A balaclava, also known as a balaclava helmet or Bally (UK slang) or ski mask, is a form of cloth headgear designed to expose only part of the face, usually the eyes and mouth. Depending on style and how it is worn, only the eyes, mouth and nose, or just the front of the face are unprotected. Versions with a full face opening may be rolled into a hat to cover the crown of the head or folded down as a collar around the neck.
The name comes from their use at the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War of 1854, referring to the town near Sevastopol in the Crimea, where British troops there wore knitted headgear to keep warm. Handmade balaclavas were sent over to the British troops to help protect them from the bitter cold weather. British troops required this aid, as their own supplies (warm clothing, weatherproof quarters, and food) never arrived in time. According to Richard Rutt in his History of Handknitting, the name "balaclava helmet" was not used during the war but appears much later, in 1881.
Thin Balaclavas can be used under motorcycle or snowmobile helmets for warmth in cool or winter conditions.
Race drivers In Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile sanctioned events must wear balaclavas made of fire-retardant material underneath their crash helmets. In racing events, hill-climbs, special stages of rallies and selective sections of cross-country events entered on the International Sporting Calendar, all drivers and co-drivers must wear overalls as well as gloves (optional for co-drivers), long underwear, a balaclava, and shoes homologated to the FIA 8856-2000 standard.
Police in Kent confiscated a copy of the War on Terror board game partly because of the inclusion of a balaclava. Police spokesmen stated it "could be used to conceal someone's identity or could be used in the course of a criminal act."
Military and police
In the Indian subcontinent, balaclavas are commonly referred to as monkey caps because of their typical earth tone colours, and the fact that they blot out most human facial features. Monkey caps sometimes have a small, decorative, woollen pom-pom on top. They are commonly worn by troops on Himalayan duty for protection from the cold.
In the Soviet Union, the balaclava became a part of standard OMON (special police task force) uniform as early as the Perestroyka years of the late 1980s. The original intent was to protect the identity of the officers to avoid intimidation from organized crime. Because of increased problems with organized crime of the 90s, TV shots of armed men in black balaclavas became common. Armed Russian police commonly conduct raids and searches of white-collar premises (typically in Moscow) while wearing balaclavas. Such raids have therefore come to be known in Russia as "maski shows", an allusion to a popular comic TV show of the 1990s.
- Chico, Beverly (2013). "Balaclava". Hats and Headwear Around the World A Cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-1-6106-9063-8.
- Rutt, Richard (1987). A History of Handknitting. Interweave Press. pp. 134–5. ISBN 978-0934026352. (Note that there is a misprint in the date of the Battle of Balaclava, which took place 1854, in the original edition cited here)
- Games, Alex (2007). Balderdash & piffle: one sandwich short of a dog's dinner. London: BBC. ISBN 978-1-84607-235-2.
- Shepherd, John (1991). The Crimean Doctors: A History of the British Medical Services in the Crimean War. 1. Liverpool University Press. pp. 296–306.
- "Balaclavas and hi-vis: we know what you'll be wearing next autumn/winter". The Guardian. March 8, 2018. Archived from the original on June 18, 2018.
- "Achtung, die Vollmützen kommen!". Sueddeutsche.de. October 28, 2018. Archived from the original on December 12, 2019.
- "Diese Gangster-Mütze ist jetzt cool – muss das sein?". Welt.de. August 28, 2018. Archived from the original on July 25, 2021.
- "Appendix L to the International Sporting Code" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
- "War On Terror board game seized by police". Cambridge News. Archived from the original on 2012-08-06. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
- Ghosh, Subir (November 19, 2005). "Thanda lege jabey". Hindustan Times. New Delhi – via Rajib Roy.
- "Nothing "Sheepish" About Fire-Safe Fabrics" (PDF). Leatherneck Magazine. September 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2012.
- "Flame Resistant Organizational Gear" (PDF). US Marine Corps: Program Manager Infantry Combat Equipment. August 24, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2012.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (August 31, 2011). "Memo to Exxon: Business With Russia May Involve Guns and Balaclavas". The New York Times.
- Sieff, Kevin (March 3, 2019). "It's so dangerous to police MS-13 in El Salvador that officers are fleeing the country". The Washington Post.
- "Why anti-terror officers wear different clothes". BBC News. November 18, 2015.
- Media related to Balaclavas at Wikimedia Commons