Tombs dating from the Merovingian dynasty indicate that Balgheim was founded in the 6th or 7th century. It was first mentioned in writing in 1113. In 1420 it was sold to the Free Imperial CityRottweil, where it remained until 1689, after which its rule changed often until it became part of Württemberg in 1806.
The Bundesstraße 14 (federal highway) between Rottweil and Tuttlingen passes by the east edge of Balgheim. The Gäubahn (Stuttgart-Singen) passes over the European Watershed here. On workdays the Ringzug (train) provides hourly connections to Rottweil, Tuttlingen and Geisingen-Leiferdingen.