Balignicourt is located some 18 km north-west of Brienne-le-Château and 25 km south by south-west of Vitry-le-François. The northern border of the commune is the departmental boundary between Aube and Marne. Access to the commune is by the D56 from Jasseines in the west which passes through the south of the commune and the village before continuing east to Chavanges. The D156 goes north-east from the village to Margerie-Hancourt, changing to the D355 at the departmental border. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of Les Ormées, Vendeuil and Les Vieilles-Vignes. The commune is entirely farmland except for a belt of forest along the river.
The Meldançon river flows through the commune from east to west and continues west to join the Aube near Morembert.
In 2010 the commune had 77 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
^At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.