Clockwise: Lenina Avenue, Balashikha-Arena, Balashikha railway station. Balashikha cotton mill #1
|Federal subject||Moscow Oblast|
|City status since||1939|
|• Body||Council of Deputies|
|• Head||Sergey Yurov|
|• Total||244.18 km2 (94.28 sq mi)|
|Elevation||150 m (490 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||86th in 2010|
|• Density||880/km2 (2,300/sq mi)|
|• Subordinated to||Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|• Capital of||Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|• Urban okrug||Balashikha Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Balashikha Urban Okrug|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 495|
The city is known for its unique river and waterway system. The Pekhorka River system covers an area of 40 kilometers (25 mi) from north to south and 20 kilometers (12 mi) from east to west, and many small lakes and ponds were created by damming to provide water power for the cotton mills in the 19th century.
The city stands on the famous Vladimir Highway, which led out of Moscow to the east. This was the route along which convicted criminals were marched to forced labor camps in Siberia. The road was renamed Gorky Highway in the Soviet era. The failure of the Decembrist Revolt against Tsar Nicholas I led to the execution of its ringleaders and the exile of many nobles to Siberia. Soviet-era schoolchildren were told that the prisoners were marched in chains along this road followed by their wives. In truth, the Decembrist prisoners were sent from St. Petersburg, then the capital of Russia, through Yaroslavl, and not through Moscow and Balashikha, and the story was invented as part of celebrations of the 100th anniversary of the event in 1925.
Between 1830 and 1870, a cotton factory was in operation in the area, with its fabric called Balashikha. A railway station was built at the end of the 19th century, again called Balashikha Station.
As it grew, Balashikha absorbed other villages, including Gorenki, a suburban estate of Count Andreas Razumovsky, and Pekhra-Yakovlevskoye, an estate of Prince Galitzine, the latter being in use for 250 years from 1591 to 1828. This is the site of a stone church, built from 1777 to 1782.
Saltykovka, a part of Balashikha, has long been known for its attractions to the artistic community. Isaak Levitan, the famous landscape painter, lived there in 1879. Lev Tolstoy was another frequent visitor.
Several institutions were founded in Balashikha after the October Revolution, including one dedicated to the production of fur.
During the Soviet era, Balashikha became a major industrial center with industries in metallurgy, aviation industry, cryogenic technology, machinery, and other fields.
Balashikha sent many of its sons to the front to fight the Germans during World War II. Among those who fought and died was Ivan Flerov who commanded a Katyusha rocket division and is remembered by several monuments and museums in the area.
Along with many other Russian Orthodox Churches, the Cathedral of Saint Alexander Nevsky was demolished by the government. The Cathedral was blown up in the 1960s but was rebuilt, on its original site, in 2002.
The Balashikha Maternity House was designated on July 1, 2003, to be the Moscow Oblast Perinatal Center. This facility will now function as a regional perinatal care facility for high-risk mothers and infants and a perinatal health education center for Moscow Oblast.
Although not part of the extensive Moscow subway system, Balashikha is home to many office workers who commute to Moscow each day. It has several thriving markets and retail centers and is quickly modernizing. It is surrounded by attractive woodland and countryside.
In January 2015, the city of Zheleznodorozhny was abolished with its territory merged into Balashikha.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twelve rural localities, incorporated as Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Balashikha Urban Okrug.
Balashikha is the site of a large Russian Army base and was closed to foreigners during the Soviet era, a ban which, in theory, remains to the present day. It was the headquarters of the 1st Corps of the Soviet Air Defense Forces and is now to become the headquarters of the Operational-Strategic Command for Missile-Space Defense. Balashikha is also base for ODON (Internal security division). Balashiha is home to Military Unit 35690, which is training facility used by the Federal Security Service.
- Yuri Lyapkin (born 1945), ice hockey player
- Nikolay Baskov, tenor singer
- Dmitry Klokov, Honored Master of Sports in weightlifting
- Andrey Kuznetsov, tennis player
Twin towns – sister cities
- Law #11/2013-OZ
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 35. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- Law #208/2014-OZ
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
- Топонимия Балашихи.
- Balashikha. Official page. History.
- Bellingcat Investigation Team (February 17, 2020). ""V" For "Vympel": FSB's Secretive Department "V" Behind Assassination of Georgian Asylum Seeker in Germany". bellingcat.
Most frequent were Krasikov’s visits to FSB’s highly secure Special Operations Center in Balashiha, a suburb just outside Moscow. This heavily guarded facility, known as Military Unit 35690, was the original military base for the KGB’s Vympel Spetsnaz unit, and now serves as headquarters for the FSB’s CSO, as well the home-base of the elite and secretive Departments V and A.
- "Сергей Юров предложил создать группу по работе с городами-побратимами". balashiha.ru (in Russian). Balashikha. September 9, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- "Балашиха и китайский Янчжоу будут сотрудничать в экономике и культуре". balashiha.ru (in Russian). Balashikha. April 13, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред. Закона №249/2019-ОЗ от 29 ноября 2019 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области"». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования (13 января 2013 г.). Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #11/2013-OZ of January 31, 2013 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast, as amended by the Law #249/2019-OZ of November 29, 2019 On amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast". Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication (January 13, 2013).).
- Московская областная Дума. Закон №208/2014-ОЗ от 30 декабря 2014 г. «О преобразовании городского округа Балашиха и городского округа Железнодорожный, о статусе и установлении границы вновь образованного муниципального образования», в ред. Закона №52/2015-ОЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Московской области "О преобразовании городского округа Балашиха и городского округа Железнодорожный, о статусе и установлении границы вновь образованного муниципального образования"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования, за исключением статей 4 и 5, вступающих в силу через один месяц после вступления в силу настоящего Закона в случае отсутствия инициативы жителей Городского округа Балашиха о проведении местного референдума по вопросу определения структуры органов местного самоуправления Городского округа Балашиха. Опубликован: Официальный Интернет-портал Правительства Московской области (http://www.mosreg.ru), 30 декабря 2014 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #208/2014-OZ of December 30, 2014 On Transforming the Urban Okrug of Balashikha and the Urban Okrug of Zheleznodorozhny, on the Status and the Border of the Newly Established Municipal Formation, as amended by the Law #52/2015-OZ of April 13, 2015 On Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On Transforming the Urban Okrug of Balashikha and the Urban Okrug of Zheleznodorozhny, on the Status and the Border of the Newly Established Municipal Formation". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication, with the exception of Articles 4 and 5, which take effect one month after this Law takes effect, providing the lack of initiative of the urban okrug residents to conduct a local referendum on the subject of establishing the structure of the bodies of local self-government of Balashikha Urban Okrug.).
- "Balashikha in stories" (Балашиха в очерках и зарисовках) - А. Галанин и др.
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