Balcombe drilling protest
Coordinates: The Balcombe drilling protest occurred when test drilling and possible fracking for petroleum were proposed in 2012 near Balcombe, a village in West Sussex England. Local residents protested and anti-fracking environmentalists in the UK made it a focus of attention. The drill pad is located in a wooded area known as Lower Stumble Wood.
After the initial announcement of plans to drill a local protest group was formed and a picnic was held. There was considerable opposition to exploration plans with a poll conducted by the Balcombe Parish Council showing that 82% of local residents were opposed. Cuadrilla Resources, the company that proposes to drill the well, engaged in public relations efforts attempting to convince villagers that the project was both useful and safe. Previous exploration by Conoco in the same area in 1986 was abandoned due to low production of oil. As of June 2013 Balcombe had emerged as a focus of opposition to fracking in the Weald Basin of southeast England. No actual permits that allowed for fracking were ever asked for or issued.
In July 2013 a licence to drill the well was granted by the Environment Agency and Cuadrilla began transporting equipment and supplies to the test site. The well would be 3,000 feet (910 m) deep with a possible 2,500 feet (760 m) horizontal leg. The property is owned by the Balcombe Estate which is managed by Simon Greenwood, a local resident and a member of the Balcombe Parish Council that granted permission for the well. It is the opinion of Mr. Greenwood that there is low risk for a well regulated under UK regulations.
On 25 July 2013 colourfully dressed protestors blocked the gates to the site and prevented passage of a lorry with drilling equipment. On 26 July there was a heavy police presence at the gates and about a dozen protestors were arrested and charged with violation of section 241 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 which governs picketing. Protests continued on 27 July and additional protestors were arrested. Frack Off protestors from outside the immediate area have proven to be aggressive and creative. After receiving intelligence developed by the local police of credible threats of direct action the company suspended drilling on 16 August. Up to 1,000 protesters were expected for a six-day "Reclaim the Power" camp at the annual meeting of the No Dash for Gas environmental action movement. Workshops in skills-sharing in campaign building and direct action were planned. The height of the security fence around the site was doubled and razor wire installed.
No Dash for Gas camp
Hundreds of protesters from throughout the UK camped on private land  at the so-called No Dash for Gas "Reclaim the Power" camp during the weekend of 17–18 August about a mile from the drilling pad in a field west of Cherry Lane near the intersection with London Road (B2036)in Cuckfield Parish. Facilities such as kitchens and toilets were erected without permission to support hundreds of expected participants. 38 Degrees, a not-for-profit political-activism organisation reported raising £50,000 with £30,000 budgeted to support local groups, £10,000 for training, and £10,000 on development of internet sites and infrastructure. 2,000 marched in Balcombe on held Sunday with direct action scheduled to commence on Monday. After 2 days of direct action protests the camp began breaking up on Wednesday 21 August, leaving a contingent of those who have been protesting since July behind.
On 19 August activists engaged in direct actions at Cuadrilla headquarters in Lichfield, Staffordshire and at the London offices of Bell Pottinger, which conducts its public relations. A few protesters gained entry to Cuadrilla's building and posted banners reading "Reclaim the Power" and "Power to the People," and, at Bell Pottinger, several protesters super glued themselves to the entrance, posting a banner over its entrance reading "Bell Pottinger Fracking Liars." The entrance to the drilling site was also blocked by protesters who were locked together. There was a heavy police presence. As the day progressed the protesters where pushed to the side; dozens of arrests were made including Caroline Lucas the only Green Party MP. Lucas was released on bail the next day. Most arrests at the entrance to the drilling site were made under a section of the Public Order Act, failure to comply with a condition made by a senior police officer on the scene. There were also direct actions at the homes of Lord Howell and Francis Maude, the Conservative MP who represents Balcombe.
According to Fiona Harvey of The Guardian the Balcombe protests coincide with movement of the issue of hydraulic fracturing to the front of the public agenda in the United Kingdom. The initial permits to drill near Balcombe were issued routinely as were permits in other parts of the UK such as Lancashire where fracking operations are believed to have resulted in two small earthquakes. As of August 2013 public opinion was evenly divided with about 40% of the public for and 40% against. The Balcombe protests occurred against a background of political and public relations blunders such as this remark by the government energy minister Michael Fallon:
The beauty of that - please don't write this down - is that of course [the oil and gas resources of the Weald Basin] are underneath the commentariat. All these people writing leaders saying, `Why don't they get on with shale?' We are going to see how thick their rectory walls are, whether they like the flaring at the end of the drive.
There is growing public awareness of the potential impacts of industrial scale exploitation of shale gas.
Judicial Review Request
On 5 December 2014 the High Court has dismissed Frack Free Balcombe Residents’ Association’s (FFBRA’s) claim for a judicial review to quash the County Council’s grant of planning permission for oil and gas exploration and appraisal south of Balcombe.
According to Mr Justice Gilbart, author of the judgement, there was never really a question of fracking at Balcombe:
I have no doubt whatever that this proposal has caused considerable concern to the Claimant Association. I recognise also that some parts of the public are concerned about the process commonly known as “fracking” although I must observe also that this application did not seek permission for that activity.
The judgement concludes by rejecting the request for a judicial review.
- Hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom
- Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing
- Anti-fracking movement
- 2012–14 Romanian protests against shale gas
- Stanley Reed (7 August 2013). "Goals Collide in Drilling Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- "Balcombe Residents against Fracking?". Balcombe Parish Council. 17 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Stanley Reed (May 24, 2013). "British Villagers, Fearing Fracking, Protest Plan for Drilling". The New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- Jan Goodey (July 2013). "The UK's anti fracking movement is growing". The Ecologist. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
- Geoffrey Lean (June 28, 2013). "Fracking faces tough foes in leafy Sussex Shale gas and oil may hold the key to Britain’s energy troubles – but not if grassroots protesters have their way". The Telegraph. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- Robert Booth (July 25, 2013). "Anti-fracking protesters halt Sussex shale gas operation: Activists in Balcombe block lorry carrying equipment for drilling operation that is due to start next week". The Guardian. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
- Fiona Harvey; Franklin Stuart (20 August 2013). "Balcombe landlord publicly reveals support for fracking: Simon Greenwood says controversial process should go ahead if West Sussex well is found to be economically viable". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Robert Booth (July 26, 2013). "Anti-fracking activists arrested at West Sussex drilling site: Police remove protesters blockading Balcombe site where energy company Cuadrilla is looking for shale oil". The Guardian. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- "Fracking Demo: Police Arrest 18 Protesters: A dozen people have been charged after scuffles at an anti-fracking protest in the village of Balcombe, West Sussex.". Sky News. July 27, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Jon Henley (July 30, 2013). "Fracking protest: who's who in the battle of Balcombe?: The campaigners lining up against the exploratory shale-gas well in West Sussex are a surprisingly disparate bunch, including a pop star's daughter and a former page 3 model". The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Peter Walker (August 1, 2013). "Frack Off protesters bring a little fire engine trouble to Balcombe oil site: Fracking firm's work at West Sussex drilling site brought to a halt after activists locked themselves to vehicle parked outside gates". The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Stanley Reed (16 August 2013). "Shale Gas Company Suspends Drilling in Southern England". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "Fracking protesters gather for six-day camp as Balcombe drilling suspended: Cuadrilla scales back operation on advice of police, with up to 1,000 more campaigners expected in West Sussex". The Guardian. Press Association. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Fiona Harvey (16 August 2013). "Drilling pause for Balcombe fracking protests is sensible move, say police: Cuadrilla says it has halted drilling in West Sussex out of concern for health and safety of employees and protesters". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- "Activists set up fracking protest campsite in Balcombe". BBC. 17 August 2013.
- Paul Bignell (18 August 2013). "Balcombe fracking protest widens: Second campsite opens as activists prepare to step up their campaign against shale gas exploration in Sussex". The Independent. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- Mark Townsend (17 August 2013). "Middle England and the eco-warriors say victory is theirs in the battle for Balcombe: Campaign of 'civil disobedience' hopes to build on early gains against energy company Cuadrilla". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "LOCATION OF PROTEST CAMP". Balcombe Parish Council. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Fiona Harvey (19 August 2013). "Anti-fracking campaigners target Cuadrilla HQ: Activists target energy company's headquarters and its PR firm Bell Pottinger in protest at plans to drill for shale gas". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Balcombe anti-fracking protest camp draws to a close". BBC. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- Fiona Harvey; Peter Walker (19 August 2013). "Caroline Lucas among dozens arrested in Balcombe anti-fracking protest: UK's only Green party MP is arrested along with dozens of anti-fracking protesters in a 'day of action' across the UK". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- Michael Quinion. "Commentariat". World Wide Words. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Michael Fallon defends fracking comments: Energy minister Michael Fallon has defended comments about fracking, in which he appeared to suggest the process would affect those living near gas drilling sites.". BBC. 4 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- Fiona Harvey (19 August 2013). "Anti-fracking protests in Balcombe signal major shift in public awareness: Cuadrilla demonstrations show how fracking has gone from largely ignored to hotly debated, both publicly and politically". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Oil and gas exploration and fracking". West Sussex County Council.
- Fracking Report prepared by the Balcombe Parish Council and published May 2012
- "Lucy Mangan: fracking idiots: 'Governments should never support something that has a name so semantically suggestive'"
- "Fracking: a botch on the landscape: Britain's nascent shale gas industry is in danger of being doused by inept PR and poor practice"
- "50-year-old fracking site that makes a mockery of the Balcombe zealots: It's next to a nature reserve - and has fracked enough gas and oil to power 21,000 homes every day... with no complaints from locals"
- Respect our village poster
- Guardian Live Blog August 19
- Video of the Bell Pottinger protest on 19 August 2013 1:32:31
- "Balcombe anti-fracking protest – in pictures"
- "Fracking protests in UK: 48 hours of direct action - in pictures"
- "Balcombe residents divided over fracking - audio slideshow"
- "A day on the anti-fracking frontline in Balcombe - video"
- Daily updates by Frack Off (specific link is to day 42, September 4, 2013)