Balham is located some 12 km west by south-west of Rethel and 3 km north-east of Asfeld. Access to the commune is by the D926 road from Gomont in the north-east which passes through the village and continues south-west to Asfeld. The commune is mixed forest and farmland.
The Aisne river passes through the centre of the commune flowing from north-east to south-west on its way to join the Oise at Compiègne. The parallel Canal des Ardennes passes through the southern tip of the commune.
In 2010 the commune had 135 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé (1747-1814), Revolutionary politician, member of the Committee of Public Order, General of the Republic, Commissioner of the Army and Minister of War (September–November 1799), became Mayor of Balham after 1800.
^At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.