Sodium hydrogen carbonate
Baking soda, bicarb (laboratory slang), bicarbonate of soda, nahcolite
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
|Molar mass||84.0066 g mol−1|
|Melting point||(Decomposes to sodium carbonate starting at 50 °C)|
|Solubility||0.02 wt% acetone, 2.13 wt% methanol @22 °C. insoluble in ethanol|
Refractive index (nD)
|nα = 1.377 nβ = 1.501 nγ = 1.583|
|87.61 J/mol K|
|102 J/mol K|
Std enthalpy of
Gibbs free energy (ΔfG˚)
|B05CB04 (WHO) B05XA02 (WHO), QG04BQ01 (WHO)|
|Main hazards||Causes serious eye irritation|
|Safety data sheet||External MSDS|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|4220 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate) is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs. It is among the food additives encoded by the European Union, identified as E 500.
- 1 Nomenclature
- 2 Uses
- 3 Chemistry
- 4 History
- 5 Production
- 6 Popular culture
- 7 Difference between baking soda and baking powder
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Since it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda. In colloquial usage, the names sodium bicarbonate and bicarbonate of soda are often truncated. Forms such as sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, bicarbonate, bicarb, or even bica are common. The word saleratus, from Latin sal æratus meaning "aerated salt", was widely used in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate.
The prefix, bi, in bicarbonate comes from an outdated naming system and is based on the observation that there is twice as much carbonate (CO3) per sodium in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as there is carbonate per sodium in sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and other carbonates. The modern way of analyzing the situation based on the exact chemical composition (which was unknown when the name sodium bicarbonate was coined) says this the other way around: there is half as much sodium in NaHCO3 as in Na2CO3 (Na versus Na2).
Sodium bicarbonate has a wide variety of uses.
Sodium bicarbonate, referred to as baking soda, is primarily used in baking, as a leavening agent. It reacts with acidic components in batters, releasing carbon dioxide, which causes expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in pancakes, cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods. Acidic compounds that induce this reaction include phosphates, cream of tartar, lemon juice, yogurt, buttermilk, cocoa and vinegar. Natural acids in sourdough can be leavened with the addition of small amounts as well.
Heat can also independently cause sodium bicarbonate to act as a raising agent by releasing carbon dioxide when used in baking. When used on its own, only half the available CO2 is released. Additionally, without an acid added to baking soda, sodium carbonate is produced that is strongly alkaline and gives the baked product a bitter, "soapy" taste and a yellow color. Baking powder differs in that it includes an acid which is activated by the addition of water. Carbon dioxide production from exposure to heat starts at temperatures above 80 °C.
- 2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2
Since the reaction occurs slowly at room temperature, mixtures (cake batter, etc.) can be allowed to stand without rising until they are heated in the oven.
Many forms of baking powder will contain sodium bicarbonate combined with calcium acid phosphate, sodium aluminium phosphate or cream of tartar. Sodium bicarbonate was sometimes used in cooking vegetables, to make them softer, although this has gone out of fashion, as most people now prefer firmer vegetables. However, it is still used in Asian and Latin American cuisine to tenderise meats. Baking soda may react with acids in food, including vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid). It is also used in breading such as for fried foods to enhance crispness and allow passages for steam to escape, so the breading is not blown off during cooking.
Paint and corrosion removal
Sodium bicarbonate is used in a process for removing paint and corrosion called sodablasting; the process is particularly suitable for cleaning aluminium panels which can be distorted by other types of abrasive.
It can be administered to pools, spas, and garden ponds to raise the total alkalinity, this will also raise the pH level and make maintaining proper pH easier. In the event that the pH is low and the alkalinity is adequate or high, Baking Soda (sodium bicarbonate) should not be used to adjust the pH.
Sodium bicarbonate is one of the main components of the common incendiary "black snake" firework. The effect is caused by the thermal decomposition, which produces carbon dioxide gas to produce a long snake-like ash as a combustion product of the other main component, sucrose.
It has weak disinfectant properties, and it may be an effective fungicide against some organisms. Because baking soda will absorb musty smells, it has become a reliable method for used-book sellers when making books less malodorous.
Sodium bicarbonate can be used to extinguish small grease or electrical fires by being thrown over the fire, as heating of sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide. However, it should not be applied to fires in deep fryers; the sudden release of gas may cause the grease to splatter. Sodium bicarbonate is used in BC dry chemical fire extinguishers as an alternative to the more corrosive diammonium phosphate in ABC extinguishers. The alkaline nature of sodium bicarbonate makes it the only dry chemical agent, besides Purple-K, that was used in large-scale fire suppression systems installed in commercial kitchens. Because it can act as an alkali, the agent has a mild saponification effect on hot grease, which forms a smothering, soapy foam.
Neutralisation of acids and bases
Sodium bicarbonate is amphoteric, reacting with acids and bases. It reacts violently with acids, releasing CO2 gas as a reaction product. It is commonly used to neutralize unwanted acid solutions or acid spills in chemical laboratories.
A wide variety of applications follows from its neutralisation properties, including reducing the spread of white phosphorus from incendiary bullets inside an afflicted soldier's wounds.[medical citation needed]
- NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2(g)
Intravenous sodium bicarbonate is an aqueous solution that is sometimes used for cases of acidosis, or when insufficient sodium or bicarbonate ions are in the blood. In cases of respiratory acidosis, the infused bicarbonate ion drives the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer of plasma to the left and, thus, raises the pH. It is for this reason that sodium bicarbonate is used in medically supervised cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Infusion of bicarbonate is indicated only when the blood pH is markedly (<7.1–7.0) low.
It is used for treatment of hyperkalemia, as it will drive K+ back into cells during periods of acidosis. Since sodium bicarbonate can cause alkalosis, it is sometimes used to treat aspirin overdoses. Aspirin requires an acidic environment for proper absorption, and the basic environment diminishes aspirin absorption in the case of an overdose. Sodium bicarbonate has also been used in the treatment of tricyclic antidepressant overdose. It can also be applied topically as a paste, with three parts baking soda to one part water, to relieve some kinds of insect bites and stings (as well as accompanying swelling).
Sodium bicarbonate has been found to have no effect on the blood pressure of several types of rat models susceptible to salt-sensitive hypertension, in contrast with sodium chloride. This was ascribed to the high concentration of chloride, rather than the sodium content in dietary salts. 
Bicarbonate of soda can also be useful in removing splinters from the skin.
Some alternative practitioners, such as Tullio Simoncini, have promoted baking soda as a cancer cure, which the American Cancer Society has warned against due to both its unproven effectiveness and potential danger in use.
Sodium bicarbonate can be added to local anaesthetics, to speed up the onset of their effects and make their injection less painful. It is also a component of Moffett's solution, used in nasal surgery.
Sodium bicarbonate is also used as an ingredient in some mouthwashes. It has anticaries and abrasive properties. It works as a mechanical cleanser on the teeth and gums, neutralises the production of acid in the mouth, and also acts as an antiseptic to help prevent infections.
It is used in eye hygiene to treat blepharitis. This is done by addition of a teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate to cool water that was recently boiled, followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyelash base with a cotton swab dipped in the solution.
Small amounts of sodium bicarbonate have been shown to be useful as a supplement for athletes in speed-based events, such as middle-distance running, lasting from about one to seven minutes. However, overdose is a serious risk because sodium bicarbonate is slightly toxic; and gastrointestinal irritation is of particular concern. Additionally, this practice causes a significant increase in dietary sodium.
As a cleaning agent
A paste from baking soda can be very effective when used in cleaning and scrubbing. For cleaning aluminium objects, the use of sodium bicarbonate is discouraged, as it attacks the thin unreactive protective oxide layer of this otherwise very reactive metal. A solution in warm water will remove the tarnish from silver when the silver is in contact with a piece of aluminium foil. A paste of sodium bicarbonate and water is useful in removing surface rust as the rust forms a water-soluble compound when in a concentrated alkaline solution. Cold water should be used, as hot water solutions can corrode steel.  Baking soda is commonly added to washing machines as a replacement for softener and to remove odors from clothes. Sodium bicarbonate is also effective in removing heavy tea and coffee stains from cups when diluted with warm water. Also, Baking soda can be used as an ultimate multi purpose odor remover.
During the Manhattan Project to develop the nuclear bomb in the early 1940s, many scientists investigated the toxic properties of uranium. They found that uranium oxides stick very well to cotton cloth, but did not wash out with soap or laundry detergent. The uranium would wash out with a 2% solution of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). Clothing can become contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) dust, and then normal laundering will not remove it. Those at risk of DU dust exposure should have their clothing washed with about 6 ounces (170 g) of baking soda in 2 gallons (7.5 l) of water.
Cattle feed supplements
3 + H2O → H
3 + OH−
Sodium bicarbonate can be used as a wash to remove any acidic impurities from a "crude" liquid, producing a purer sample. Reaction of sodium bicarbonate and an acid produce a salt and carbonic acid, which readily decomposes to carbon dioxide and water:
- NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2CO3
- H2CO3 → H2O + CO2(g)
- NaHCO3 + CH3COOH → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2(g)
Sodium bicarbonate reacts with bases such as sodium hydroxide to form carbonates:
- NaHCO3 + NaOH → Na2CO3 + H2O
Sodium bicarbonate reacts with carboxyl groups in proteins to give a brisk effervescence from the formation of CO
2. This reaction is used to test for the presence of carboxylic groups in protein.
Above 50 °C, sodium bicarbonate gradually decomposes into sodium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide. The conversion is fast at 200 °C:
- 2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2
- Na2CO3 → Na2O + CO2
These conversions are relevant to the use of NaHCO3 as a fire-suppression agent ("BC powder") in some dry powder fire extinguishers.
In 1791, a French chemist, Nicolas Leblanc, produced sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash. In 1846, two New York bakers, John Dwight and Austin Church, established the first factory to develop baking soda from sodium carbonate and carbon dioxide.
This compound, referred to as saleratus, is mentioned in the novel Captains Courageous by Rudyard Kipling as being used extensively in the 1800s in commercial fishing to prevent freshly caught fish from spoiling.
NaHCO3 is mainly prepared by the Solvay process, which is the reaction of sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in water. Calcium carbonate is used as the source of CO2 and the resultant calcium oxide is used to recover the ammonia from the ammonium chloride. The product shows a low purity (75%). Pure product is obtained from sodium carbonate, water, and carbon dioxide as reported in one of the following reactions. It is produced on the scale of about 100,000 tonnes/year (as of 2001).
- CO2 + 2 NaOH → Na2CO3 + H2O
Further addition of carbon dioxide produces sodium bicarbonate, which at sufficiently high concentration will precipitate out of solution:
- Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NaHCO3
Commercial quantities of baking soda are also produced by a similar method: soda ash, mined in the form of the ore trona, is dissolved in water and treated with carbon dioxide. Sodium bicarbonate precipitates as a solid from this method:
- Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NaHCO3
Naturally occurring deposits of nahcolite (NaHCO3) are found in the Eocene-age (55.8–33.9 Mya) Green River Formation, Piceance Basin in Colorado. Nahcolite was deposited as beds during periods of high evaporation in the basin. It is commercially mined using common underground mining techniques such as bore, drum, and longwall mining in a fashion very similar to coal mining. A very small portion is also obtained using in situ leach techniques involving dissolution of the nahcolite by heated water pumped through the nahcolite beds that have previously been mined using the aforementioned techniques. It is then reconstituted through a natural cooling crystallisation process. Currently only Tronox (formerly FMC) in the Green River Wyoming basin has successfully commercially solution mined the product.
Sodium bicarbonate, as "bicarbonate of soda", was a frequent source of punch lines for Groucho Marx in Marx brothers movies. In Duck Soup, Marx plays the leader of a nation at war. In one scene, he receives a message from the battlefield that his general is reporting a gas attack, and Groucho tells his aide: "Tell him to take a teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda and a half a glass of water." In A Night at the Opera, Groucho's character addresses the opening night crowd at an opera by saying of the lead tenor: "Signor Lassparri comes from a very famous family. His mother was a well-known bass singer. His father was the first man to stuff spaghetti with bicarbonate of soda, thus causing and curing indigestion at the same time."
Difference between baking soda and baking powder
Baking soda is alkaline, so acid is used in baking powder to avoid a metallic taste when the chemical change during baking creates sodium carbonate. However, to avoid the over-flavouring of acidic taste, non-acid ingredients such as whole milk or Dutch-processed cocoa must be added.
- Carbonic acid
- Soda bread
- List of ineffective cancer treatments
- List of minerals
- Natrona (disambiguation)
- Washing soda
- "Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds". CRC Handbook, p. 4-85.
- "Densities of some Common Materials". Retrieved 3 March 2016.
- "Aqueous solubility of inorganic compounds at various temperatures". CRC Handbook, p. 8-116.
- "Sodium Bicarbonate" (PDF). UNEP Publications.
- Ellingboe, J. L.; Runnels, J. H. (1966). "Solubilities of Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate in Acetone-Water and Methanol-Water Mixtures". J. Chem. Eng. Data. 11 (3): 323–324. doi:10.1021/je60030a009.
- Goldberg, Robert N.; Kishore, Nand; Lennen, Rebecca M. "Thermodynamic quantities for the ionisation reactions of buffers in water". CRC Handbook. pp. 7–13.
- Pasquali, Irene; Bettini, R.; Giordano, F. (2007). "Thermal behaviour of diclofenac, diclofenac sodium and sodium bicarbonate compositions". Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 90 (3): 903. doi:10.1007/s10973-006-8182-1.
- Chambers, Michael. "ChemIDplus - 144-55-8 - UIIMBOGNXHQVGW-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Sodium bicarbonate [USP:JAN] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information". chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov.
- "Sourdough Pancakes Recipe". whatscookingamerica.com.
- Czernohorsky, Hooker. "THE CHEMISTRY OF BAKING" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-01-22.
- "Baking Soda and Baking Powder - FineCooking.com". FineCooking.com. Retrieved 2017-01-22.
- "The Many Practical Uses of Baking Soda in the Kitchen". About.com Food. Retrieved 2017-01-22.
- "Glossary Ingredients". Cooking.com.
- "Best Home Remedies To Kill And Control Cockroaches". HRT.whw1.com. Retrieved 2015-06-20.
- Potassium bicarbonate (073508) and Sodium bicarbonate (073505) Fact Sheet. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Updated 17 February 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Registered Biopesticides 04/29/02 United States Environmental Protection Agency. Updated 29 March 2002. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- "A pool owners guide by Arm & Hammer Baking soda" (PDF). Armandhammer.com. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- Malik, Y; Goyal, S (May 2006). "Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 109 (1–2): 160–3. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.08.033. PMID 16540196.
- Rutala, W. A.; Barbee, S. L.; Aguiar, N. C.; Sobsey, M. D.; Weber, D. J. (2000). "Antimicrobial Activity of Home Disinfectants and Natural Products Against Potential Human Pathogens". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. 21 (1): 33–38. doi:10.1086/501694. PMID 10656352.
- Zamani, M; Sharifi, Tehrani, A; Ali, Abadi, Aa (2007). "Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold". Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences. 72 (4): 773–7. PMID 18396809.
- Altman, Gail (2006-05-22). "Book Repair for BookThinkers: How To Remove Odors From Books". The BookThinker (69).
- "Arm & Hammer Baking Soda – Basics – The Magic Of Arm & Hammer Baking Soda". Armhammer.com. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- "White Phosphorus". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- "Sodium Bicarbonate". Jackson Siegelbaum Gastroenterology. 1998.
- "Sodium Bicarbonate Intravenous Infusion" (PDF). Consumer Medicine Information. Better Health Channel. 2004-07-13.
- "Respiratory Acidosis: Treatment & Medication". emedicine.
- Dart, Richard C. (2004). Medical Toxicology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 910–. ISBN 978-0-7817-2845-4.
- Cloth Diapers. Donald C. Cooper Ph.D. pp. 46–.
- [old info]Knudsen, K; Abrahamsson, J (Apr 1997). "Epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate independently and additively increase survival in experimental amitriptyline poisoning". Critical Care Medicine. 25 (4): 669–74. doi:10.1097/00003246-199704000-00019. PMID 9142034.
- "Insect bites and stings: First aid". Mayo Clinic. 2008-01-15.
- Kotchen, Theodore A. (2005-05-01). "Contributions of Sodium and Chloride to NaCl-Induced Hypertension". Hypertension. 45 (5): 849–850. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000164629.94634.27. PMID 15837830.
- [unreliable medical source?]What is Sodium Bicarbonate Used For?. Virtuowl.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-24.
- "How to Remove a Splinter with Baking Soda". wikiHow. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "Sodium Bicarbonate". American Cancer Society. 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on February 19, 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- Edgcombe, Hilary and Hocking, Graham (2005). "Anaesthesia UK : Local Anaesthetic Pharmacology". John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.
- Kleber, CJ; Moore, MH; Nelson, BJ (1998). "Laboratory assessment of tooth whitening by sodium bicarbonate dentifrices.". The Journal of clinical dentistry. 9 (3): 72–5. PMID 10518866.
- Koertge, TE; Brooks, CN; Sarbin, AG; Powers, D; Gunsolley, JC (1998). "A longitudinal comparison of tooth whitening resulting from dentifrice use.". The Journal of clinical dentistry. 9 (3): 67–71. PMID 10518865.
- Yankell, SL; Emling, RC; Petrone, ME; Rustogi, K; Volpe, AR; DeVizio, W; Chaknis, P; Proskin, HM (1999). "A six-week clinical efficacy study of four commercially available dentifrices for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain.". The Journal of clinical dentistry. 10 (3 Spec No): 115–8. PMID 10825858.
- Mankodi, S; Berkowitz, H; Durbin, K; Nelson, B (1998). "Evaluation of the effects of brushing on the removal of dental plaque.". The Journal of clinical dentistry. 9 (3): 57–60. PMID 10518862.
- Putt, MS; Milleman, KR; Ghassemi, A; Vorwerk, LM; Hooper, WJ; Soparkar, PM; Winston, AE; Proskin, HM (2008). "Enhancement of plaque removal efficacy by tooth brushing with baking soda dentifrices: results of five clinical studies.". The Journal of clinical dentistry. 19 (4): 111–9. PMID 19278079.
- Storehagen, Silje; Ose, Nanna and Midha, Shilpi. "Dentifrices and mouthwashes ingredients and their use" (PDF). Institutt for klinisk odontologi. Universitetet i Oslo.
- Lamb, John Henderson (31 May 1946). "Sodium Bicarbonate: An Excellent Deodorant". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 7 (3): 131–133. doi:10.1038/jid.1946.13.
- "Bicarb soda: natural body deodorant". Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- Ralph B. Metson, M.D., The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healing Your Sinues (McGraw Hill 2005), at p. 68.
- "Blepharitis. Treatment and Causes. Eye lid inflammation | Patient". Patient. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
- Bee, Peta (2008-08-16). "Is bicarbonate of soda a performance enhancing drug". The Times. London. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- Ergogenic Aids. U. Retrieved on 2011-09-11.
- Baking soda overdose – All Information. Umm.edu (2009-10-19). Retrieved on 2010-09-24.
- "Arm & Hammer Baking Soda – Basics – The Magic Of Arm & Hammer Baking Soda". Armhammer.com. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- Art, Philadelphia Museum of. "Finishing Techniques in Metalwork".
- "Put a Shine on It". scifun.chem.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
- Housecroft, Catherine E.; Sharpe, Alan G. (2008). "Chapter 22: d-block metal chemistry: the first row elements". Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd Edition. Pearson. p. 716. ISBN 978-0-13-175553-6.
- "Science Lab.com". MSDS- Sodium carbonate. sciencelab.com.
- Raymond, Jessica (June 10, 2016). "Kitchen Odor Eliminating Candles, Products, and Tricks". cravedujour.com.
- Orcutt, JA. "Depleted Uranium and Health: Facts and Helpful Suggestions". Pharmacology and Toxicology of Uranium Compounds. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- "Acidosis Health Warning for Livestock Farmers". Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- "Decomposition of Carbonates". General Chemistry Online.
- "Company History". Church & Dwight Co. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011.
- Kipling, Rudyard. Captains Courageous. p. 25.
- Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
- "Duck Soup (1933)". IMDb. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "A Night at the Opera (1935)". IMDb. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "Baking 101: The Difference Between Baking Soda and Baking Powder". Joy the Baker. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sodium bicarbonate.|
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|