia had given him the order to take all that he came across, both on the sea and the land.[9] Five days later, Bajo raided a big and unusually precious caravan in Ottoman territory carrying Venetian merchandise.[9] In September 1666 Bajo and Mato Njegošević attacked an Ottoman caravan in Mosko and retreated to Banjani.[11] Bajo suffered a great defeat by the Ottomans at the village of Grdijevići, losing most of his band and being forced to leave his home region.[8] He never avenged this loss, though 150 years later rebels on the Tara used the event, among others, for beginning their revolt.[8] On 25 March 1669, Bajo, living in Stoliv (near Kotor), is recorded in Kotor as having acknowledged his debt of 62,5 real (40 groschen being 1 real) to Gierolamo Cazalieri.[12] In early April 1669 Bajo and Puhalović took great loot in Herzegovina, and retreated towards Šipan.[13] There were stories that he burnt down a mosque in Nevesinje, and another one in Počitelj.[14] There are accounts recorded by anthropologist Jevto Dedijer that several Muslim families left their homes after cruelty carried out by Bajo Pivljanin; the Šehović left Korjenići and moved to south Herzegovina after Bajo and Limun burnt down their house;[15] the Kajtaz and Rorić left Nevesinje and moved to Mostar,[16] and a large number of the families of Slivlja left their homes.[17] The war ended in an Ottoman victory in 1669, with the Venetians making some gains in Dalmatia.

Inter-war period[edit]

In December 1669 Antonio Priuli brought from Perast to Venice hajduk leaders including Bajo Pivljanin, Grujica Žeravica, Vukosav Puhalović and buljubaša Milošević.[18] Earlier, in June, the Venetian provveditore issued the termination of the "chiefs that protect the Kotor area", the first three mentioned, and had them included in the list of soldiers having the right of pay and bread.[18] Bajo's bravery and sacrifice to the Republic of Venice is especially outlined.[18] The four hajduk leaders requested of the Doge that the families of the hajduks be given Vrana in Ravni Kotari or Risan in the Bay of Kotor as their settlement, and benefits already given to Paštrovići, Grbalj and Perast, due, among other issues, to the fact that "the number of hajduks that fled to the Perast area in 1654 had risen to 1,500, of whom 500 were militarly able, and now, in peace-time, the existence of that people is brought into question".[19] The issue was finally settled after several months with the arrival of Antonio Barbaro as the new generale provveditore.[20]

In 1670 the Venetians (Barbaro) decided Risan and tens of neighbouring villages would be the settlement of the hajduks; however, soon, the hajduks and frontier Turks came into conflict in which "Turks suffered" with many dead, which led to the Ottoman government firmly to request from the Venetian official (bailo) in Constantinople to remove them from Risan.[20] By the beginning of June 1671, all hajduks from Risan were put on Venetian boats and brought to Istria.[20] Istria had been desolated by the Uskok War (1615–18) and epidemics, and depopulated; thus, to decrease the Hajduk–Ottoman conflict (which disturbed Venetian–Ottoman peace) and increase the population, the Senate made the decision to resettle hajduks there.[21] Colonisation began in May 1671, with the Istrian captain being informed of the arrival of 1,300 hajduks.[21] Barbaro guaranteed the hajduks tax exemptions and appropriations, the appointment of four judges to mediate their disputes, and the allocation of livestock and agricultural tools.[21] Apart from Puljština (southern Istria), the hajduks requested the granting of many places on the Buzet karst.[21] Controversy between the Hajduks and Venetians is evident in the negotiations between the hajduk leaders and Captain Lunardo Mercella; as a significant part of the promised benefits were not forthcoming, four Hajduk representatives – Nikola Popović, buljubaša Milošević, Bajo Pivljanin and Petar Babić – appealed directly to the Doge of Venice to confirm Barbaro's chapters; Barbaro had calmed the Hajduks down by regulating their status.[22] The Venetian government sought to displace the Hajduks all over the Venetian–Ottoman frontier to prevent conflict with other subjects; they were finally placed temporarily in Pula (in Istria).[22] In the summer of 1671 a malaria epidemic broke out, leading to additional complications.[22] The epidemic was devastating to the numerous Hajduk families, the natives being more resistant; thus, part of the settlers found refuge in Ližnjan and Premantura, while others left to return to Dalmatia.[22] Leaders Bajo and Njegošević are recorded in Premantura.[23] In 1673, Bajo and his faithful followers included 34 households, 18 of which held in towns; 8 in Premantura (Promontore), 8 in Mutvoran (Momorano) and one in Peroj (Peroi); a total of 157 individuals, 89 adults and 68 minors, 75 males and 82 females.[24] Financial aid and incentives to solve issues did not deliver expected results as the Hajduks were undesiring in processing their assigned lands.[22] Conflicts ensued after the settlement between the Hajduks and natives in Puljština, with kidnappings, Hajduk attacks on fishermen and boats, and also revenge killings.[22] The hajduks were enraged, and could not cope with the misery and Istrian climate.[20] Many of them escaped to Senj, where the Uskoks were still active.[20] During this time, Bajo Pivljanin and Mato Njegošević were the most involved in moving hajduks into the Habsburg Monarchy, and they travelled to Karlovac to negotiate.[20] Some hajduks arbitrarily returned to the Bay of Kotor, where the provveditore of Kotor had some put on galleys, some imprisoned at Klis, and some exiled, after "drawing from old convictions of old and forgotten hajduks from the archives and executing them".[20] When this happened to harambaša Mato Njegošević, the hajduks again sent Bajo Pivljanin as their envoy from Pula to Venice.[20] In his plea to the Doge of Venice, dated to 27 March 1673, Bajo requested that the persecution of hajduks stop, as they had all been pardoned earlier by provveditore Barbaro's amnesty.[20] The request was partly met; some hajduks, known to have fallen in disfavour, were freed.[20]

Bajo and other leaders (Jovo Sikimić, Mato Njegošević) settled Zadar in 1674, where they "came into contact with Serb leaders of the [Ravni] kotari uskoks (rebels)".[20] Many hajduks were however left in Istria,[20] though during 1675 the issues in Istria decreased, and by the next year, as hajduks left the area, news about hajduks in Istria disappears from the record.[22] While in Zadar, Bajo befriended Stojan Janković, an acclaimed veteran hajduk from Ravni Kotari, who had been active in Dalmatia during the war.[25] Bajo's brother Dimitrije married Ana Janković[20] (Anna Giacovichi) on 17 February 1675, identified as a sister of Stojan (Ana according to R. Samardžić,[20] Anka according to S. Berber,[25] Janja according to B. Desnica).[26] In a letter to the Venetian government dated 3 December 1675, Bajo offered to receive and hold the goods of Omer Mustafa Čehajić, which were part of a dispute with Vučić Kajić, and suggested Stojan Janković as a guarantor.[26] On 5 February 1676, the birth certificate of the son of Bajo and his wife Manda, a boy named Simeun, was registered in the Orthodox parish.[26] According to historian M. Jačov, Bajo's wife was another sister of Stojan.[27] Dimitrije's baby son Nikola was baptized on 1 October 1677.[28] After the Ottoman failure at the Battle of Vienna (11–12 September 1683), the people of Ravni Kotari and Kninska Krajina assembled under the leadership of Stojan's brother Ilija and engaged the Ottomans.[25] Bajo and his brother joined the unit.[25] The Venetians, in order to avoid a war, called Stojan back to Venice in October, which had the effect of calming down Ilija, who was described as very restless and unmanageable.[25] As the hajduks calmed down – and by that time much of northern Dalmatia was in their hands – the Venetians returned Stojan to Ravni Kotari in December.[25] In a letter dated 8 December 1683, the Dalmatian provveditore Lorenzo Dona forgave Bajo for desertion, and ordered his return in the list of cavalry bands which he had been part of, and gave him back wages for the intervening time.[29]

Venice entered into an alliance with Austria and declared war on the Ottomans in the spring of 1684.[25] When hostilities began,[30] Bajo was again in active Venetian service, finally returning to the Bay of Kotor.[31]

Morean War[edit]

See also: Morean War

Return to service[edit]

Between January and the end of April 1684, the Republic of Venice accepted 4,200 families to settle the Venetian–Ottoman frontier.[32] These included 20,000 warriors.[32] The Venetians sent them food and 1,800 rifles.[32] Their leaders were given monthly pay.[32] The families were settled in the territory of Zadar and Šibenik, and around Klis.[32] Bajo Pivljanin and his brother Dimitrije served in the cavalry bands in Zadar until Antonio Zeno, the extraordinary provveditore of Kotor, requested that they be sent for service in the Bay of Kotor, which was approved by Lorenzo Donà, the provveditore of Dalmatia, on 12 April 1684.[33] In September 1684 he was documented as having been with his band in Herceg Novi, and in October in the surroundings of Livno.[34] The Venetian senate thanked Bajo and Jovan Sikimić for their victory at Jezero, and approved Zeno's decision to reward them medals and sequins, on 12 October 1684.[35] Marino Mikiel, a Venetian commissary, writing of the state of the Venetian cavalry in Dalmatia on 26 January 1685, highlights that Stojan Janković and Bajo Pivljanin received wages of cavalry soldiers due to merit and by grace of the state, without effectively serving.[35] In March 1685 Bajo informed the Venetian extraordinary provveditore about his band's operations in the territory of the Republic of Ragusa; his band numbered 130 fighters and three harambašas, Miho Kolumbara, Miloš Lepirić and Božo Lučić.[36]

Battle of Vrtijeljka[edit]

Main article: Battle of Vrtijeljka

Süleyman Pasha of Scutari sent word to the Montenegrins that, "due to their relations with Morlachs and Hajduks", he would exterminate them all.[37] Historiography is divided on the issue if the Montenegrins really betrayed the hajduks in the ensuing battle;[38] some believe that in order to avoid retaliation, the Montenegrins promised the head of Bajo Pivljanin,[37] then betrayed the hajduks on the battlefield.[38] The Ottoman forces under Süleyman approached Cetinje, and the two met at the hill of Vrtijeljka on 7 May 1685.[39] The hajduks were made up of ca. 1200 fighters, including also Montenegrins, Mainjani and Primorci, commanded by over-intendant Bošković, harambaša Bajo Pivljanin, and the guvernadur of Grbalj.[40] The large Ottoman force crossed the Morača and headed towards Cetinje.[40] The hajduks carried a war flag with Venetian symbols.[38] The hajduks were defeated by the Ottomans, and Bajo fell.[38]

The victorious Ottomans paraded with 500 severed heads through Cetinje after the battle.[41] They also attacked the Cetinje Monastery and the palace of Lord Ivan Crnojević of Zeta (r. 1465–90).[42] Süleyman had Bajo's head sent to the Sultan, Mehmed IV, as a great war trophy.[39] The importance of the battle is evident in the fact that the heads of Bajo and his hajduks decorated the entrance hall of the seraglio in Constantinople, and that Süleyman was elevated to pasha following the victory.[43] The news of the battle was recorded in Rome on 27 May 1685, "two courageous leaders, one named Bajo, friend of captain Janko, and the other, captain Vuković the Arbanas, died"; the source states that the defeat was due to a betrayal by Montenegrins in the battle.[38]

Aftermath[edit]

Drawing of the tombs where Bajo Pivljanin and his wife are allegedly buried in Cetinje (1881)

Bajo Pivljanin's importance is evident in Antonio Zeno's evaluation: "since the death of harambaša Bajo, the frontier is left without leaders able to control the hajduks bands".[43] It has been claimed that Bajo Pivljanin was buried by the Vlah Church in Cetinje.[44] In 1685, Bajo's brother Dimitrije, on behalf of Bajo's widow and two neglected sons, requested that Bajo's pay be transferred to one of the sons.[45] It is highlighted how Bajo left his home in Herzegovina to fight for the Republic of Venice, to which he had great merit.[45]

It was decided on 20 September 1689 that his brother Dimitrije and two sons be admitted into the Venetian cavalry.[46] Mentioning Bajo's having "proved himself worthy", dealt "damage to the Turks", and suffered "many received wounds", the decision was made to carry out an earlier plan that Bajo's sons be admitted into the cavalry.[47] As Bajo had died, his brother Dimitrije, who had "given proofs of righteousness and loyalty on several occasions", and his two mature sons, Vuk and Sima (Simeun[26]), were admitted into the band of Soliman in Herceg Novi, "thus, every one of them receive wages that belong to a soldier in the cavalry".[47]

Legacy[edit]

There are many epic poems and stories about his life.[30] Metropolitan Petar II Petrović-Njegoš included a eulogy to him in The Mountain Wreath (1847).[48] Serbian Orthodox priest and historian Ilarion Ruvarac (1832–1905) called him a "glorious knight".[49]

The village of Bajovo Polje ("Bajo's field") was named after Bajo Pivljanin, it is said, after he killed his first Turk at the field.[50] Vukašin Gagović used the alias Bajo Pivljanin.[51] A Yugoslav Partisan battalion was named after him.[52] There are several streets (in Belgrade, Cetinje, Nikšić, Subotica, Banja Luka, Bijeljina), schools, companies and sport clubs (such as KMF Bajo Pivljanin) named after him.

There are several brotherhoods and families that claim ancestry or kinship with him or his brothers.

  • The Bajovići, slava of St. Nicholas, with tens of houses in Bezuje, and one house in their original village of Rudinice (1971), have several versions of their origin: the first that they descend from a brother of Bajo Pivljanin; the second, from a villager called Čepur that took over Bajo Pivljanin's estate after the family left; the third, that the Bajovići who were really called Čepuri until 1887 descend from a branch of a family tree also including the Vračari and Taušani, closely related to the Gagovići, in line with their slava in common.[53] Based on the presumed connection with Bajo Pivljanin, King Nikola I accepted member Đorđija Bajović into officer school.[53] When S. Tomić did field research in Piva in 1912–13 and 1924,[54] however, he recorded the Bajovići, called Čepuri in Gornje Rudinice with two houses, as hailing from Bajovo Polje and being direct descendants of Bajo Nikolić Pivljanin.[55] Meanwhile, Tomić had recorded four[56] or six[57] houses of Bajovići in Bezuje that belonged to the Vračari brotherhood, itself descending from the Gagovići brotherhood.[56]

Other families claiming descent from his nephews are spread through Stara Raška and Šumadija in Serbia.[58] There was a tale that Bajo put a curse on his family after seven of his brothers and cousins declined to join him in the hajduks.[58] The Markovići brotherhood in Ljuljaci, Serbia, with the slava of St. John, settled in the first half of the 18th century, descending from an offspring of Bajo Pivljanin.[59][58] The Bajić brotherhood in Takovo, with the slava of St. George, numbering 30 households in 1960, claim descent from him.[60]

Epic poetry[edit]

The Cretan War is an "epical period of Serb history".[61] Vuk Karadžić (1787–1864), the Serbian philologist and linguist, recorded several poems which he published in his folklore collections.[62][63] The poems fall into the hajduk epic cycle.[64]

External video
Milomir Miljanić performing the epic poem Bajo Pivljanin i beg Ljubović on the gusle (2012), YouTube video
  • Bajo Pivljanin i beg Ljubović, the best known poem about him
  • Sa šta Pivljanin Bajo ode u uskoke
  • Bajo Pivljanin i Ale Novljanin
  • Pivljanin Bajo i Ferat kapetan
  • Bajo Pivljanin i Marić alajbeg
  • Bajo Pivljanin i paša od Zagorja
  • Boj na Vrtijeljci
  • Do tri harambaše
Map of locations related to Bajo Pivljanin's life

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ In Italian (Venetian) documents, his name is predominantly spellt "Baio Nicolich" (Bajo Nikolić). Documents often name him "Carambassà Baio" (Harambaša Bajo, Bajo the Harambaša), and after 1683, simply "Baio" (Bajo). Only once is the informal "Baio Piuglianin" (Bajo Pivljanin) found,[65] while "Nicolo da Piva" is found as an alternate name (carambassa Baio Nikolich, quondam Nicolo da Piva).[66] He is known in historiography as "Bajo Pivljanin" (Bajo from Piva, Bajo the Pivan). His real given name was Dragojlo, while Nikolić is a patronymic.[67] In Serbian epic poetry he is also called "Soko Bajo" (Bajo the Falcon).
  2. ^ In the Ottoman Empire, the term hajduk was used for Balkan bandits, brigands, while for the South Slavs it was used for bandits who protected Christians against Ottoman oppression. In the 17th century, the concept was firmly established in the Ottoman Balkans, related to increased taxes, Christian victories against the Ottomans, and general security decline. Hajduk bands predominantly numbered 100 men each, with a firm hierarchy under one leader. They targeted Ottoman representatives and rich people, mainly Muslims, for plunder or punishment to oppressive Ottomans, or revenge.[68]
  3. ^ According to tradition, found in Kosta Radović's novel Vrtijeljka (1922), he was born in the village of Rudinice (now in Plužine) in Piva to father Nikola and mother Ruža, of the Ruđić brotherhood.[67] Radović claims that he was born on 22 May 1622,[67] while others estimate that he was born in ca. 1630[69] or 1635.[70] His godfather, monk Ivanović, named him Dragojlo, while the nickname Bajo (derived from baja, "snake", a common nickname in Piva, protecting children from evil[71]) was given to him by his grandfather Simo.[67] This version was also mentioned by Blagojević 1971; Bajo Pivljanin belonged to the Nikolić family in Gornje Rudinice, descending from the old brotherhood of Ruđić.[72] The Ruđić brotherhood from Rudinice, which later dispersed elsewhere, is one of two family trees in Piva from which many Pivan families descend from.[73]

    According to priest Toma Lješević[74] (1897), Bajo was the son of Jovan Ivanović and a mother of the Tadić brotherhood;[67] belonging to the Ivanović brotherhood in Donje Rudinice, in a place named after them.[74] This family, as many other families in Piva, either left or was absorbed by other families.[75]

    In the Ivanovići hamlet of Donje Rudinice, there was a kula (tower house) belonging to Pivljanin; this tower house, and the village church, were later destroyed by the Ottomans after his operations became well known.[67]
  4. ^ Bajo Pivljanin was a near friend and favourite of Serbian Orthodox metropolitan Vasilije (Basil) Jovanović.[76] Bajo frequently visited the Ostrog monastery, which Vasilije had founded and lived in, a safe haven for hajduks.[76][77][6] Vasilije is known to have greatly helped Bajo and his band.[78] Bajo often came to the Nikšić area, and after his plunderings retreated to the monastery.[78] Vasilije had sought help from the popes several times during and after the Cretan War regarding Ottoman reprisals on the population.[79] The pair is regarded instrumental in that period's protection of Serbs from Ottoman cruelty, regarded Serb heroes.[6] Vasilije (d. 1671) was proclaimed a saint by the Serbian Orthodox Church.[77]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Leković 2007, p. 249.
  2. ^ "Sa šta Pivljanin Bajo ode u uskoke". Epska poezija Crne Gore. Rastko. 
  3. ^ Suvajdžić 2008.
  4. ^ a b c Filološki fakultet 1956, p. 267.
  5. ^ Ćorović 2006, p. 455
  6. ^ a b c d e Leković 2007, p. 250.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Mihić 1975, p. 181.
  8. ^ a b c d e Leković 2007, p. 253.
  9. ^ a b c d Samardžić et al. 1993, p. 410.
  10. ^ a b Samardžić et al. 1993, p. 409.
  11. ^ Mihić 1975, p. 188.
  12. ^ Vujović 1988, p. 109.
  13. ^ Samardžić et al. 1993, p. 421.
  14. ^ Iskra 1. 1898. p. 260. 
  15. ^ Dedijer 1991, p. 159.
  16. ^ Dedijer 1991, p. 227.
  17. ^ Dedijer 1991, p. 329.
  18. ^ a b c Samardžić et al. 1993, p. 423.
  19. ^ Samardžić et al. 1993, pp. 423–424.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Samardžić et al. 1993, p. 424.
  21. ^ a b c d Paronić 2012, p. 205.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Paronić 2012, p. 206.
  23. ^ Historijski arhiv u Rijeci (1970). Vjesnik historijskih arhiva u Rijeci i Pazinu. 15-16. p. 71. 
  24. ^ Ivetic, Egidio (1997). La popolazione dell'Istria nell'età moderna: lineamenti evolutivi. Unione italiana. p. 265. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Berber, S. (2004). "ИСТОРИЈСКИ ПОДАЦИ О УСКОЧКОМ СЕРДАРУ СТОЈАНУ ЈАНКОВИЋУ" (PDF). Norma 10 (1-2): 151–161. 
  26. ^ a b c d Blagojević 1971, p. 615.
  27. ^ Jačov 1990, p. 70.
  28. ^ Blagojević 1971, p. 616.
  29. ^ Blagojević 1971, pp. 616–617.
  30. ^ a b Kostić 1970, p. 79.
  31. ^ Kostić 1970, p. 79; Blagojević 1971, p. 617
  32. ^ a b c d e Jačov 1990, p. 65.
  33. ^ Blagojević 1971, p. 617.
  34. ^ Jačov 1990, p. 122.
  35. ^ a b Blagojević 1971, p. 618.
  36. ^ Vujović 1988, p. 221.
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