Bakhchysarai

Coordinates: 44°45′10″N 33°51′39″E / 44.75278°N 33.86083°E / 44.75278; 33.86083
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Bakhchysarai
The Palace of the Crimean Khans in the Bakhchysarai Palace complex
The Palace of the Crimean Khans in the Bakhchysarai Palace complex
Coat of arms of Bakhchysarai
Bakhchysarai is located in Crimea
Bakhchysarai
Bakhchysarai
Location of Bakhchysarai on a map of Crimea.
Coordinates: 44°45′10″N 33°51′39″E / 44.75278°N 33.86083°E / 44.75278; 33.86083
CountryTerritory of Ukraine, occupied by Russia[1]
Autonomous Republic Crimea
DistrictBakhchysarai Raion
Founded1532[2]
Founded bySahib I Giray
Elevation
300 m (1,000 ft)
Population
 (2014)
 • Total27,448
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK)
Postal code
298400 — 298408
Area code+7-36554
ClimateCfa
The Bakhchysarai Palace in Bakhchysarai

Bakhchysarai (Ukrainian: Бахчисарай; Crimean Tatar: Багъчасарай, romanized: Bağçasaray; Russian: Бахчисарай, romanizedBakhchisaray; Turkish: Bahçesaray) is a town in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Bakhchysarai Raion (district), as well as the former capital of the Crimean Khanate. Its main landmark is Hansaray, the only extant palace of the Crimean Khans, currently open to tourists as a museum. Population: 27,448 (2014 Census).[3]

Since the beginning of the Russo-Ukrainian War in 2014, it has been occupied by the Russian Federation.

Geography[edit]

Bakhchysarai lies in a narrow valley of the Çürük Suv [uk] river, about 30 Kilometers south-west of Simferopol.

History[edit]

The earliest known artifacts of human provenance found in the valley date from the Mesolithic period. Settlements have existed in the valley since Late Antiquity. Before the founding of Bakhchysarai the Qırq Yer fortress (modern Çufut Qale), Salaçıq, and Eski Yurt were built. These have since become incorporated into the urban area of modern Bakhchysarai.

Bakhchysarai first appears in historical documents in 1502. In 1532 Sahib I Giray, Khan of Crimea from 1532 to 1551, established his residence there. From that time it served as the capital of the Crimean Khanate and the center of political and cultural life of the Crimean Tatar people. In 1736 the town was burned during the Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739). Following the annexation of the Crimean Khanate by the Russian Empire in 1783, Bakhchysarai became an ordinary town, having lost administrative significance. However, it remained a cultural center of the Crimean Tatars for several decades afterward, fostered by Ismail Gaspirali (1851-1914) who founded the local newspaper Tercüman in 1883.

During the Crimean War of 1853–56, Bakhchysarai essentially became a hospital town as wounded Russian soldiers from the battlefield were brought in to be treated. The Battle of the Alma, one of the earliest battles of the war, took place not far from the city in 1854. But although the city was close to the front line, the Turks and their European allies never took it, as the port city of Sevastopol was their primary wartime objective.

With the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917 and the unification of several socialist republics that had been part of the Russian Empire, Bakhchysarai became part of the Soviet Union (established 30 December 1922) in 1922.

The Sürgün, the deportation of the Crimean Tatars of 18 May 1944 in Bakhchysarai was prompted by accusations that the Tatars collaborated with the Axis occupiers.[4] Although deportation of some Tatars in Crimea began as early as 1860, under the Russian Empire, the Sürgün delivered the final blow, emptying the city of Tatars. They were not to return to the city until 1989, when Soviet policies relaxed.

Bakhchysarai became a part of newly independent Ukraine in 1991. However, it became a de facto part of the Russian Federation when Russian Armed Forces invaded and annexed the city and the whole of Crimea in 2014.

Name and associations[edit]

Spellings of the town's name in different languages include:

The name comes from Persian باغچه سرای bāghche-sarāy, which means the Garden Palace.[5] In Crimean Tatar, bağça means "garden" and saray means "palace".

The city in 1856, by Carlo Bossoli.

Russian-speakers associate the town with the Romantic connotations of Alexander Pushkin's poem The Fountain of Bakhchysarai (1822). Adam Mickiewicz devoted some of the finest poems in his Polish-language Crimean Sonnets (1825) to the landmarks of Bakhchysarai (Polish: Bakczysaraj).

An asteroid, 3242 Bakhchisaraj, discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1979, takes its name after the town.[6]

Attractions[edit]

Famous attractions within or near Bakhchysarai are:

There is a network of well marked hiking trails around the town. All the main attractions are connected with red-marked trail.

From 2011, the town's Tourist Information Centre was supported by the Czech Government and USAID. Support was cut off in 2014 following the Russian annexation of Crimea.

Demographics[edit]

Historical Populations
YearPop.±%
189712,959[7]—    
193010,450−19.4%
193910,891+4.2%
198925,363+132.9%
200626,400+4.1%
201126,215−0.7%
Source:

In 1930 the population of the city was 10,450. The ethnic groups represented were 7,420 Crimean Tatars, 1,850 Russians, 315 Jews, 205 Greeks, 185 Ukrainians, 50 Germans, 30 Armenians, 30 Bulgarians, and 365 others.

Gallery[edit]

Education[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Bakhchysarai is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ This place is located on the Crimean peninsula, which is internationally recognized as part of Ukraine, but since 2014 under Russian occupation. According to the administrative-territorial division of Ukraine, there are the Ukrainian divisions (the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city with special status of Sevastopol) located on the peninsula. Russia claims these as federal subjects of the Russian Federation (the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol).
  2. ^ "Bakhchisaray - Bakhchisaray Khan Palace". Archived from the original on 2012-10-29. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  3. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2014). "Таблица 1.3. Численность населения Крымского федерального округа, городских округов, муниципальных районов, городских и сельских поселений" [Table 1.3. Population of Crimean Federal District, Its Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, Urban and Rural Settlements]. Федеральное статистическое наблюдение «Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе». ("Population Census in Crimean Federal District" Federal Statistical Examination) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  4. ^ Mark A. Green. "Crimean Tatars and Russification". Wilson Center.
  5. ^ Everett-Heath, John (2019-10-24). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780191882913.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-188291-3.
  6. ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names - p.269
  7. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей".
  8. ^ "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 2016-05-23. Retrieved 2013-07-27.

External links[edit]