Bak Jungyang

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Bak Jungyang
Park Jung-yang.jpg
Privy Councillor for the Governor-General of Korea
In office
Governor-GeneralUgaki Kazushige
Yamanashi Hanzō
Saitō Makoto
Ugaki Kazushige
Jirō Minami
Governor of Hwanghae Province
In office
Governor-GeneralYamanashi Hanzō
In office
Governor-GeneralSaitō Makoto
Governor of North Chungcheong Province
In office
Governor-GeneralSaitō Makoto
Personal details
Born(1872-05-04)May 4, 1872
Junae-Myeon, Yangju, Gyeonggi Province
DiedApril 23, 1959(1959-04-23) (aged 86)
Chimsan-dong, Daegu
ChildrenBak Mun-wung, Bak Mu-wung, Bak Jeong-ja
Korean name
Revised RomanizationBak Jungyang
McCune–ReischauerPak Chungyang
Pen name
해악 or 일소
Revised RomanizationHaeak or Ilso
McCune–ReischauerHae'ak or Ilso
Courtesy name
Revised RomanizationWongeun
Japanese name
Hochu Segeyo
Yamamoto Shin

Bak Jungyang (Korean: 박중양, Hanja: 朴重陽; May 3, 1874 or 1872 — April 23, 1959) was a Korean Joseon and Japanese-ruled Korean bureaucrat, politician, liberal and social activist. He demolished the castle of Daegueup and the Old Gyungsangdo Provincial Office, and contributed to city planning and road maintenance in Daegu. also participated in the destruction the Castle of Jinju. He was a conscientious Japanese colonial supporter with pro-Japanese group ideology as well as an advocate for civil rights.

Bak went abroad to Japan to study and later returned to become a bureaucrat in his country. He was appointed as the Mayor of Daegu and the deputy Governor of Gyeongsangbuk-do from 1906 to 1907. Later, he succeeded sequentially in the positions of Governor of Phyeongannamto, Jeollanam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Phyeonganpukto and Chungcheongnam-do. Bak was involved in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 and opposed the March 1st Movement. He also founded the Refrain Club.[1]

Bak was also Governor of Hwanghae-do from 1921 to 1923 and Chungcheongbuk-do Provinces from 1923 to 1925.[2] Then, in 1928, he was reappointed Governor of Hwanghae-do province.

Bak was pro-Japanese, and was later named a collaborator after World War II. He was nicknamed Haeak (해악), Ilso (일소), and Wongeun (원근). He also had the Japanese names Hochu Segeyo (Japanese: 朴忠重陽) and Yamamoto Shin (山本 信).[3]

Early life[edit]

Bak Jungyang was born on May 3, 1874/1872, in Junae in Yangju county, Gyeonggi province or Daegu, son of Bak Jeong-ho and Lady Lee of Jeonju clean. His birth year is unclear, according to one source his birth year is 1872 or 1874. The origin of his family is unknown. His father supervised a rent farm and leased it out as well. He had several brothers and sisters but they died early.

In his adolescence, he joined the Independence Club, but it was dispersed due to the repression of the Korean Empire. This caused Bak to be disappointed and left him with a bad feeling against the Korean Empire governments.

In March 1894, Korean Empire governments was employed and dispatch of some killer, to Japan and China. There was murdered Kim Ok-kyun, Sanghai in China, next dig up Kim's corpse and behead it. Bak was extreme hatred to Korean Empire governments and people of Korea.

International study[edit]

From an early age, he wanted to go abroad to Japan. In 1897, he was selected as a Korean state student to go abroad to study in Japan. Bak supported himself during his studies because his family was poor. From 1897 to 1900, he studied in the Aoyama middle school. In 1900, he entered Dokyo buki high school as a banking major.[4] Then, he added a double-major in the Japanese police study there.[4] After the graduation, Bak adopted Neo-Confucianism and the 'Theory of the national prosperity and the military power' from Ito Hirobumi.

At the time, he chose the Japanese name Yamamoto Shin. Bak also became a Japanese petty bureaucrat. He tried to introduce the parliamentary system to the Imperial Korean government, but the Korean government refused.[5]

In 1903, he returned and passed the probation period as a civil officer of Imperial Korea. After returning to Korea, Bak continued to advocate a pro-Japanese position.


Korean Empire era[edit]

In 1903, Bak successfully filled various government posts, and was also appointed as a staff of the Public Administration Agency. In 1905, he served as a military interpreter during the Russo-Japanese War.[6] In November 1905, he was appointed to the staff of the Farming, Commerce and Industry Department. He resigned when the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 was signed. On May 5[year needed], he was appointed as an engineer of the National Defense Department (군부;軍部) engineer, and accompanied Prince Yi Kang to go to Japan.[7] Two months later, he returned to his country.

Bak Jungyang (1907.06)

In 1906, Bak was promoted to Governor of Daegu County.[8] Then, after a short period, he was promoted again to the Acting Governor of the Gyeongsangbuk-do. During the term, Bak tore down the castle of Daegueup without official permission[9][10] He secretly hired Japanese workers to tear down the structure.[11] also Bak was lay out a new street.[12] In early 1906, he applied for permission from the Korean government, but it was refused. The government tried to punish him for the action, but he acquired protection from Ito Hirobumi.[9] Later, he modernized the Daegu city planning and road maintenance.

He strove in building modern hospitals, medical schools and colleges, and successfully built the Dojin hospital and its affiliated medical school. He was also a supporter of the free press, including journals which satirized him. His idea was that the freedom of the press is a must to supervise the government.

In 1907, he became a governor of Phyeongannamto and Phyeonganpukto, and in 1910, the Governor of Chungcheongnam-do.

Japanese rule[edit]

Bak Jungyang at the time of his service as Governor of North Chungcheong

When the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 was signed in August 1910, Bak remained as the Governor of Chungcheongnam-do until 1915. From 1916 to 1920, he was a member of Japanese Government-General of Korea's Privy Council. In 1919, he opposed the March 1st Movement,[13] and founded the Refrain club on 6 April in response.[1] Bak was hindrance and dissuade, advice of go home of demonstrato of March 1st Movement.[13] His old friends Seo Jae-pil and Yun Chi-ho cut off relations with him due to this.

Bak Jungyang, 1923

He was appointed as the Governor of Hwanghae Province in 1921, and the Governor of North Chungcheong Province in 1923 to 1925. After the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, he appealed to the Japanese government to release the arrested Koreans, and asserted that the Koreans were not involved in the criminal cases which occurred during the earthquake. In November 1924, he was accused in a sex abuse scandal, but the accuser woman suddenly died; three years later, the charge against him was dismissed. In 1928, he was re-appointed as the Governor of Hwanghae Province.

He governed the civilians through a regulated bureaucracy system, often with warning and several days of confinement instead of punishment, and suppressed the power of the Japanese police and soldiers to harass civilians, even putting them in confinement as well. Sometimes, the bureaucrats were imprisoned, but the Japanese police never arrested him, because he was especially trusted by the Japanese Governor-General of Korea, which pleased many Joseon people.

World War II era[edit]

Bak Jungyang, later 1930's

In 1927 to 1939, he was a member of Japanese Government-General of Korea's Privy Council; and in 1936, the advisor of Japanese Government-General of Korea's Privy Council.[8] Seven years later, he was elected as the vice-chairman of the council. In 1940, he changed name to Hochu Segeyo as per the Japanese Sōshi-kaimei.

In October 22, 1941, he was appointed as the adviser of the Fight-patriotic of Joseon Group, which merged with the Peoples Mind Alliance in January 1943.[7] During the Asia-Pacific War, he contributed to encourage and comfort the Japanese troops, as in 1942 and 1943, when he was sent to console the Japanese troops stationed in Singapore. In 1943, he was appointed as Vice-Chairman of Japanese Government-General of Korea's Privy Council. On 3 April 1945, he was elected as a congressman in the House of Peers.[4]

Due to his cooperation with the Japanese Empire and the Japanese Governor-General of Korea, he was listed as a Pro-Japanese collaborators in Korea by the Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities in 2008.

Later years[edit]

Arrest of Bak Jungyang (1949)

Korea was liberated on August 15, 1945, after the end of World War II, but Bak stayed in Daegu. He mocked the Korean independence activists for talking about their heroic deeds in the independence battle.

After October 1945, as some pro-Japanese group begged for their lives, he ridiculed Korean resistance activists. On January 1, 1949, he was arrested by the Police of National Traitor Special Punishment Committee and charged under the National Traitor Law.[14] But, Bak maintained his innocence at the court and stood by his pro-Japanese beliefs.

The Joseon dynastys was society of more darkness, Japanese ruled time was reformed of modern Korea. The goal for civil servants was social welfare. Japanese ruled time was "squeeze the peoples blood's", it's assert that also unaware of politics meaning, prejudice of causeless Japanese hates.[1]

In February 1949, he was released on bail due to bronchial pneumonia and asthma. Later, he continued to criticize President Syngman Rhee, Kim Gu, Lee See-yeong and Ham Tae-yeong as "patrioteers". In 1955, Rhee tried to confine Bak to a So-ju-yeong psychiatric hospital and Seoul Seongmo psychiatric hospital, but failed. Bak Jungyang died Chimsan Mountine, in Daegu on April 23, 1959 due to pneumonia. the cause of death is lung disease and Senile disease.

Personal life[edit]


One version says he was an adopted son of Ito Hirobumi.[8][14] but in 1948, he was speak to some press company, he was said to it's the lie,[15] not adopted son of Ito Hirobumi and "My respected teacher[15]".

His Wife Lee Ju-yeol and two sons. His first son Bak Munung was the succeeding mayor of Cheongdo, Cheongsong, Sangju, and Dalseong in North Gyeongsang Province in 1940s. second son Bak Mu-ung was early death.

His granddaughter and Bak Munung's daughter Bak Bu-nam (1931–2018), was a pediatrician and internist, she was a university professor at the College of Medicine of Kyungpook National University, Keimyung University. Also Lee Yeol-hye, husband of Bak Bu-nam. Lee Yeol-hye is a dentist and plastic surgeon, Lee was a university professor of College of Medicine of Kyungpook National University and nephew of poet Lee Sang-hwa and resistance activists Lee Sang-jeong, politician Lee Sang-baik.

Other Bak Jung-yang's Japanese concubine,[16] was birth some daughters.


Satirical cartoon of Bak Jungyang's Stick

He had a pet named Stick Mr. Bak(박작대기/박짝대기).[17] The pet was named because Bak always carried a long stick, sometime called the "Enlightened Stick".[17]


in 1900s and in January 24, 1949. during that time he was write a his diary regularly,[14] this diary was 20box.[14] Bak diary was capture papers of Police of National Traitor Special Punishment Committee.[14] Bak was didn't get the diary back, Bak was write memoir "Sulhoe", copy paper of some diary and his memories.


  • 《Bak Jungyang's Diary》(박중양일기, 朴重陽日記)
  • 《Sulhoe》(술회, 述懷)
  • 《Sinnyeon sogam》(신년소감, 新年所感)
  • 《Pokdosa pyeonjip jaryo》(폭도사편집자료, 暴徒史編輯資料) (1907)



One version says he was an adopted son of Ito Hirobumi.[8]

his first son Park Mun-wung was successive to mayor of Cheongdo, Cheongsong, Sangju, Dalseong in North Gyeongsang Province in 1940s.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "일제가 현대 조선 개신" 해방후에도 망발…친일파 박중양] 매일신문. Idaegumail news (in Korean). 25 January 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  2. ^ Bak Jungyang Archived 2014-04-07 at the Wayback Machine (in Korean)[dead link]
  3. ^ 경상감영 정문 '영남포정사 ' 원래 모습 찾아냈다. Idaegumail news (in Korean). 10 January 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  4. ^ a b c Bak Jungyang
  5. ^ Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities, 《National issues Institute 9》(Seoul: Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities, 1996) pp. 16
  6. ^ Bak Jungyang (in Korean)
  7. ^ a b 박중양 [Bak Jungyang]. (in Korean). Archived from the original on 2013-04-11. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  8. ^ a b c d Bak Jungyang Archived 2012-12-20 at (in Korean)
  9. ^ a b "[역사속의 영남사람들 .11] 박중양]". TheYoungnamilbo. 9 March 2004. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  10. ^ 대구읍성 '성돌' 찾아 '퍼즐 맞추기' Hangyeorye 2008.02.12. (in Korean)
  11. ^ [문화재 & 문화] "영치기 영차" 매일신문 2008.03.15. (in Korean)
  12. ^ [한국 도시디자인 탐사](9)대구읍성 해체와 식민도시화 경향신문 2007.11.01. (in Korean)
  13. ^ a b 친일중의 친일 ‘3·1운동 자제단’은 누구? The Hangyeolye 2010.03.01 (in Korean)
  14. ^ a b c d e "해방이 1년만 늦었어도 황국신민 대우를..." 오마이뉴스 2004.09.11. (in Korean)
  15. ^ a b 현암조상원추모문집간행위원회, 《현암 조상원》 (현암사, 2001) 381페이지
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ a b "[문화칼럼] 大邱城(대구성)을 짓자". Idaegumail news (in Korean). 7 September 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2015.


  • Bak Eungyung(1999), 일제하 조선인관료 연구, Seoul, Korea: Hakminsa.
  • 반민족문제연구소(1993), 친일파 99인 1, Seoul, Korea: Dolbegye. ISBN 8971990112.
  • Lim Jong-guk(1991), 실록 친일파, Seoul, Korea: Dolbegye. ISBN 9788971990360.
  • 민족경제연구소(1948), 친일파 군상, Seoul, Korea: 삼성출판사.
  • 일제말~해방~한국戰 잔혹사
  • Jeong Jae-yong(2008), 빙이화 (상, 하), Seoul, Korea:Hansome media
  • Daqinfo(2003), 부끄러운 문화 답사기, Seoul, Korea:Bookis

External links[edit]