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Baldwin II, Margrave of Flanders

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Baldwin II
Margrave of Flanders
Baldwin II the Bald.jpg
Baldwin II from the 16th century
Spouse(s) Ælfthryth of Wessex
Issue
Noble family House of Flanders
Father Baldwin I of Flanders
Mother Judith of Flanders
Born c. 865
Died 10 September 918 (aged 52–53)

Baldwin II (c.865 CE – 10 September 918 CE), nicknamed Calvus (the Bald), was the second Margrave of Flanders. He ruled from 879 CE to 918 CE.

Life

Baldwin II was born around 865 CE, to Baldwin I of Flanders and Judith of Flanders, the great-granddaughter of Charlemagne.[1]

Early Years

The early years of Baldwin's rule were marked by a series of devastating Viking raids into Flanders.[2] By 883 CE, he was forced to move north to Pagus Flandransis, which became the territory most closely associated with the Counts of Flanders.[2] Baldwin constructed a series of wooden fortifications at Saint-Omer, Bruges, Ghent, and Kortrijk, and seized lands that were abandoned by royal and ecclesiastical officials.[3] Many of these same citadels later formed castellanies, which housed government, militia, and local courts.[2]

Marriage

In 884 CE, Baldwin II married Ælfthryth (or Elftrude or Elfrida), the daughter of Alfred the Great.[4] The immediate goal of that Anglo-Flemish alliance was to help Baldwin control the lower Canche River valley.[5]

Rise to power

In 888 CE, the western Frankish king, Charles the Fat, was deposed, leaving several candidates vying to replace him.[6] As a grandson of Charles the Bald, Holy Roman Emperor and King of West Francia, Baldwin could have competed for the crown of West Francia.[3] Instead, Baldwin and others tried to convince the East Frankish King, Arnulf, to take the West Frankish crown, but Arnulf declined.[6]

The Robertine Odo, Count of Paris, was eventually elected king.[7] Odo and Baldwin's relationship deteriorated when Odo failed to support Baldwin's attempts to gain control of the Abbey of St. Bertin. Odo attacked Baldwin at Bruges but was unable to prevail.[6] Baldwin continued his expansion to the south and gained control over Artois, including the important Abbey of St. Vaast.

Death

When the Abbey came under the jurisdiction of Archbishop Fulk of Reims in 900 CE, Baldwin had the archbishop assassinated.[5] When his attempts to expand further into the upper Somme River valley were opposed by Herbert I, Count of Vermandois, Baldwin had the count assassinated as well.[5] Baldwin died on the 10th of September, 918 CE,[8] at Blandijnberg (near Ghent) and was succeeded by his eldest son, Arnulf I of Flanders. His younger son, Adalulf, became the first Count of Boulogne.

Family

Baldwin II was married to Ælfthryth, daughter of Alfred the Great,[1] and had five children:

He is a direct patrilineal ancestor of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII and mother of Queen Elizabeth I.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, Marburg, Germany, 1984), Tafel 5
  2. ^ a b c David Nicholas, Medieval Flanders (Longman Group UK, Ltd., 1992)pp. 17–18
  3. ^ a b Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family who Forged Europe, Trans. Michael Idomir Allen (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia), p. 235
  4. ^ François Neveux, The Normans; The Conquests that Changed the Face of Europe, Trans. Howard Curtis (Constable and Robinson, Ltd., London, 2008), p. 93
  5. ^ a b c Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family who Forged Europe, Trans. Michael Idomir Allen (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia), p. 236
  6. ^ a b c David Nicholas, Medieval Flanders (Longman Group UK, Ltd., 1992)p. 19
  7. ^ Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family who Forged Europe, Trans. Michael Idomir Allen (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia), p. 237
  8. ^ Philip Grierson, 'The Relations between England and Flanders before the Norman Conquest', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Vol. 23 (1941), p. 86

Additional references

Preceded by
Baldwin I
Margrave of Flanders
879–918
Succeeded by
Arnulf I