Coordinates: 51°10′59″N 32°49′47″E / 51.18306°N 32.82972°E / 51.18306; 32.82972
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Station building of Bakhmach-Pasazhyrsky railway station
Station building of Bakhmach-Pasazhyrsky railway station
Flag of Bakhmach
Coat of arms of Bakhmach
Bakhmach is located in Chernihiv Oblast
Location of Bakhmach in Chernihiv Oblast
Bakhmach is located in Ukraine
Bakhmach (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 51°10′59″N 32°49′47″E / 51.18306°N 32.82972°E / 51.18306; 32.82972
Country Ukraine
OblastChernihiv Oblast
RaionNizhyn Raion
HromadaBakhmach urban hromada
 • Total18 km2 (7 sq mi)
 • Total16,862

Bakhmach (Ukrainian: Бахмач, lit.'plantations', pronounced [ˈbɑxmɐtʃ] ) is a city located in Nizhyn Raion of Chernihiv Oblast (province), in northern Ukraine. It hosts the administration of Bakhmach urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.[1] It has a population of 16,862 (2022 estimate).[2]


Bakhmach was first mentioned in 1147 in the Hypatian Codex. Rapid development began in the 1860s and 1870s when the Libau–Romny Railway line nearby was under construction. The Battle of Bakhmach (Czech: Bitva u Bachmače) was fought between the Czech legion in Russia, and German forces occupying Ukraine. Following a Legion victory, the Germans negotiated a truce. In January 1919, the city was the site of battles between the invading Bolsheviks forces and the Chornomorska Division, which was attempting to keep the Left-bank Ukraine under the control of the army of the Ukrainian National Republic (UNR). During World War II, Bakhmach was under German occupation from 13 September 1941 and was liberated 9 September 1943 by the 75th Guards Rifle Division.

Name origins[edit]

An ethnographer[who?] explains the name of the city:[citation needed]

"The word Bahmach belongs to the ancient Turkish words that were used in Ukraine before the invasion. "Bahmach" in Turkish means "plantations." it indicates that there was, perhaps at the end of the first millennium BC in Kyiv and Chernihiv, areas of Turkish people from the Turk hordes, which whom called the land their settlement."

However, the most authoritative historian of the city, Vladimir Stepanovich Yevfymovskyy, indicates that the settlement is based on the Bakhmach River, and thus originated in an agricultural tradition.

Ancient Times (10th century)[edit]

The old city defense is one of the oldest settlements in the East. First mentioned in 1147 in "The Tale of Bygone Years" from the Hypatian Codex, and belonged to the Chernigov principality, but soon was destroyed along with the cities Vyvolozh, White Tower, Unizh (now the village Syvolozh, Białowieża and the city of Nizhyn) during the feudal strife between the princes Olegovichy Chernihiv and Mstislavovich Kyiv.

Polish and Cossack era (17th century)[edit]

In the first half of the 17th century on the site of the ancient city of Bakhmach was reborn with the same name (in this period, many cities were rebuilt such as Nizhyn, Konotop, Baturyn, Borzna, Ichnia).

In 1648, during the war under the direction of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, residents of Bakhmach were formed as part of a Chernihiv Sotnia Regiment; thus, making the town a "Sotnia town."

Some of the famous Sotnia Captains from Bahkmach:

  • Bilotserkivets Panko Omelyanovych (? -1649-?)
  • Pavlo S. Tishchenko (? -1654.01.-?)
  • Hrodetskyy John S. (? -1661-?)
  • Pavlo S. Tishchenko (? -1662.10.-1666-?)
  • Hrodetskyy John S. (? -1669.02.-?)
  • Paschenko Jacob (? -1672-?)
  • Bilotserkivets Michael Omelyanovych (? -1676-?)
  • Biliak Theodore L. (? -1682.07.-?)
  • (Dan the Terrible, before 1689),
  • R. Stephen (1695-1700)
  • Sawicki Samiylo (1700-?)

Companions of Hetman Mazepa (17th-18th centuries)[edit]

Bahkmach and the neighboring sotnia of Holinka [uk] were a sort of guard for Hetman Ivan Mazepa, who were particularly committed to their captains, and supported his union with Sweden; which was against Moscow's destroyers and usurpers, Baturyn.

At the end of the 17th century, near Bakhmach, Mazepa "sponsored" the construction of the palace park plantation VI. This country residence was for Hetman, which was inconvenient to show to others." This brought Philip Orlik Jesuit Zelensky with the versatile Polish king. In October 1708, Mazepa was sent from the palace to Charles Bystrytsky XII with a statement: "Come to Bakhmach yourself and publicly swear on the Gospel... that is not for the own private profit, but for the common good of the whole of the motherland and the troops will give the patronage to the King of Sweden."

Since 1781, Bakhmach was a township of Konotop raion within the Chernihiv Oblast. Bakhmach gained official status 1938.

Under the Russian Empire (19th century)[edit]

Bahmach was known as a "chumak" city which traded Crimean salt and Cherkassy fish on the market.

In 1866, the town and the Konotop raion within the Chernigov oblast, the population was 5270 (2399 male; 2550 female). There were: 601 farm yards, two Orthodox churches, a rural court, bazaars, and fairs.[3]

Bahmach's rapid development began after the completion of the 1869 Kursk-Kyiv and Libau-Romny (1873) railways. Then, the station was built and the village railway, which marked the beginning of the modern city.

In 1885, the population was 4741. There were: 888 farm yards, three Orthodox churches, 2 schools, one post office, an inn, 10 stood houses, a shop, a windmill, some markets and annual fairs.[4]

In the 1897 census, the number of inhabitants rose to 6844 people (3355 male; 3489 female), 6623 of which were Orthodox.[5]

The 1897 census the population was 839 (449 male; 390 female), 617 of which were Orthodox, 170 of which were Jewish.

In the 1897 census, the population was 1,047 (532 male; 515 female), 624 of which were Orthodox, 321 of which were Jewish.

In 1892, the Zemstvo school for children of railway workers was opened. In Bahkmach, a steam mill began operation in 1894, and a distillery in 1894.

In 1903 and 1905, a strike among railroad workers occurred.

Railway settlements that existed in isolation[edit]

  • Kyiv-Voronezh
  • Libau-Romny

After 1917[edit]

November 10, 1917

There was an attempt to declare Bakhmach a Communist government, but it failed. The military command of the Central Rada resumed quickly and Ukrainian authorities took control of the important railway point. Headquarters units of the Bakhmatsk Blue division of the UNR were located in Seven local schools.

January 15, 1918

Troops from Moscow and the Petrograd Bolsheviks with the Red Cossacks regiment stormed Bakhmach and captured the City Council and the railway junction.

Until 18 July 2020, Bakhmach served as an administrative center of Bakhmach Raion. The raion was abolished in July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Chernihiv Oblast to five. The area of Bakhmach Raion was merged into Nizhyn Raion.[6][7]


Bakhmach and the entire Bakhmach district were included by the communist authorities in the so-called "Black Board".[8] This led to the mass death of children and the elderly, as well as provoked the adult population of Bakhmach to openly resist the occupation authorities. Punitive special units of the NKVD took advantage of this and carried out shootings of Bakhmachers. The majority of Bakhmach residents became victims of the Holodomor.[9][10] In the city, near the newly built church of St. George the Victorious (Ukrainian Orthodox Church), a memorial to the memory of fellow countrymen who were victims of the famine of 1932–1933 has been installed.

City development in 1930s[edit]

In 1938, Bakhmach was designated as a city.[11][12] In addition to industrial construction, the city's social and cultural sphere was developing with a communist bias. The network of medical institutions was expanding. A new building was constructed for the district hospital with 25 beds, a polyclinic and a railway hospital were opened (in the area of the Bachmach-Kyivs'kyi station). Medical points were opened in the local telephone station and beet farm. The medical assistance to the city residents was provided by 10 doctors and 50 medium-level medical personnel. A kindergarten and a nursery were built. Education and culture were developing. In 1932, both seven-year schools were transformed into secondary schools, one primary school was turned into a seven-year school, and the other was closed. However, the schools operated irregularly during this time, as most children were suffering from the famine organized by the Soviet authorities.

At the end of 1934, illiteracy among adults was eradicated. In 1936, all schools in Bakhmach became vocational schools, and technical education was introduced. That same year, an evening high school was opened based on the evening work factory, which was established in 1930. The residents of the district spent their leisure time in 4 clubs: 2 railway clubs – named after May 1st and Taras Shevchenko, one at the Petrovsky factory, and one at the beet farm. At the same time, Orthodox churches were closed and destroyed, and people's religious beliefs were mercilessly ridiculed, while the clergy were persecuted.

In 1934, the district library began to operate, and on the eve of the war, there were 7 libraries in Bakhmach with a book fund of about 40,000 copies - most in Russian and promoting class and national hatred. The district newspaper "Prapor Komuni" of the political department of the Bakhmatska MTS "Bilshovytskyi Shliakh", and the newspaper of the beet farm "Za Sotsialistychnyi Vrozhai" were published in the city. All of them served the authorities during the genocide of the Ukrainian people in 1932–1933, carefully concealing the facts of the mass martyrdom of people from malnutrition. As of 1939, the population of Bakhmach was 10,340 people, with a significant portion being refugees from villages destroyed by the Holodomor. They worked in low-paying and unskilled jobs, which was beneficial to the communist regime.

World War II[edit]

World War II immediately impacted the life of the city. The city council established round-the-clock duty. A commission was formed to provide assistance to evacuees, who were being taken east by trains. Trains carrying refugees, wounded soldiers of the Red Army, military equipment, and factory equipment intended for evacuation passed through the Bakhmach railway. There were quite a few of these trains at the Bahmach-Homelsky and Bahmach-Pasazhyrsky stations. Trains could not escape the hub because some of the tracks on bypass routes were damaged by devastating German air raids.

On July 14, 1941, there were no free tracks at the Bahmach-Kyivsky station. In the morning, trains with military personnel and fuel were gathered there. Trains with evacuees, refugees, and factory equipment waited to be sent to the rear. At two o'clock, German aviation bombed this cluster of trains, turning the Bahmach-Kyivsky station into ruins. Fuel tanks on the rails did not burn but fell off their wheel pairs. The ground around burned, and in some places, railroad ties were burned down completely. During this memorable bombing for Bakhmach, surrounding streets were also affected. On the Communist Petrovsky Street (now Dankivskyi Shliakh), which ran parallel to the Bahmach-Kyivsky station, not a single house survived, and all buildings were burned down completely. The Post Street, on the other side of the station, was also affected. The post office, the market square, and adjacent private and state-owned estates were destroyed.

During the air raid, other city buildings were also destroyed: the city council, power station, canteen, and some residential buildings.

On August 21, 1941, the German aviation bombed the city again. This time, they bombed the Bahmach-Passenger station and nearby suburbs.

During this air raid, both state and private properties were damaged. However, the losses were much less than from the bombing on July 14. A bomb directly hit the newly built two-story railway post building, three large state buildings across from the Bahmach-Passenger station burned down. The bomb also hit the military town's car park, where it disabled four military vehicles and killed two soldiers from the battalion. Residents were injured and killed as well.

From that day on, Bakhmach was bombed almost every day. The residents moved from the city to the nearest villages and hamlets. The city became a ghost town, like during the communist Holodomor. The building of the Bachmach-Passenger railway station, the residential complex of cooperative buildings in Goidenkovy Garden (except for one miraculously preserved building), the bath and laundry plant, the Stalinist military town, the burnt textile factory and seed plant, the Zagotzerno warehouses, and the poultry farm were burned down or damaged. Due to the desire of the Red Army command to stop the Germans at any cost, Bachmach suffered enormous destruction. The German administration worked in the city for over two years – 1941–1943. On September 9, 1943, the troops of the 75th Guards Rifle Division liberated the city from German occupation. After the return of the Red Army, the NKVD of the USSR authorities began a terror campaign against the local population. Forced mobilization also began.

21st century[edit]

Russian invasion[edit]

During the Russian invasion of Ukraine on February 26, 2022, at least 65 units of Russian military equipment moved through Bakhmach, with about a hundred more on the outskirts. Local residents tried to stop the convoy on their own by blocking tank tracks with makeshift objects and convincing Russian soldiers not to move towards Kyiv. One man attempted to climb onto a tank and block the road with his body (he was not hurt). However, the military equipment continued to move, and Russian forces fired several shots into the air.[13][14]



Historical population

Distribution of Native Language (2001)[edit]

Ukrainian Russian
95.03% 4.51%


Today, Bachmach is an important railway junction for five directions: Moscow, Kharkiv, Dnipro, Kyiv, and Minsk.

The city has three railway stations:

  1. Bakhmach-Pasazhyrsky
  2. Bakhmach-Kyivskyi
  3. Bakhmach-Homelskyi.



  • Bahkmach regional independent newspaper "Advisor" «Порадник»
  • The district newspaper "Voice Pryseymiv'ya" «Голос Присеймів'я»

Education and society[edit]

Historical Museum

Social, cultural, and educational institutions in the city include three full-time and one evening secondary schools, a gymnasium, a school of arts, a local history museum, eight libraries, a central district hospital, three clinics, a district House of Culture, a railway workers' club, and a Student House. There is also a well-known park with a children's railway for recreation.


The city has a football team called "Agrodim" which plays matches at the "Kolos" stadium. The team won the Championship of the Chernihiv region in 2017.[15]



  1. ^ "Бахмацкая городская громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України.
  2. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
  3. ^ рос. дореф. Черниговская губернія. Списокъ населенныхъ мѣстъ по свѣдѣніямъ 1864 года, томъ XLIII. Изданъ Центральнымъ статистическимъ комитетомъ Министерства Внутренних Дѣлъ. СанктПетербургъ. 1866 — LXI + 196 с., (код 1352)
  4. ^ Волости и важнѣйшія селенія Европейской Россіи. По даннымъ обслѣдованія, произведеннаго статистическими учрежденіями Министерства Внутреннихъ Дѣлъ, по порученію Статистическаго Совѣта. Изданіе Центральнаго Статистическаго Комитета. Выпускъ III. Губерніи Малороссійскія и Юго-Западныя / Составилъ старшій редактор В. В. Зверинскій — СанктПетербургъ, 1885. (рос. дореф.)
  5. ^ рос. дореф. Населенныя мѣста Россійской Имперіи в 500 и болѣе жителей съ указаніем всего наличнаго въ них населенія и числа жителей преобладающихъ вѣроисповѣданій по даннымъ первой всеобщей переписи 1897 г. С-Петербург. 1905. — IX + 270 + 120 с., (стор. 1-260)
  6. ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 2020-07-18. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  7. ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України.
  8. ^ ""Чорні дошки" Голодомору - економічний метод знищення громадян УРСР (СПИСОК)". Історична правда. Retrieved 2023-05-14.
  9. ^ "Чернігівська ОДА". Retrieved 2023-05-14.
  10. ^ "Доброчинці. Ці люди допомогли іншим вижити в роки Голодомору". Історична правда. Retrieved 2023-05-14.
  11. ^ Відомості Верховної Ради СРСР. — 1938. — № 21. — 15 грудня. — С. 4.
  12. ^ Ред. и предисл.: П. В. Туманов (1939). СССР: Административно-территориальное деление союзных республик (in Russian) (Доп. к 1-му изд. (Изменения 1.10.1938 – 1.03.1939) ed.). М.: Изд. «Ведомости Верховного Совета РСФСР». p. 106.
  13. ^ "Кидалися з кулаками на танки. В Бахмачі місцеві жителі намагалися зупинити колону техніки РФ (відео)". (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 2022-02-27. Retrieved 2022-02-27.
  14. ^ "У Бахмачі люди кидаються під ворожі танки: емоційне відео". 24 Канал (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 2022-03-01. Retrieved 2022-02-27.
  15. ^ "Таблицы соревнований 2017". ФК Чернігів. 2017-05-16. Retrieved 2023-05-14.

External links[edit]