Bala Hissar, Kabul
Bala Hissar is an ancient fortress located in the city of Kabul, Afghanistan. The estimated date of construction is around the 5th century CE. Bala Hissar sits to the south of the modern city centre at the tail end of the Kuh-e-Sherdarwaza Mountain. The Walls of Kabul, which are 20 feet (6.1 m) high and 12 feet (3.7 m) thick, start at the fortress and follow the mountain ridge in a sweeping curve down to the river. It sports a set of gates for access to the fortress. The Kōh-e Shēr Darwāzah (lion door) mountain is behind the fort.
Bala Hissar was originally divided into two parts: The lower fortress, containing the stables, barracks and three royal palaces, and the upper fortress (the actual fort with the name Bala Hissar) housing the armory and the dungeon of Kabul, known as the "Black Pit" (the Siyah Chal).
The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556 between the forces of Akbar and Hemu, a Hindu King of Delhi. Hemu had a large army, and initially his forces were winning, but suddenly Hemu was struck by an arrow in the eye and he lost his senses. The wounded Hemu was captured by Mohammed Quli Khan and carried to the Mughal camp at Shodapur on Jind Road at Panipat. According to Badayuni, Bairam Khan asked Akbar to behead Hemu so that he could earn the title of Ghazi. Akbar replied 'He is already dead, if he had any strength for a duel, I would have killed him'. After Akbar's refusal Hemu's body was denied honour by the Mughal battle tradition and was unceremoniously beheaded by Bairam Khan. Hemu's head was sent to Kabul where it was hung outside the Delhi Darwaza of Bala Hissar, Kabul while his body was placed in a gibbet outside Purana Quila in Delhi to terrorise Indians.
Bala Hissar was the site of some of the bloodiest fighting in Afghanistan during the 19th century when Afghanistan came into conflict with the invading British during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838–1842) and Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–1880).
The British envoy to Kabul, Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon Cavagnari was murdered inside the fort in September 1879 triggering a general uprising and the second phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. From 1839 onwards the British used it on and off as their barracks until the massacre of the British Mission by mutinous Afghan troops in 1879.
It was damaged during the Second Anglo-Afghan War when the British Residency was burned down, then later when the armoury exploded. General Frederick Roberts had wanted to level the fortress completely, but in the end it was strengthened and fortified in the Spring of 1880, a few months before the British left Afghanistan.
On August 5, 1979, the Bala Hissar uprising was organized by the Afghanistan Liberation Organization and some other Afghan groups against the pro-Russian regime, but it was suppressed and tens of people were arrested and executed by the regime.
These days it is manned by the 55th Division of the Afghan National Army and one can see the remnants of tanks and heavy weapons positioned on the fortress remains overlooking Kabul.
Bala Hissar today
When looking at the outer wall of the fortress, it is possible to see layers of building materials from years of destruction and re-fortification. The tanks and other war wreckage from the last 30 years are strewn about the top of the hillside. Much of the hillside is built up on tunnels and underground storage. Evidence of trenches from previous trench warfare encircles the upper most level of the hilltop, which is adorned with a rickety, stalwart Afghan flag. Wild dogs roam all over the hillside and a company from the Afghan Army is posted at the site.
Other locations by this name
- Bala Hissar is also a place in Mussoorie, India, where Dost Mohammad Khan was kept as prisoner by the British. This place falls part of the Wynberg Allen School estate.
- Bala Hisar Fort is a fortification built during the 18th Century in Peshawar, today in Pakistan, and rebuilt after destruction by the Sikh during the 19th Century.
- The British Library, Upper Bala Hissar from west Kabul. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Richards, John F., ed. (1995) . The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge History of India (7th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780521566032. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
- Kolff, Dirk H. A. (2002). Naukar, Rajput, and Sepoy: The Ethnohistory of the Military Labour Market of Hindustan, 1450-1850. Cambridge University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780521523059. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
- Abdul Quadir Badayuni, Muntkhib-ul-Tawarikh, Volume 1, page 6
- George Bruce Malleson (2001). Akbar and the rise of the Mughal Empire. Genesis Publishing Pvt. Ltd. p. 71. ISBN 9788177551785.
- Caption for Panorama of the Bala Hissar WDL11486 Library of Congress