Bakhmach

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Bakhmach
Бахмач
Town
Station building of Bakhmach-Pasazhyrsky railway station
Station building of Bakhmach-Pasazhyrsky railway station
Flag of Bakhmach
Flag
Coat of arms of Bakhmach
Coat of arms
Location of Bakhmach
Coordinates: 51°10′59″N 32°49′47″E / 51.18306°N 32.82972°E / 51.18306; 32.82972Coordinates: 51°10′59″N 32°49′47″E / 51.18306°N 32.82972°E / 51.18306; 32.82972
Country Ukraine
Oblast Chernihiv Oblast
Raion Bakhmach Raion
Area
 • Total 18 km2 (7 sq mi)
Population (January 1, 2015)
 • Total 18,552

Bakhmach (Ukrainian: Бахмач, Ukrainian pronunciation: [ˈbɑxmɑt͡ʃ]) is a city located in Chernihiv Oblast (province), in northern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Bakhmach Raion (district). Population: 18,552 (2015 est.)[1]

History[edit]

Bakhmach was first mentioned in 1147 in the Hypatian Codex. Rapid development began in the 1860s and 1870s when the Libau–Romny Railway line nearby was under construction. The Battle of Bakhmach (Bitva u Bachmače in Czech) was fought between the Czech legion in Russia and German forces occupying Ukraine. Following a Legion victory the Germans negotiated a truce. In January 1919, the city was the site of battles between the invading Bolsheviks forces and the Chornomorska Division, which was attempting to keep the Left-bank Ukraine under the control of the army of the Ukrainian National Republic (UNR). During World War II, Bakhmach was under German occupation from 13 September 1941 and was liberated 9 September 1943 by the 75th Guards Rifle Division.

Name Origins[edit]

An ethnographer[who?] explains the name of the city:[citation needed]

"The word Bahmach belongs to the ancient Turkish words that were used in Ukraine before the invasion. "Bahmach" in Turkish means "plantations", it indicates that there was, perhaps at the end of the first millennium BC in Kyiv and Chernihiv areas of Turkish people from the Turk hordes, which whom called the land their settlement "

However, the most authoritative historian of the city Bahmach Vladimir Stepanovich Yevfymovskyy indicates that the settlement is based on the Bahmach River, and thus originated in an agriculture tradition.

Ancient Times (X)[edit]

The old city defense is one of the oldest settlements in the East. First mentioned in 1147 in "The Tale of Bygone Years" from the Hypatian Codex, and belonged to the Chernigov principality, but soon was destroyed along with the cities Vyvolozh, White Tower, Unizh (now the village Syvolozh, Białowieża and the city of Nizhyn) during the feudal strife between the princes Olegovichy Chernihiv and Mstislavovich Kyiv.

Polish and Cossack era (XVII)[edit]

In the first half of the XVII century on the site of the ancient city of Bahmach was reborn with the same name (in this period, many cities were rebuilt such as Nezhin, Konotop, Baturin, Borzna, Ichnia).

In 1648, during the war under the direction of B. Khmelnitsky, residents of Bahmach were formed as part of a Chernigov Sotnia Regiment thus making the town a "Sotnia town".

Some of the famous Sotnia Captains from Bahkmach:

  • Bilotserkivets Panko Omelyanovych (? -1649-?)
  • Pavlo S. Tishchenko (? -1654.01.-?)
  • Hrodetskyy John S. (? -1661-?)
  • Pavlo S. Tishchenko (? -1662.10.-1666-?)
  • Hrodetskyy John S. (? -1669.02.-?)
  • Paschenko Jacob (? -1672-?)
  • Bilotserkivets Michael Omelyanovych (? -1676-?)
  • Biliak Theodore L. (? -1682.07.-?)
  • (Dan the Terrible, before 1689),
  • R. Stephen (1695-1700)
  • Sawicki Samiylo (1700-?)

Companions of Hetman Mazepa (XVII-XVIII)[edit]

Bahkmach and neighboring Holinska Sotnia were a sort of guard for Hetman Ivan Mazepa, who were particularly committed to their captains, and supported his union with Sweden - against Moscow's destroyers and usurpers Baturin.

At the end of the XVII - beginning of XVIII century near Bahmach, Mazepa "sponsored" the construction of the palace park plantation VI. This country residence stayed long "Secret Friend Hetman, which was inconvenient to show to others." This brought Philip Orlik Jesuit Zelensky with the versatile Polish king. In October 1708 Mazepa sent from the palace to Charles XII Bystrytsky a statement: "Come to Bakhmach yourself and publicly swear on the Gospel... that is not for the own private profit, but for the common good of the whole of the motherland and the troops will give the patronage to the King of Sweden."

Since 1781 Bahmach - was a township of Konotop raion within the Chernigov Oblast. Bahkmach gain official status as a city in 1938.

Under the Russian Empire (XIX)[edit]

The Great street In the XIX century. Bahmach was known "chumak" corporations that kept trade of Crimean salt and Cherkassy fish on the market.

As of 1866 in the town and the Konotopsky raion within the Chernigov oblast lived 5270 people (2399 male and 2550 - women), there were 601 farm yard, there were two Orthodox churches, rural court, there were bazaars and fair.[2]

Bahmach's rapid development began after the completion of the 1869 Kursk-Kiev and Libau-Romny (1873) railways. Then the station was built and the village railway, which marked the beginning of the modern city.

As of 1885 the former state and proprietary village Bahkmach raion lived 4741 person, there were 888 yard farms, there were three Orthodox churches, 2 schools, post office, inn, 10 stood houses, shop, windmill, markets and annual fairs.[3]

In the 1897 census the number of inhabitants rose to 6844 people (3355 male and 3489 - female), of which 6623 - the Orthodox faith.[4]

Railway settlements existed in isolation:

  • the station Kiev-Voronezh railway: the 1897 census the number of inhabitants was 839 persons (449 males and 390 - female), of which 617 - the Orthodox Faith, 170 - Jewish
  • the station Libau-Romny railroads: the 1897 census the number of residents was 1,047 persons (532 males and 515 - female), of which 624 - the Orthodox Faith, 321 - Jewish

In 1892 opened the Zemstvo school for children of railway workers. In Bahkmach a steam mill began operation in 1894, and a distillery in 1894.

In 1903 and 1905, respectively railroad strike occurred.

City in 1917[edit]

November 10, 1917 was an attempt to declare Bahmach a Communist government, but it failed. The military command of the Central Council resumed quickly and Ukrainian authorities took control of the important railway point. Headquarters units of the Bakhmatsk Blue division of the UNR located themselves in Seven local school.

January 15, 1918 troops from Moscow and the Petrograd Bolsheviks with the Red Cossacks regiment broke into Bakhmach with significant troops and captured the Central Council and railway junction.

Geography and Climate[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

  • 13,066 (1959)
  • 16,270 (1970)
  • 22,824 (1989)
  • 20,332 (2001)
  • 18,441 (2016)

Distribution of Native Language (2001)[edit]

Ukrainian Russian
95,03% 4,51%

Economy[edit]

Bakhmach has a local history and geography museum, eight libraries, a central Raion administrative building, three health centers, a culture club, and more. The city also has three railway stations: Bakhmach-Pasazhyrsky, Bakhmach-Kyivskyi, and Bakhmach-Homelskyi.

Culture[edit]

Media

  • Bahkmach regional independent newspaper "Advisor" «Порадник»
  • The district newspaper "Voice Pryseymiv'ya" «Голос Присеймів'я»

Historical Sites[edit]

Government[edit]

Education[edit]

Infrastructure[edit]

The city has three railway stations: Bakhmach-Pasazhyrsky, Bakhmach-Kyivskyi, and Bakhmach-Homelskyi.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  2. ^ рос. дореф. Черниговская губернія. Списокъ населенныхъ мѣстъ по свѣдѣніямъ 1864 года, томъ XLIII. Изданъ Центральнымъ статистическимъ комитетомъ Министерства Внутренних Дѣлъ. СанктПетербургъ. 1866 — LXI + 196 с., (код 1352)
  3. ^ Волости и важнѣйшія селенія Европейской Россіи. По даннымъ обслѣдованія, произведеннаго статистическими учрежденіями Министерства Внутреннихъ Дѣлъ, по порученію Статистическаго Совѣта. Изданіе Центральнаго Статистическаго Комитета. Выпускъ III. Губерніи Малороссійскія и Юго-Западныя / Составилъ старшій редактор В. В. Зверинскій — СанктПетербургъ, 1885. (рос. дореф.)
  4. ^ рос. дореф. Населенныя мѣста Россійской Имперіи в 500 и болѣе жителей съ указаніем всего наличнаго въ них населенія и числа жителей преобладающихъ вѣроисповѣданій по даннымъ первой всеобщей переписи 1897 г. С-Петербург. 1905. — IX + 270 + 120 с., (стор. 1-260)

External links[edit]