Baldwin County, Georgia

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Not to be confused with Baldwin, Georgia.
Baldwin County, Georgia
Map of Georgia highlighting Baldwin County
Location in the state of Georgia
Map of the United States highlighting Georgia
Georgia's location in the U.S.
Founded 1803
Named for Abraham Baldwin
Seat Milledgeville
Largest city Milledgeville
 • Total 267 sq mi (692 km2)
 • Land 258 sq mi (668 km2)
 • Water 9.6 sq mi (25 km2), 3.6%
 • (2010) 45,720
 • Density 177/sq mi (68/km²)
Congressional district 10th
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4

Baldwin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,337.[1] The county seat is Milledgeville.[2]

Baldwin County is part of the Milledgeville, GA Micropolitan Statistical Area.


For centuries the land was occupied by the Creek Nation, and for thousands of years before them, varying cultures of indigenous peoples.

Part of the land ceded by the Creek Nation in the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson in 1802 was used to create Baldwin County on May 11, 1803, by the Georgia General Assembly, the state's legislative body.

The land, west of the Oconee River, became Baldwin and Wilkinson counties. The Treaty of Washington with the Creek in 1805 extended the state's western boundary to the Ocmulgee River, and a legislative act on June 26, 1806, added some of this additional land to both counties.

The state legislature subsequently passed an act on December 10, 1807 that created four new counties from Baldwin County's 1806 borders and expanded Baldwin to the east with land from Hancock and Washington counties. The new counties were Morgan, Jones, Putnam, and present-day Jasper (originally named Randolph County at the time of the act).

The county is named for Abraham Baldwin, a signer of the United States Constitution, U.S. congressman representing Georgia, and the founder of the University of Georgia. Settlers moved rapidly into the area and developed large cotton plantations, made possible by the labor of slaves. Georgia was one of the destinations for slaves being sold from the Upper South, as well as from the Low Country.

The county seat of Milledgeville is the former state capital of Georgia (1804–1868). Also notable is the fact that other than Washington, it is the only planned capital city in the United States.

Because of its central location within the state and its abundant supply of water, Milledgeville grew rapidly into a bustling frontier settlement. Only two cities in the nation—Milledgeville and Washington, D.C.—can boast the distinction of being originally designed and planned as cities to house seats of government. On November 2, 1807, the state legislature held its first session in the newly completed statehouse in Milledgeville. Georgia's first state penitentiary was also established within the historic city limits of Milledgeville in 1817, on land now part of the campus of Georgia College and State University. In 1837 the General Assembly provided for the establishment of the state's first mental asylum, today known as Central State Hospital.

When the state of Georgia seceded from the Union in January 1861 during a legislative session held in Milledgeville, Baldwin County became a target for Union forces. In Union general William T. Sherman's devastating march to the sea, his troops occupied Georgia's capital city in November 1864. Sherman and his Union armies burned the state penitentiary, vandalized the city, and held a mock session of the legislature in the statehouse to repeal the state's ordinance of secession. In 1868, after the Civil War (1861–65), Georgia's capital was moved from Milledgeville to its present location in Atlanta. Today Milledgeville is home to two institutions of higher education: Georgia College and State University and Georgia Military College. Founded in 1889 as the Georgia Normal and Industrial College for Women, Georgia College and State University has since grown to become the state's premier public liberal arts university. Georgia Military College, founded in 1879, now occupies the Old Capitol Building.

Many of Georgia's most notable residents have come from Milledgeville. U.S. representative Carl Vinson, who served for fifty years in the U.S. Congress, was born in Baldwin County. Comedian Oliver Hardy began his career in the Milledgeville Opera House. The acclaimed novelist and short-story author Flannery O'Connor wrote many of her works while living in Milledgeville. O'Connor is buried in her family plot in Milledgeville's historic Memory Hill Cemetery.

In addition to the Old Capitol and Governor's Mansion, visitors to Baldwin County can explore Andalusia, O'Connor's family farm; Milledgeville's historic district; and the Lockerly Arboretum, a botanical garden and nature education center that hosts the Lockerly Heritage Festival each September.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 267 square miles (690 km2), of which 258 square miles (670 km2) is land and 9.6 square miles (25 km2) (3.6%) is water.[3]

The majority of Baldwin County, south of Lake Sinclair, is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northern portion of the county is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin.[4]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent Counties[edit]


Historical population
Census Pop.
1810 6,356
1820 7,734 21.7%
1830 7,295 −5.7%
1840 7,250 −0.6%
1850 8,148 12.4%
1860 9,078 11.4%
1870 10,618 17.0%
1880 13,806 30.0%
1890 14,608 5.8%
1900 17,768 21.6%
1910 18,354 3.3%
1920 19,791 7.8%
1930 22,878 15.6%
1940 24,190 5.7%
1950 29,706 22.8%
1960 34,064 14.7%
1970 34,240 0.5%
1980 34,686 1.3%
1990 39,530 14.0%
2000 44,700 13.1%
2010 45,720 2.3%
Est. 2014 45,909 [5] 0.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[6]
1790-1960[7] 1900-1990[8]
1990-2000[9] 2010-2013[1]

As of the census[10] of 2010, there were 46,337 people, 14,758 households, and 9,843 families residing in the county. The population density was 173 people per square mile (67/km²). There were 17,173 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile (26/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 54.17% White, 43.38% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, and 0.74% from two or more races. 1.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 14,758 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.90% were married couples living together, 18.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.30% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the county the population was spread out with 21.70% under the age of 18, 14.50% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, and 10.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 117.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 119.70 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $35,159, and the median income for a family was $42,736. Males had a median income of $31,227 versus $22,718 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,271. About 11.80% of families and 16.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.80% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.


Baldwin State Prison (previously Georgia Women's Correctional Institution) of the Georgia Department of Corrections is located in Milledgeville.[11][12][13]



See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 17, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  4. ^ "Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission Interactive Mapping Experience". Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission. Retrieved 2015-11-21. 
  5. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  6. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 17, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 17, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 17, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 17, 2014. 
  10. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  11. ^ "2010 Census - Census Block Map Milledgeville, GA." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on November 18, 2012.
  12. ^ "2010 Census - Census Block Map Milledgeville, GA Block 5." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on November 18, 2012.
  13. ^ "Baldwin State Prison." Georgia Department of Corrections. Retrieved on November 18, 2012. "ADDRESS: LAYING FARM ROAD / POST OFFICE BOX 218 HARDWICK, GA 31034"

Further reading[edit]

  • Anna Maria Green Cook, The History of Baldwin County, Georgia. (1925) Spartanburg, SC: Reprint Co., 1978.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°04′N 83°15′W / 33.07°N 83.25°W / 33.07; -83.25