Temporal range: Neogene - recent
Balaenoptera, from the Latin balaena (whale) and pteron (fin), is a genus of Balaenopteridae, the rorquals, and contains eight extant species. The species Balaenoptera omurai was published in 2003. Balaenoptera is a diverse genus and comprises all but one of the extant species in its family - the other species is the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae.
- Genus Balaenoptera
- Balaenoptera acutorostrata, common minke whale
- †Balaenoptera bertae (Pliocene, United States)
- Balaenoptera bonaerensis, Antarctic minke whale
- Balaenoptera borealis, Sei whale
- Balaenoptera brydei, Bryde's whale
- †Balaenoptera cephalus
- †Balaenoptera colcloughi (Pliocene, USA)
- †Balaenoptera davidsonii (Pliocene, USA)
- Balaenoptera edeni, Eden's whale
- Balaenoptera musculus, blue whale
- Balaenoptera omurai, Omura's whale
- Balaenoptera physalus, fin whale
- †Balaenoptera siberi (Pliocene, Peru)
- †Balaenoptera sursiplana
- †Balaenoptera taiwanica
Many fossil Balaenoptera species have been described. Some (namely "B. borealina", "B. definata", "B. emarginata", "B. gibbosa", "B. minutis", "B. rostratella", "B. sibbaldina", and "B. similis") are either nondiagnostic, highly fragmentary, or had no holotype specimen named, hence are considered nomina dubia. The species "Megaptera" hubachi may in fact be a species of Balaenoptera, and is certainly not a member of Megaptera. The valid fossil species of Balaenoptera are:
B. bertae is a relatively small species from the Upper Miocene to Upper Pliocene of California.
B. colcloughi is known from four specimens, including four skulls and some postcranial remains, found at the San Diego Formation. It was a close relative of Megaptera novaeangliae (the humpback whale), B. siberi, and B. physalus (the fin whale).
"B." cortesii is a small species; it probably represents a distinct, unnamed genus of balaenopterid. A larger variant, called "B." cortesii var. portisi is probably also a distinct genus, and may be the same genus or species as Cetotheriophanes capellinii. The species "B. floridana" is indistinguishable from "B." cortesii var. portisi.
Like B. cephalus, B. davidsonii was originally classified under Eschrichtius, but it has since been moved to Balaenoptera. It was native to the Pliocene San Diego Formation. The only known fossil of B. davidsonii is a fragment of the left dentary.
"B" ryani represents genus of basal balaenopterid distinct from Balaenoptera.
- "List of Marine Mammal Species and Subspecies". Society for Marine Mammalogy. Retrieved October 2013. Check date values in:
- Deméré; et al. (2005). "The Taxonomic and Evolutionary History of Fossil and Modern Balaenopteroid Mysticetes". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 12 (1-2): 99–143. doi:10.1007/s10914-005-6944-3.
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- Martin. (2014). From Finbacks to Humpbacks: Investigation of the Evolutionary History of Balaenopteridae.
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- M. Bosselaers and K. Post. 2010. A new fossil rorqual (Mammalia, Cetacea, Balaenopteridae) from the Early Pliocene of the North Sea, with a review of the rorqual species described by Owen and Van Beneden. Geodiversitas 32(2):331-363
- E. D. Cope. 1895. Fourth contribution to the marine fauna of the Miocene period of the United States. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 34:135-155
- T. Huang. 1966. A new species of a whale tympanic bone from Taiwan, China. Transactions and Proceedings of the Paleontological Society of Japan 61:183-187