Balinese alphabet

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Aksara Bali
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬩᬮᬶ
Aksara Bali1.png
Type
Languages Balinese
Sasak
Time period
c. 1000–present
Parent systems
Sister systems
Batak
Baybayin
Kulitan
Buhid
Hanunó'o
Javanese
Lontara
Old Sundanese
Rencong
Rejang
Tagbanwa
Direction Left-to-right
ISO 15924 Bali, 360
Unicode alias
Balinese
U+1B00–U+1B7F

The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language Sanskrit. With some modifications, the script is also used to write the Sasak language, used in the neighboring island of Lombok.[1] The script is a descendant of the Brahmi script, and so has many similarities with the modern scripts of South and Southeast Asia. The Balinese script, along with the Javanese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia.[2]

Though everyday use of the script has largely been supplanted by the Latin alphabet, the Balinese script has significant prevalence in many of the island's traditional ceremonies and is strongly associated with the Hindu religion. The script is mainly used today for copying lontar or palm leaf manuscripts containing religious texts.[2][3]

Characteristics[edit]

There are 47 letters in the Balinese script, each representing a syllable with inherent vowel /a/ or/ə/ at the end of a sentence, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Pure Balinese can be written with 18 consonant letters and 9 vowel letters, while Sanskrit transliteration or loan words from Sanskrit and Old Javanese utilizes the full set. A set of modified letters are also used for writing the Sasak language. Each consonant has a conjunct form called gantungan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[4][5]

Punctuation includes a comma, period, colon, as well as marks to introduce and end section of a text. Musical notation uses letter-like symbols and diacritical marks in order to indicate metrical information. Text are written left to right without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[1]

There is also a set of "holy letters" called aksara modre which appears in religious texts and protective talismans. Most of them are constructed using diacritic ulu candra with corresponding characters. A number of additional characters, known to be used inline in text (as opposed to decoratively on drawings), remains under study and those characters are expected to be proposed as Balinese extensions in due course.[1]

Letters[edit]

A basic letter in Balinese is called aksara (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭ), and each letter stands for a syllable with inherent vowel /a/.

Consonants[edit]

Consonants are called wianjana (ᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ) or aksara wianjana (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ). Balinese script has 33 consonants, however only 18 consonants called wreṣāstra (ᬯᬺᬱᬵᬲ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬭ) are used for writing basic vocabulary in Balinese language. The rest consonants are, known as sualalita (ᬰ᭄ᬯᬮᬮᬶᬢ), mainly used for writing Sanskrit and Kawi loanwords in Balinese language. The consonants can be arranged into Sanskrit order and hanacaraka traditional order.

Hanacaraka traditional order[edit]

The consonants can be arranged in hanacaraka traditional order. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka. However, the hanacaraka sequence only has the 18 consonants of aksara wreṣāstra (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯᬺᬱᬵᬲ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬭ) and exclude aksara sualalita (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬰ᭄ᬯᬮᬮᬶᬢ). However, this table below include aksara sualalita as the current romanization have no diacritics for the consonants.

ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ
Aksara Wianjana
Consonants
Poem First Line Second Line Third Line Fourth Line
IPA [ha] [na] [tʃa] [ra] [ka] [da] [ta] [sa] [wa] [la] [ma] [ga] [ba] [ŋa] [pa] [dʒa] [ja] [ɲa]
Aksara Latin
Latin Transcription
ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la ma ga ba nga pa ja ya nya
Aksara Wreṣāstra
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯᬺᬱᬵᬲ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬭ
Aksara Sualalita
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬰ᭄ᬯᬮᬮᬶᬢ





Sanskrit order[edit]

As other Brahmic scripts, consonants in Balinese script can be arranged into Sanskrit order. Thus, Balinese script had been influenced by Shiksha. The table below uses Sanskrit order.

Aksara Wianjana
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ
Consonants
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Pancawalimukha

Ardhasuara
ᬅᬭ᭄ᬥᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ
(Semivowels)
Ūṣma
ᬊᬱ᭄ᬫ
(Fricatives)
Wisarga
ᬯᬶᬲᬭ᭄ᬕ
(Glottal)
Unvoiced Voiced Anunāsika
ᬅᬦᬸᬦᬲᬶᬓ
Nasal
Alpaprāṇa
ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Unaspirated
Mahāprāṇa
ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Aspirated
Alpaprāṇa
ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Unaspirated
Mahāprāṇa
ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Aspirated
Kaṇṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Guttural)
Bali Ka.png


[ka]
ka
Ka1
Bali Ka mahaprana.png


[kʰa]
kha
Ka mahaprana
Bali Ga.png


[ga]
ga
Ga1
Bali Ga gora.png


[gʰa]
gha
Ga gora
Bali Nga.png


[ŋa]
nga
Nga1
Bali Ha.png


[ha]
ha
Ha12
Tālawya
ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palatal)
Bali Ca.png


[tʃa]
ca
Ca murca1
Bali Ca laca.png


[tʃʰa]
cha
Ca laca3
Bali Ja.png


[dʒa]
ja
Ja1
Bali Ja jera.png


[dʒʰa]
jha
Ja jera
Bali Nya.png


[ɲa]
nya
Nya1
Bali Ya.png


[ja]
ya
Ya1
Bali Sa saga.png


[ɕa]
śa ça
Sa saga
Mūrdhanya
ᬫᬹᬭ᭄ᬠᬜ
(Retroflex)
Bali Ta latik.png


[ʈa]
ṭa
Ta latik
Bali Ta latik mahaprana.png


[ʈʰa]
ṭha
Ta latik m.5
Bali Da madu murdhanya.png


[ɖa]
ḍa
Da murda a.4
Bali Da murda mahaprana.png


[ɖʰa]
ḍha
Da murda m.5
Bali Na rambat.png


[ɳa]
ṇa
Na rambat
Bali Ra.png


[ra]
ra
Ra1
Bali Sa sapa.png


[ʂa]
ṣa
Sa sapa
Dantya
ᬤᬦ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬬ
(Dental)
Bali Ta.png


[ta]
ta
Ta1
Bali Ta tawa.png


[tʰa]
tha
Ta tawa
Bali Da.png


[da]
da
Da lindung1
Bali Da madu.png


[dʰa]
dha
Da madu
Bali Na.png


[na]
na
Na kojong1
Bali La.png


[la]
la
La1
Bali Sa.png


[sa]
sa
Sa danti16
Oṣṭhya
ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labial)
Bali Pa.png


[pa]
pa
Pa1
Bali 8, Pha.png


[pʰa]
pha
Pa kapal
Bali Ba.png


[ba]
ba
Ba1
Bali Ba kembang1.png or Bali Ba kembang2.png


[bʰa]
bha
Ba kembang7
Bali Ma.png


[ma]
ma
Ma1
Bali Wa.png


[wa]
wa
Wa1

^1 Aksara wreṣāstra. They are, in traditional order: ha na ca ra ka / da ta sa wa la / ma ga ba nga / pa ja ya nya.
^2 The consonant ha is sometimes not pronounced. For example, ᬳᬸᬚᬦ᭄ hujan (lit. rain) is pronounced ujan.[6]
^3 The exact form of ca laca is unknown because only the appended (gantungan) form is left.[7] However, the independent form is included in Unicode.[8]
^4 alpaprana ^5 mahaprana
^6 Actually an alveolar consonant, but classified as dental by tradition
^7 The former of the two letter forms is more frequently used.

Vowels[edit]

Vowels, called suara (ᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ) or aksara suara (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ), can be written as independent letters when vowels appear in initial position. They are described in the following list:

Aksara suara
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ
Vowels
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Aksara suara hŗeşua
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭᬳᬺᬱ᭄ᬯ
(Short vowels)
Aksara suara dirgha
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭᬤᬷᬭ᭄ᬖ
(Long vowels)
Balinese script Balinese script Latin Transliteration IPA Name Name Balinese script Balinese script Latin Transliteration IPA
Kaṇṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Guttural)
Bali vowel A kara.png
a [a] A kara
Bali vowel A kara-tedung.png
ā [ɑː]
Tālawya
ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palatal)
Bali vowel I kara.png
i [i] I kara
Bali vowel I kara-tedung.png
ī [iː]
Mūrdhanya
ᬫᬹᬭ᭄ᬠᬜ
(Retroflex)
Bali vowel Ra repa.png
[ɹ̩] Ra repa
Bali vowel Ra repa-tedung.png
[ɹ̩ː]
Dantya
ᬤᬦ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬬ
(Dental)
Bali 2-vowel La lenga.png
[l̩] La lenga
Bali vowel La lenga-tedung.png
[l̩ː]
Oṣṭhya
ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labial)
Bali vowel U kara.png
u [u] U kara
Bali vowel U kara-tedung.png
ū [uː]
Kaṇṭha-Tālawya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palato-guttural)
Bali 6-vowel E kara.png
e [e]
[ɛ]
E kara Airsanya
Bali vowel Airsanya.png
ai [aːi]
Kaṇṭha-Oṣṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labio-guttural)
Bali 3-vowel O.png
o [o]
[ɔ]
O kara
Bali vowel O kara-tedung.png
au [aːu]

Gantungan and Gempelan[edit]

Gantungan (ᬕᬦ᭄ᬢᬸᬗᬦ᭄) (appended letters) and gempelan (ᬕᬾ‌ᬾ‌ᬫ᭄ᬧᬮᬦ᭄) (attached letters) has to be used to represent consonant cluster as zero vowel sign (adeg-adeg) may not used in middle of sentence in general. Thus, as some Brahmic family (Javanese), consonant cluster is writen in stack. Each consonant letter has a corresponding either gantungan or gempelan (for pa, pha, sa and ṣa only) form, and the presence of gantungan and gempelan eliminate the inherent vowel [a] of the letter it is appended to. For example, if the letter na () is appended with gantungan da (◌᭄ᬤ), the pronunciation becomes nda (ᬦ᭄ᬤ).

Gantungan or gempelan can be applied with pangangge (diacritic) to a letter. However, attaching two or more gantungan to one letter is forbidden; this condition is known as tumpuk telu (three layers). Adeg-adeg may be used in the middle of a sentence to avoid such situation. For example, tamblang with consonant cluster mbl is written as ᬢᬫ᭄‌ᬩ᭄ᬮᬂ.[9]

The forms of gantungan and gempelan are as follows:

Gantungan Gempelan
ᬕᬦ᭄ᬢᬸᬗᬦ᭄ ᬕᬾ‌ᬾ‌ᬫ᭄ᬧᬮᬦ᭄
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Pancawalimukha

Ardhasuara
ᬅᬭ᭄ᬥᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ
(Semivowels)
Ūṣma
ᬊᬱ᭄ᬫ
(Fricatives)
Wisarga
ᬯᬶᬲᬭ᭄ᬕ
(Glottal)
Unvoiced Voiced Anunāsika
ᬅᬦᬸᬦᬲᬶᬓ
Nasal
Alpaprāṇa
ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Unaspirated
Mahāprāṇa
ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Aspirated
Alpaprāṇa
ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Unaspirated
Mahāprāṇa
ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Aspirated
Kaṇṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Guttural)
Gantungan Ka.png
◌᭄ᬓ
Ka
Gantungan Ka mahaprana.png
◌᭄ᬔ
Ka mahaprana
Gantungan Ga.png
◌᭄ᬕ
Ga
Gantungan Ga gora.png
◌᭄ᬖ
Ga gora
Gantungan Nga.png
◌᭄ᬗ
Nga
Gantungan Ha.png
◌᭄ᬳ
Ha
Tālawya
ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palatal)
Gantungan Ca.png
◌᭄ᬘ
Ca murca
Gantungan Ca laca.png
◌᭄ᬙ
Ca laca
Gantungan Ja.png
◌᭄ᬚ
Ja
Gantungan Ja jera.png
◌᭄ᬛ
Ja jera
Gantungan Nya.png
◌᭄ᬜ
Nya
Pangangge Nania.png
◌᭄ᬬ
Ya
Gantungan Sa saga.png
◌᭄ᬰ
Sa saga
Mūrdhanya
ᬫᬹᬭ᭄ᬠᬜ
(Retroflex)
Gantungan Ta latik.png
◌᭄ᬝ
Ta latik
Gantungan Ta latik mahaprana.png
◌᭄ᬞ
Ta latik m.
Gantungan da madu alpaprana.png
◌᭄ᬟ
Da madu a.
Gantungan Da madu murdhanya.png
◌᭄ᬠ
Da madu m.
Gantungan Na rambat.png
◌᭄ᬡ
Na rambat
Pangangge Cakra.png
◌᭄ᬭ
Ra
Gempelan Sa sapa.png
◌᭄ᬱ
Sa sapa
Dantya
ᬤᬦ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬬ
(Dental)
Gantungan Ta.png
◌᭄ᬢ
Ta
Gantungan Ta tawa.png
◌᭄ᬣ
Ta tawa
Gantungan Da.png
◌᭄ᬤ
Da lindung
Gantungan Da madu.png
◌᭄ᬥ
Da madu
Gantungan Na.png
◌᭄ᬦ
Na kojong
Gantungan La.png
◌᭄ᬮ
La
Gempelan Sa danti.png
◌᭄ᬲ
Sa danti
Oṣṭhya
ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labial)
Gantungan Ba.png
◌᭄ᬩ
Ba
Gantungan Ba kembang.png
◌᭄ᬪ
Ba kembang
Gempelan Pa.png
◌᭄ᬧ
Pa
Gantungan Pa kapal.png
◌᭄ᬨ
Pa kapal
Gantungan Ma.png
◌᭄ᬫ
Ma
Pangangge Suku kembung.png
◌᭄ᬯ
Wa

Diacritics[edit]

Diacritics (pangangge (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕ), pronounced /pəŋaŋɡe/, also known as sandhangan when referring to the Javanese script) are symbols that cannot stand by itself. When they are attached to the independent letters, they affect the pronunciation. The three types of diacritics are pangangge suara, pangangge tengenan (pronounced /t̪əŋənan/) and pangangge aksara.

Pangangge suara[edit]

Pangangge suara (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ) change inherited vowel of consonant letter. For example, the letter (na) with ulu (◌ᬶ) becomes ni (ᬦᬶ); ka () with suku (◌ᬸ) becomes ku (ᬓᬸ). The diacritics in this category is summarized in the following list:

Pangangge suara
ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Balinese script Transliteration IPA Name
Kaṇṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Guttural)
Pangangge Pepet.png
◌ᭂ e / ê / ě 1 [ə] Pepet
Pangangge Tedung.png
◌ᬵ ā [ɑː] Tedung
Tālawya
ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palatal)
Pangangge Ulu.png
◌ᬶ i [i] Ulu
Pangangge Ulu sari.png
◌ᬷ ī [iː] Ulu sari
Oṣṭhya
ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labial)
Pangangge Suku.png
◌ᬸ u [u] Suku
Pangangge Suku ilut.png
◌ᬹ ū [uː] Suku ilut
Kaṇṭha-Tālawya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palato-guttural)
Pangangge Taling.png
◌ᬾ e / é 1 [e]
[ɛ]
Taling
Pangangge Taling detya.png
◌ᬿ ai [aːi] Taling detya
Kaṇṭha-Oṣṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labio-guttural)
Pangangge Taling-tedung.png
◌ᭀ o [o]
[ɔ]
Taling tedung
Pangangge Taling detya-tedung.png
◌ᭁ au [aːu] Taling detya matedung

^1 As first romanization of Balinese Language was developed during Dutch Colonial Era, letter e represents sound [ə] and letter é represents sound [e] and [ɛ] as in Van Ophuijsen Indonesian and Dutch orthography. After 1957, sounds [ə], [e] and [ɛ] are represented with e as in current Indonesian orthography with exception for new learner and dictionary usage.[10][11]

Many consonants can form ligatures with tedung:

Aksara Bali polih tedung.png

Pangangge tengenan[edit]

Pangangge tengenan (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬢᭂᬗᭂᬦᬦ᭄), except adeg-adeg, adds a final consonant to a syllable. It can be used together with pangangge suara. For example, the letter (na) with bisah (◌ᬄ) becomes ᬦᬄ (nah); (ka) with suku (◌ᬸ) and surang (◌ᬃ) becomes ᬓᬸᬃ (kur). Compared to Devanagari, bisah is analogous to visarga, cecek to anusvara, and adeg-adeg to virama.

Adeg-adeg is zero vowel diacritics as in other Brahmic scripts in Balinese script. Adeg-adeg, as virama in Devanagari, suppress kills the inherent vowel /a/ in the consonant letter. Adeg-adeg is used on impossibility of gantungan and gempelan usage such as succeeded by punctuation marks, attachment of two or more gantungan to one letter (tumpuk telu, lit. three layers), preservation of combination (watek ksatriya, ᬯᬢᭂᬓ᭄‌ᬓ᭄ᬱᬢ᭄ᬭᬶᬬ rather than ᬯᬢᭂᬓ᭄ᬓ᭄ᬱᬢ᭄ᬭᬶᬬ) and disambiguation.[10]

Pangangge tengenan
ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬢᭂᬗᭂᬦᬦ᭄
Balinese script IPA Translit. Name
Pangangge Bisah.png
◌ᬄ [h] h Bisah
Pangangge Surang.png
◌ᬃ [r] r Surang
Pangangge Cecek.png
◌ᬂ [ŋ] ng Cecek
Pangangge Adeg-adeg.png
◌᭄ [∅] Adeg-adeg

Pangangge aksara[edit]

Pangangge aksara (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭ) is appended below consonant letters. Pangangge aksara are the appended (gantungan) forms of the ardhasuara (semivowel) consonants. Guwung macelek is the appended form of the vowel ra repa ().

Pangangge aksara
ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭ
Balinese script IPA Translit. Name
Pangangge Cakra.png
◌᭄ᬭ [ra] ra Cakra
Guwung
Pangangge Guwung macelek.png
◌ᬺ [rə] Guwung macelek
Pangangge Suku kembung.png
◌᭄ᬯ [ʋa] ua Suku kembung
Pangangge Nania.png
◌᭄ᬬ [ja] ia Nania

Numerals[edit]

Main article: Balinese numerals
Balinese numeral Balinese numeral Hindu numeral Name Balinese numeral Balinese numeral Hindu numeral Name
Bali 0.png
0 Bindu
Windu
Bali 5.png
5 Lima
Bali 1.png
1 Siki
Besik
Bali 6-vowel E kara.png
6 Nem
Bali 2-vowel La lenga.png
2 Kalih
Dua
Bali 7.png
7 Pitu
Bali 3-vowel O.png
3 Tiga
Telu
Bali 8, Pha.png
8 Kutus
Bali 4.png
4 Papat
Bali 9.png
9 Sanga
Sia

Balinese numerals are written in the same manner as Hindu numerals. For example, 25 is written with the Balinese numbers 2 and 5. If the number is written in the middle of a text, carik has to be written before and after the number to differentiate it from the text. Below is an example of how a date is written using Balinese numerals (date: 1 July 1982, location: Bali):

Balinese script Transliteration
Bali, 1 Juli 1982.

ᬩᬮᬶ᭞᭑᭞ᬚᬸᬮᬶ᭞᭑᭙᭘᭒᭟
Bali, 1 Juli 1982.

Other symbols[edit]

There are some special symbols in the Balinese script. Some of them are punctuation marks, and the others are religious symbols. The symbols are described in the following list:

Symbol Symbol Name Remarks
Punctuation Carik.png
Carik
Carik Siki.
Written in the middle of a sentence, like a comma (,). Also, written surrounding numerals to differentiate them from the text.
Punctuation Carik kalih.png
Carik Kalih
Carik Pareren
Written at the end of a sentence, like a full stop (.).
Punctuation Pamungkah.png
Carik pamungkah Functions like a colon (:).
Center ᭟᭜᭟ Pasalinan Used at the end of a prose, letter, or verse.
Punctuation Panti.png
Panten or Panti Used at the beginning of a prose, letter, or verse.
Punctuation Pamada.png
Pamada Used at the beginning of religious texts. This symbol is a ligature of the letters ma, nga, ja, and pa, forming the word mangajapa, which roughly means "praying for safety".
Modre symbol Omkara.png
ᬑᬁ‌ᬵ Ongkara Sacred symbol of Hinduism. This symbol is pronounced "Ong" or "Om".

Orthography[edit]

Balinese Language[edit]

Assimilation[edit]

Assimilation in Balinese occurs with-in the word. Balinese script represents assimilation occurred, however Latin script sometimes may not represent this. In general, alveolar consonants are assimilated into palatal, retroflex or labial. There are more specific descriptions in assimilation combination:[11]

  • [n] assimilated into [ɲ] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster nc ᬜ᭄ᬘ and nj ᬜ᭄ᬚ. For example, word wianjana is written as ᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ ([wyaɲdʒana]), not written as ᬯ᭄ᬬᬦ᭄ᬚᬦ ([wyandʒana]).
  • [s] assimilated into [ɕ] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster sc ᬰ᭄ᬘ. For example, word pascad is written as ᬧᬰ᭄ᬘᬤ᭄ ([paɕcad]), not written as ᬧᬲ᭄ᬘᬤ᭄ ([pascad]).
  • [d] assimilated into [dʒ] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster dny ᬚ᭄ᬜ. For example, word yadnya is written as ᬬᬚ᭄ᬜ ([jadʒɲa]), not written as ᬬᬤ᭄ᬜ ([jadɲa]).
  • [n] assimilated into [ɳ] if preceded by retroflex consonants, such as consonant cluster rn ᬭ᭄ᬡ. For example, word karna is written as ᬓᬭ᭄ᬡ ([karɳa]), not written as ᬓᬭ᭄ᬦ ([karna]).
  • [s] assimilated into [ʂ] if succeeded by retroflex consonants, such as consonant cluster st (ṣṭ) ᬱ᭄ᬝ and sn (ṣṇ) ᬱ᭄ᬡ. For example, word dusta (duṣṭa, lie) is written as ᬤᬸᬱ᭄ᬝ ([duʂʈa]), not written as ᬤᬸᬲ᭄ᬝ ([dusʈa]).
  • [n] assimilated into [m] if succeeded by labial consonants. For example, word tanbara is written as ᬢᬫ᭄ᬪᬭ ([tambʰara]), not written as ᬢᬦ᭄ᬪᬭ ([tanbʰara]).

Liquid Consonant-Schwa Combination[edit]

Liquid consonant, [r] and [l], may not be combined with ◌ᭂ (pepet, schwa) [ə] as ᬭᭂ and ᬮᭂ. These combination, rě [rə] and lě [lə], sholuld be written as (re repa) and (le lenga). Word kěrěng (lit. eat a lot) and lekad are written as ᬓᭂᬋᬂ and ᬍᬓᬤ᭄. While combination of ◌᭄ᬮ (gantungan [l]) and ◌ᭂ (pepet) is possible as in ᬩ᭄ᬮ‍ᭂᬕᬜ᭄ᬚᬸᬃ (bleganjur), combination of ◌᭄ᬭ (cakra or gantungan [r]) and ◌ᭂ pepet is not allowed. If the combination follows a word which ends in a consonant, ◌᭄ᬋ (gempelan re repa) may be used as in ᬧᬓ᭄ᬋᬋᬄ (Pak Rěrěh, Mr. Rěrěh). If the combination is in a word, ◌ᬺ (guwung macelek) may be used instead as in ᬓᬺᬱ᭄ᬡ (Krěsna, Krishna).[11][12]

Latin Script Transliteration[edit]

Latin script transliteration into Balinese script is based on phonetics. As vocabulary expands, foreign sounds are introduced and have no equivalent on Balinese script. In general, transliteration of foreign sounds is shown as below.[13]

Foreign Sound Transliteration
IPA Foreign Sound
Latin Script
Balinese Language Example
Latin Script Balinese Script Foreign Word Balinese Language Meaning
Latin Script Balinese Script
[f] f p telefon telepon ᬢᬾᬮᬾᬧᭀᬦ᭄ telephone
[v] v p vitamin pitamin ᬧᬶᬢᬫᬶᬦ᭄ vitamine
[kw], [k], [q] q k quantum kuantum ᬓ᭄ᬯᬦ᭄ᬢᬸᬫ᭄ quantum
[x] x kṣ ᬓ᭄ᬱ taxi taksi ᬢᬓ᭄ᬱᬶ taxi
[z] z j
[z] z s

Sasak Language[edit]

Font[edit]

There are some fonts for Balinese script as of 2016. Bali Simbar, JG Aksara Bali, Aksara Bali, Tantular Bali, Lilitan, Geguratan and Noto Sans Balinese are some fonts that included Balinese script. The fonts have different degree of compatibility each other.

Bali Simbar is first font for Balinese script by I Made Suatjana Dipl Ing at 1999.[14] Bali Simbar is not compatible for Mac-OS and Unicode.[14][15] JG Aksara Bali, was designed by Jason Glavy, has over 1400 Balinese glyphs, including a huge selection of precomposed glyph clusters.[15] The latest version of JG Aksara Bali is released on 2003, thus has no compatibility with Unicode.[15] Bali Simbar and JG Aksara Bali, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Balinese's extensive repertoire as Balinese script was not included in Unicode at the creation time.[14][15]

Aksara Bali by Khoi Nguyen Viet is the first hacked Unicode Balinese font with a brute-force OpenType implementation. The results depend on how well other OpenType features are implemented in the renderer. The font has about 370 Balinese glyphs.[15] The team of Aditya Bayu Perdana, Ida Bagus Komang Sudarma, and Arif Budiarto has created a small series of Balinese fonts: Tantular Bali, Lilitan, and Geguratan, all using hacked Unicode and a brute-force OpenType implementation. Tantular has about 400 Balinese glyphs.[15] Due to the script's complexity, some fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws.[15]

The other font is Noto Sans Balinese from Google.[16] Noto Sans Balinese is compatible with Unicode.[16] Due to the script's complexity, Noto Sans Balinese may exhibit several flaws.[15]

Unicode[edit]

Balinese script was added to the Unicode Standard in July, 2006 with the release of version 5.0.

The Unicode block for Balinese is U+1B00–U+1B7F:

Balinese[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1B0x
U+1B1x
U+1B2x
U+1B3x ᬿ
U+1B4x
U+1B5x
U+1B6x
U+1B7x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 9.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Everson, Michael; Suatjana, I Made (2005-01-23). "N2908: Proposal for encoding the Balinese script in the UCS" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-09-09. 
  2. ^ a b Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  3. ^ Fox, Richard (2013). Rival Styles of Writing, Rival Styles of Practical Reasoning. Heidelberg: Institut für Ehtnologie.
  4. ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  5. ^ Richard Ishida (2012). "Balinese Script Notes". Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  6. ^ Tinggen, p. 16
  7. ^ Tinggen, p. 23
  8. ^ "Unicode Table" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-13. 
  9. ^ Tinggen, p. 27
  10. ^ a b Tinggen, I Nengah (1994). Pedoman Perubahan Ejaan Bahasa Bali dengan Huruf Latin dan Huruf Bali. Singaraja: Rikha. 
  11. ^ a b c Pedoman Pasang Aksara Bali. Denpasar: Dinas Kebudayaan Provinsi Bali. 1997. 
  12. ^ Ishida, Richard. "Balinese script notes". Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  13. ^ Tinggen, I Nengah (1994). Celah-Celah Kunci Aksara Bali (1 ed.). Singaraja: Rhika. 
  14. ^ a b c "Aksara Bali". Bali Galang Foundation. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h "Bringing Balinese to iOS". Norbert’s Corner. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  16. ^ a b "Noto Sans Balinese". Google Noto Font. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  • Surada, I Made. 2007. Kamus Sanskerta-Indonesia. Surabaya: Penerbit Paramitha.
  • Simpen, I Wayan. Pasang Aksara Bali. Diterbitkan oleh Dinas Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Provinsi Daerah Tingkat I Bali.

External links[edit]